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have certainly been made in some

-his nature is subdued way or other, he sees reason to hope To that it works in. that not less important amelioration A propensity to materialism had may in time succeed. If our im- not, however, so subdued the mind proved chemistry (says he,) should of Darwin, as to prevent him from ever discover the art of making sugar acknowledging the existence of what from fossile or aerial matter, without he terms the Great Cause of Causes, the assistance of vegetation, food for Parent of Parents, Ens Entium. Nay, animals would then become as plen- he went the length of maintaining, tiful as water, and they might live that his doctrine of spontaneous viupon the earth without preying on tality was not inconsistent with each other, as thick as blades of Scripture. grass, without restraint to their num- But whatever may be thought of bers but the want of local room: no his creed, it must be recorded of him yery comfortable prospect, it must that he discharged some of the best be owned, especially to those who duties of religion in a manner that are aware of the alarming ratio in would have become its most zealous which, according to later discoveries, professors. He was bountiful to the population is found to multiply it- poor, and hospitable to his equals. self; a consummation that would To the inferior clergy, when he rescarcely produce that at which he sided at Lichfield, he gave his advice thought it the chief duty of a philo- unfeed, and he attended diligently to sopher to aim : namely, the greatest the health of those who were unable possible quantity of human happiness. to requite him. Johnson is said, On being made acquainted with re- when he visited his native city, to veries such as these, through the have shunned the society of Darwin: means of the press, we are inclined Cowper, who certainly was as firm a to doubt the justice of his encomium believer as Johnson, thought it no on the art of printing, since which disparagement to his orthodoxy to discovery, he tells us, superstition address some complimentary verses has been much lessened by the re- to him on the publication of his Boformation of religion; and necro- tanic Garden. mancy, astrology, chiromancy, witch

This poem ought not to be concraft, and vampyrism, have vanished sidered more than as a capriccio, or from all classes of society; though sport of the fancy, on which he has some are still so weak in the present expended much labour to little purenlightened times as to believe in pose. It does not pretend to any the prodigies of animal magnetism, thing like correctness of design, or and of metallic tractors. What then continuity of action. It is like a picis to be said of the prodigies of spon- ture of Breughel's, where every thing taneous vitality? To a system which is highly coloured, and every thing removes the Author of all so far from out of order. In the first part, called our contemplation, we might well the Economy of Vegetation, the prefer the faith of

Goddess of Botany appears with her - the poor Indian, whose untutor'd mind attendants, the Powers of the Four Sees God in clouds, and hears him in the Elements, for no other purpose than wind.

to describe to them their several The father of English poetry, who functions in carrying on the operawell knew what qualities and habits tions of nature. In the second, which might with most probability be as- has no necessary connexion with the signed to men of different profes- first, the Botanic Muse describes the sions, has made it a trait in the cha- Loves of the Plants. Here the fiction racter of his Doctour of Phișike is puerile, and built on a system that

which is itself in danger of vanishing His study was but little in the Bible.

into air. At the end of the second Though there are illustrious ex-canto, the Muse takes a dish of tea, amples of the contrary, yet it may which I think is the only thing of sometimes be with the physician as any consequence that is done throughShakspeare said of himself, when out. This second part has been complaining of the influence which charged with an immoral tendency; the business of a player had on his but Miss Seward has observed, with mind, that

much truth, that it is a burlesque


upon morality to make the amours of as his own. His numbers have less the plants responsible at its tribunal; resemblance to Pope's, than Pope's to and that the impurity is in the ima- those of Dryden." Whether the nogination of the reader, not in the velty be such as to reflect much crepages of the poet. For these amours, dit on the inventor, is another queshe might have found a better mottó tion. His secret was, I think, to take than that which he has prefixed from those lines in Pope which seemed to Claudian, in the following stanza of him the most diligently elaborated, Marini.

and to model his own upon them.

But with those forms of verse which Ne' fior ne' fiori istessi Amor ha loco, Ama il giglio il ligustro e l'amaranto,

be borrowed more particularly from E Narciso e Giacinto, Ajace e Croco,

Pope, in which one part is equally E con la bella Clitia il vago Acanto;

balanced by the other, and of which Arde la Rosa di vermiglio foco, each is complete in itself without reL'odor sospiro e la rugiada è pianto : ference to those which precede or Ride la Calta, e pallida e essangue

follow it, he has mingled one or two Vinta d'amor la violetta langue.

others that had been used by our elder

Adone, Canto 6. poets, but almost entirely rejected by He was apt to confound the odd the refiners of the couplet measure with the grotesque, and to mistake till the time of Langhorne ; as where the absurd for the fanciful. By an the substantive and its epithet are so excellent landscape-painter now placed, that the latter makes the end living, I was told that Darwin pro- of an iambic in the second, and the posed as a subject for his pencil a former the beginning of a trochee in shower, in which there should be re

the third foot. presented a red-breast holding up an And showers | thě still / snow from his expanded umbrella in its claws.

hoary urns. An Italian critic, following a divi- Darwin, Botanic Garden, p. 1, c. 2, 28. sion made by Plotinus, has distri. Of dart | thě rēd | flāsh through the cirbuted the poets into three classes, cling band.

Ibid. 361. which he calls the musical, the ama- Or rests | hér fair | cheek on his curled torial, and the philosophic. In the


Ibid. c. 2, 252. first, he places those who are studious Deserve | ă swēet | look frðm | Demetrius' of softness and harmony in their Infect | thě sound pine and I divert his

eye. Shakspeare, Mid. N. D. numbers; in the second, such as content themselves with describing ac

grain. Shakspeare, Tempest.

Which on thý sõft | cheek for comcurately the outward appearances of

plexion dwells. real or fancied objects; and in the

Shakspeare, Sonnet 99. third, those who penetrate to the To lay / thèir jūst | hānds on the golden qualities of things, draw out their key.

Milton, Comus. hidden beauties, and separate what is Or where they make the end of an really and truly fair from that which iambic in the first, and the beginning has only its exterior semblance. Among of a spondee in the second foot, as the second of these, Darwin might claim for himself no mean station. It Thě wan | stārs glīm/mering through its

silver train. was, indeed, a notion he had taken up, that as the ideas derived from Thị bright | drõps rõl|ling from her lifted

Botanic Garden, p. 1, c. 1, 135. visible objects (to use his own words)

Ibid. c. 2, 59. are more distinct than those derived Thě pāle / lamp glimmering through the from any other source, the words ex- sculptur'd ice.

lbia, 134, pressive of those ideas belonging to Hěr fair | cheek prēss'd | upon her lily vision make up the principal part of hand. poetic language. So entirely was he

Temple of Nature, c. 1, 436. engrossed by this persuasion, as too Thě foul | boar’s conquest on her fair defrequently to forget that the admirers light. of poetry have not only eyes but ears

Shakspeare, Venus and Adonis, 1030. and hearts also; and that therefore Thě rēd | blood rēck'd | to show the paint

er's strife. harmony and pathos are required of the poet, no less than a faithful deli

Ibid. Rape of Lucrece, 1377. neation of visible objects.

There is so little complexity in the Yet there is something in his ver- construction of his sentences, that sification also that may be considered they may generally be reduced to a



few of the first and simplest rules of Where ruddy children frolic round the door, syntax. On these he rings what The moss-grown antlers of the aged oak, changes he may, by putting the verb The shaggy locks that fringe the colt unbefore its nominative or vocative case.

broke, Thus in the following verses from the The bearded goat with nimble eyes, that Temple of Nature :


Through the long tissue of his hoary hair, On rapid feet o'er hills, and plains, and As with quick foot he climbs some ruin'd rocks,

wall, Speed the scared leveret and rapacious fox; And crops the ivy which prevents its fall, On rapid pinions cleave the tields above, With rural charms the tranquil mind deThe hawk descending, and escaping dove ; light, With nicer nostril track the tainted ground, And form a picture to the admiring sight. The hungry vulture, and the prowling

Temple of Nature, c. 3, 248. hound ; Converge reflected light with nicer eye,

And in his lines on the eagle, from
The midnight owl, and microscopic fly; another gem :
With finer ear pursue their nightly course, So when with bristling plumes the bird of
The listening lion, and the alarmed horse.

C. 3, 93.

Vindictive leaves the argent fields above, Sometimes he alternates the forms; Borne on broad wings the guilty world he


And grasps the lightning in his shining In Eden's groves, the cradle of the world,

claws. Bloom'd a fair tree with mystic flowers un

Botanic Garden, p. 1, c. 1, 205. furl'd ; On bending branches, as aloft it sprung,

where I cannot but observe the per Forbid to taste, the fruit of knowledge culiar beauty of the epithet applied hung ;

to the plumes of the eagle. It is the Flow'd with sweet innocence the tranquil right translation of the word by hours,

which Pindar has described the rufAnd love and beauty warm’d the blissful fling of the wings on the back of Zete bowers.

Ibid. 449. and Calais. The last line, or the middle of the

--πτεροίσιν νωτα πεlast line in almost every sentence

φρίκoντας άμφω πορφυρέους.

Pyth. 4, 326. throughout his poems, begins with a conjunction affirmative or nega- which an Italian translator has entive, and, or nor; and this last tirely mistaken; line is often so weak, that it breaks

Uomin' ambi, ch'orrore a' risguardanti down under the rest. Thus in this Facean coi rosseggianti very pretty impression, as it may Vanni del tergo. almost be called, of an ancient gem :

But Darwin could have known So playful Love on Ida's flowery sides nothing of Pindar; and the word may With ribbon-rein the indignant liou guides; perhaps be found with a similar apPleased on his brindled back the lyre he plication in one of our own poets.

rings, And shakes delirious rapture from the caused them to be too much admired

As the singularity of his poems strings ; Slow as the pausing monarch stalks along,

at first, so are they now more neSheathes his retractile claws, and drinks glected than they deserve. There is

about as much variety in them as Soft nymphs on timid step the triumph in a bed of tulips, of which the shape view,

is the same in all, except that some And listening fauns with beating hoofs a little more rounded at the pursue ;

points than others; yet they are With pointed cars the alarmned forest sterts, diversely streaked and freckled, with And love and music soften savage hearts.

a profusion of 'gay tints, in which the Botanic Garden, c. 4, 252. bizarre (as it is called by the fanAnd in an exceedingly happy descrip- ciers of that flower) prevails. They tion of what is termed the pic- are a sight for one half hour in the turesque:

spring, and no more ; and are utterly Tlie rush-thatch'd cottage on t'e purple devoid of odour.


the songs



The widow Blacket, of Oxford, is rate with her person. No one dethe largest female I ever had the plea- lighteth more than herself in counsure of beholding. There may be her try exercises and pastimes. I have parallel upon the earth, but surely I passed many an agreeable holiday never sawit. Itake her to be lineally de- with her in her favourite park at scended from the maid's aunt of Brain- Woodstock. She performs her part ford, who caused Master Ford such un- in these delightful ambulatory excureasiness. She hath Atlantean shoul- sions by the aid of a portable garden ders; and, as she stoopeth in her gait chair. She setteth out with you at —with as few offences to answer for in a fair foot gallop, which she keepeth her own particular as any of Eve's up till you are both well breathed, daughters-her back seems broad and then she reposeth for a few see enough to bear the blame of all the conds. Then she is up again, for a peccadillos that have been committed hundred paces or so, and again restsince Adam. She girdeth her waist- eth-her movement, on these sprightor what she is pleased to esteem as ly occasions, being something besuch-nearly up to her shoulders, tween walking and flying. Her great from beneath which, that huge dor- weight seemeth to propel her forsal expanse, in mountainous declivi- ward, ostrich-fashion. In this kind ty, emergeth. Respect for her alone of relieved marching I have traversed preventeth the idle boys, who follow with her many scores of acres on her about in shoals, whenever she those well-wooded and well-watered cometh abroad, from getting up and domains. Her delight at Oxford is riding.-But her presence infallibly in the public walks and gardens, commands a reverence. She is indeed, where, when the weather is not too as the Americans would express it, oppressive, she passeth much of her something awful. Her person is a valuable time. There is a bench at burthen to herself, no less than to Maudlin, or rather, situated between the ground which bears her. To her the frontiers of that and ******'s mighty bone, she hath a pinguitude college—some litigation latterly, withal, which makes the depth of about repairs, has vested the prowinter to her the most desirable sea- perty of it finally in ******s—where son.

Her distress in the warmer sol- at the hour of noon she is ordinarily stice is pitiable. During the months to be found sitting-so she calls it by of July and August, she usually rent- courtesy-but in fact, pressing and eth a cool cellar, where ices are kept, breaking of it down with her enorwhereinto she descendeth when Sie mous settlement; as both those rius rageth. She dates from a hot Foundations, who, however, are Thursday-some twenty-five years good-natured enough to wink at it, ago. Her apartment in immer is have found, I believe, to their cost. pervious to the four winds. Two Here she taketh the fresh air, prindoors, in north and south direction, cipally at vacation times, when the and two windows, fronting the rising walks are freest from interruption of and the setting sun, never closed, the younger fry of students. Here from every cardinal point, catch the she passeth her idle hours, not idly, contributory breezes. She loves to but generally accompanied with a enjoy what she calls a quadruple book-blest if she can but intercept draught. That must be a shrewd some resident Fellow (as usually zephyr, that can escape her. I owe there are some of that brood left bea painful face-ach, which oppresses hind at these periods); or stray Masme at this moment, to a cold caught, ter of Arts (to most of whom she is sitting by her, one day in last July, better krown than their dinner bell); at this receipt of coolness. Her fan with whom she may confer upon any in ordinary resembleth a banner curious topic of literature. "I have spread, which she keepeth continu- seen these shy gownsmen, who truly ally on the alert to detect the least set but a very slight value upon febreeze. She possesseth an active and male conversation, cast a hawk's eye gadding mind, totally incommensu- upon her from the length of Maude


lin grove, and warily glide off into withal a trembling sensibility, a another walk-true monks as they yielding infirmity of purpose, a quick are, and ungently neglecting the de- susceptibility to reproach, and all licacies of her polished converse, for the train of diffident and blushing their own perverse and uncommuni- virtues, which for their habitation cating solitariness! Within doors usually seek out a feeble frame, an her principal diversion is music, vo- attenuated and meagre constitution. cal and instrumental, in both which With more than mau's bulk, her hushe is no mean professor. Her voice mours and occupations are eminently is wonderfully fine; but till I got feminine. She sighs--being six foot used to it, I confess it staggered me. high. She languisheth—being two It is for all the world like that of a feet wide. She worketh slender sprigs piping bulfinch, while from her size upon the delicate muslim-her fingers and stature you would expect notes being capable of moulding a Colosto drown the deep organ. The shake, sus. She sippeth her wine out of which most fine singers reserve for her glass daintily-her capacity bethe close or cadence, by some un- ing that of a tun of Heidelburg. accountable flexibility, or tremu. She goeth mincingly with those feet Jousness of pipe, she carrieth quite of hers—whose solidity need not fear through the composition; so that the black ox's pressure. Softest, her time, to a common air or ballad, and largest of thy sex, adieu ! by keeps double motion, like the earth what parting attribute may I salute -running the primary circuit of the thee-last and best of the Titanesses tune, and still revolving upon its -Ogress, fed with 'milk instead of own axis. The effect, as I said be- blood-not least, or least handsome, fore, when you are used to it, is as among Oxford's stately structures -agreeable as it is altogether new and Oxford, who, in its deadest time of surprising. The spacious apartment vacation, can never properly be said of her outward frame lodgeth a soul to be empty, having thee to fill

it. in all respects disproportionate. Of

ELIA. more than mortal make, she evinceth

OF CRUELTY TO ANIMALS, AND “ MR. MARTIN'S ACT.” There can scarcely be two opini- custom, and a sort of convenience, ons about the feeling with which have determined, that the former cruelty of every description should should be the rider: but, notwithbe regarded. It may be difficult standing this enormous distinction, to bring people to one judgment as there are still such affinities between to what constitutes cruelty: some the two, as should relieve him who will stop at blood, while others will is undermost from the positive congo as far as bones; but there is a tempt of his superior, or at least degree of the crime which all will protect him from all superfluous ty, agree to look upon with unqualified ranny and torture. In few words, abhorrence; conceding to it no pal- because a forked creature, in a coat liation on any account - none result- and hat, conceives himself made on ing from the power and dignity of purpose to sit astride an anima! the brute that inflicts it; and none, with four legs and a tail, it does not undoubtedly, from the meanness or therefore follow that he has a clear helplessness of the object on whom right to maltreat it, in wantonness it is exercised. Our poor fellow- either of sport or rage. There seems creatures on all fours, if they had no to be no very decisive objection, on claims to our active care and kind- the part of the horse, to the man's ness from their manifold services in first fancy: he may ride and, for our behalf, have, from their mere aught I know, be innocent: but the community with us in the great in- testimony of his own flesh will asheritance of flesh and blood and sure him, that to lash a horse to the sense of pain, an undeniable title to bare bones is an act of inhuman iniour mercy and forbearance. In the quity. relation between man and horse, Nothing then but praise is due to


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