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counted for by the increase of popu- to impose upon the country a stilation. As an instance of this, the ave- pendiary magistracy, under the dorage of capital convictions from 1805 minion of the Lord Lieutenant. The to 1809 was 381, and in the last five second reading was, however, carried years it was 1260, or three and a half by a majority of 113 to 55. to one! Such a rapid acceleration Mr. Canning's Bill, for the restoraof crime, was, he said, unequalled tion of their seats in the House of in the history of mankind, and sup- Lords to Roman Catholic Peers, plied a strong argument against the came on for discussion in that House, rigour of our penal code. From 1811 on Friday the 21st, where it was reto 1820, the English capital crimes jected by a majority of 42. The were double those of France, or re- rumbers were, for the second readlatively to the population, five times ing, 129-against it, 171. The Lord as many; now they are about ten Chancellor headed the opposition to times the proportion. The English the Bill. had 229 capital punishments; the The Marriage Act Amendment Bill French only six. The learned gen- has passed the House of Commons, tleman concluded by moving a reso- and is in a successful progress through lution, pledging the House early in the upper House. the next session, “ to take into their Mr. James Daly having in the most serious consideration the means House of Commons withdrawn his of giving greater efficacy to the cri- promised motion upon Irish Tithes, minal law, by abating the present Mr. Hume, who had abandoned a undue rigour of punishment; by im- motion on the subject early in the proving the state of the police; and session, took up the question on the by establishing a system of transpor- sudden, and moved a resolution, tation and imprisonment, which shall pledging the House, “ early next be more effective for the purposes of session to take into its consideration example, and the amendment of of- the state of the church, and the manfenders.” The resolution was op- ner of collecting tithes in Ireland, posed by the Attorney General, but with a view to making such alteraon a division, there appeared, for its tion as might be thought fit;" to this adoption 117, against it 101, leaving Sir John Newport moved an amenda majority of 16 in its favour; a re- ment, pledging the House to “ subsult on which we sincerely congratu- stitute a commutation for the present late the country.

precarious and vexatious mode of A long and animated debate took supporting the church establishplace on a proposition of Mr. Peel's ment." This was met by ministers, to continue the Alien Bill in force for with the previous question, which two years longer. On a division, was carried finally, by a majority of there appeared, for the motion 189 73, against 65. A meeting of all the against it, 92-majority 97. great Irish landholders has since

Mr. Goulburn introduced a Bill been held, at which they unanimously for the regulation of the Irish police recommended the adoption of a cominto the House of Commons, which mutation, in preference to any other we consider it unnecessary to discuss remedy. now, as it is understood that it must The following important resolution undergo very considerable modifica- has been adopted by the Bank of tions in the committee. It was vio- England : lently opposed, and the opposition “ Bank of England, June 20, 1822. was the more remarkable, as it came 6 Resolved–That all Bills and principally from Mr. Charles Grant, Notes approved of in the usual manthe Irish ex-secretary, a gentleman ner, and not having more than ninewho generally votes with administra- ty-five days to run, be discounted at tion. He declared that it was an at- the rate of four per cent. per annum, tempt to place all Ireland under an on and after the 21st of June, 1822. armed police--a gens-darmerie ; and

MONTHLY REGISTER,

JULY 1, 1822.

AGRICULTURAL REPORT. THE New Corn Bill has passed the abroad. Yet such is the nature of the proHouse of Commons, receiving from Mr. visions of the present act, that they proWestern his “ final malediction," on its mised the farmer a protection, which, at third reading. That gentleman pronounced the very time of inaking such promise, the it to be calculated to increase every existing Minister declares is not likely to be de. evil, and to add others to the miserable ca- manded. Nothing indeed could be more talogue.

delusive than the whole proceeding of the There is, in truth, not any party in the Agricultural committee, and for this plain commonwealth, who will be satisfied with reason ; they have evaded, not met the difits provisions ; for they recognize no one ficulties of the Agricultural case. Minis. principle, yet partake of all. They impose ters, who in point of fact appointed the a duty, which, should importation be re- committee, and framed the first report, saw sorted to, will, for a time, raise the price only the imperative necessity of supporting considerably (about 75 per cent.) above its the revenue, and they saw also this could natural level. This rise will, of course, not be done, if the question was fairly press severely upon the manufacturing treated. In the endeavour, therefore, to classes, and upon persons of fixed income; conceal from public view the operation of it will, in fact, have the effect of elevating taxation, the whole thing has been mysthe price of commodities to that amount tified and perplexed. No principle has above the continental price. But the worst been established. It has neither been stated of its pernicious consequences will be, that that the farmer is to be protected, nor that by its artificial regulations, a pretext will he is not to be protected. A sort of middle be set up similar to that afforded by the term has been adopted, which will be former Corn Bill, for the continued exalta- found to strip tlie farmer of the property tion of rents, tithes, and taxes. Ministers that remains to him, and plunge the prowill say to the complaints of the farmer; prietor hereafter into difficulties scarcely we have given you a duty of 75 per cent. less severe, by making him the accessary which is intended to operate as a bounty and instrument of absorbing the operative upon your production, we have hazarded capital of the occupier of the soil

. The much by the protection of your interests at whole evil has originated in this sort of the expense of the public; we therefore shift and evasion on the part of ministers. have done all that we can do, and more It was the same in 1815-1816 as now. than we ought to have done for your relief. It is quite clear that the admission of the

The farmer, however, will perceive no principle of free trade is approaching raeffect, but occasional fluctuations, to himn pidly; we are recognizing it in almost ruinous, because the casual elevation will every instance. How infinitely absurd then be turned against him, and will, indeed, to impose restrietions, which, if they can inspire hopes that cannot be realized ; for, act at all, will lay an addition of nearly cent should the ports be opened, it is to be per cent upon the cost of subsistence, the proved by figures, that the price of wheat real foundation of the price of all other (and other grain in proportion) will imme- commodities. Yet so it is ; and if called diately sink to about 558. per quarter, or into action at all, the effects of this Bill almost 158. less than the farmer, with all will be again what they have heretofore his present deduetions, alleges it costs him been in the last Corn Bill, exaltation of to grow it. In the mean time, we have price, and a subsequent ruinous depression. the assurance of Lord Londonderry, that But while these results are but too obthe ports are not likely to open for three vious there are good grounds for differing years, if at all, which assertion goes to es. with the Marquis of Londonderry, as to the tablish the fact, that England grows enough, probable period when the provisions of the or more than enough for her own consump- new bill may be called into action. These tion ; in which case, the consumption will reasons, which we lately gave, are aug. probably fall to the continental average ; mented by the present prospect of the har. because, if the supply be superabundant, vest and of the country, particularly of Ireas Lord Londonderry holds out, some part land, whose consumption of corn must, of our supply must be exported, and no both this and next year, be augmented, one will export till he finds he cannot oh- unless famine be allowed to depopulate her tain so good a price at home as he can towns and cities. The strong argument

VOL. VI.-Mon. Reg.

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which the average importation of 28 years ted, soofi after Michaelmas, by the call of affords, together with the increase of popu. landlords for their arrears--that in conselation, the augmented quantities the artisan quence much corn will be forced into the is enabled by cheapness to consume, and market and the price kept down. When the decline of agriculture, are enforced by these the first effects are passed over, the the view presented by the coming harvest. market will be more sparingly supplied ; The long drought has all but destroyed the the price will rise, and the grand problem, crop of beans, peas, oats, and barley, on whether the kingdom does, or does not prothe light lands; and the wheat has by no duce enough for its consumption, will be means escaped severe injury. We have solved. In any event, the ensuing year lying under our eye, at the moment we thus will probably be a year of much speculawrite, a tract of land, which last year, at tion, for the low rate of the interest of mo. this time, exhibited the most exuberant ney will invite adventure not less than the growth. The barleys and oats, which ad- circumstances attending the nature of the join the fields of hay recently got up, are commodity and the larger field it affords. scarcely less brown than the shorn grass -- The hay harvest has been favoured by the blade very rarely exceeds six inches in the absence of that moisture which is so height, except where very early sown; and, indispensable to the other branches of vege. on lifting up our eyes, we see as much soil tation. The upland crop has all been got as verdure. Nor is this an uncommon case up without a drop of rain falling upon it, the whole light land districts are in the and the meadows are now cutting. The sesame state ; to which is to be added the cond crop must, however, be rendered exanusually foul condition of the land. We ceedingly short, and in many parts there certainly never witnessed such a garniture will be none at all

. The drought has also of red weed, carlick, docks, and thistles, retarded the sowing of turnips; and where as now serve to diversify the colour and re- sown they will, of course, be much injured, duce the value of the various crops. Nothing though the breadth is comparatively small. gives so painful or so positive a proof of The meat markets have exhibited nearly the farmer's self-abandonment and hope- the same appearances as noticed in our lastlessness : but so it is. A very little longer a stagnant price and a slack demand. Mut. continuance of the drought will render the ton 2s. 6d. per stone ; beef 3s. at Smith barley scarcely worth the expense of hare field. At York wool fair, hog-wool sold at vesting, and in any event the quantity must 13s. to 168. Hog and ewe at 12s. 6d. to be incalculably shortened. These facts, so 14s. Inferior ditto at lls. per stone of pregnant with evil to the farmer, add strik- 15lbs. The price of butter in the provin. ingly to the chance of open ports before the cial markets is considerably raised within a harvest of 1823. Our view of the subject week, from the drought. is, that the distress will be much aggrava

June 22.

COMMERCIAL REPORT.

(London, June 21.) We have now to notice the commence- and to foreign countries." This includes ment of that change in our commercial such acts as were passed between the reign system to which we have had frequent oc- of Edward III, and the date of the Act casion to allude. Of the bills introduced of Navigation, 12th of Charles II; and by the recommendation of the Committee which, though inconsistent with, or su. on Foreign Trade, three have already perseded by subsequent acts, have hitherto passed both Houses, and wait only the remained unrepealed. The acts thus reRoyal sanction to become laws: a fourth pealed are some hundreds in number. is in the last stage of its progress through The second bill, “ An Act to repeal the Upper House, and yet the public seems certain acts, and parts of acts, relating to not to have paid that attention to them the importation of goods and merchandise,” which their importance demands, not only cancels statutes, and parts of statutes, subfrom the effect of their enactments, but as sequent to the reign of Charles Il, in the commencement of a new system, and as order that other regulations relating to im. the first instance in which practical statesmen portation may be consolidated, and comhave avowedly acted on the more liberal prin. prised in one act. This act repeals the ciples of political economy. The first and 3d, 8th, 12th, and 14th sections of the act least important of the three bills, though of navigation, and several other acts, and much the longest, is “ An act to repeal di- parts of acts, from Charles II, to the prevers ancient statutes, and parts of statutes, so sent time, which it was necessary to canfar as they relate to the importation and ex- cel, to make way for the enactments of the portation of goods and merchandise, from third bill" An Act for the encouragement of navigation and commerce, by re. 57,000 bagx. 11,000 bags of the above ; gulating the importation of goods and mer. were sold in the last of the four weeks, the chandise, so far as relates to the countries depression in the prices tempting buyers ; or places from whence, and the ships in yet there was such a disposition to sell that which, such importation is made." While there was a general reduction of Jd. a Ado this new bill maintains the general princi- per lb. ple of the act of navigation, it enacts dis- Sugar.-We regret to say, that the su. positions adapted to the altered situation of gar market is not only extremely languid, the world. By the former act South Ame- but that there has been a most alarming rican produce was to be imported only diminution in the delivery of about 1000 from certain ports in Spain or Portugal, hhds. weekly; nay, in the week ending or in Portuguese and Spanish ships. By June 4, the deliveries were 1800 casks this bill,

goods of any place or country less than in the corresponding week of in America, or the West Indies, belong- 1821. This great falling off is ascribed to ing to, or which have belonged to Spain, the refiners giving up working, which many may be imported direct from the place of of them have actually done, and discharged growth, in ships of the country. No im. their workmen; and unless the government portation is permitted in foreign ships from does something by way of bounty, or other any port in America or the West Indies encouragement, the valuable trade of re- · where British ships are not admitted. On fined sugars for exportation will be lost the whole, we are inclined to think, that to this country. The value of refined su., both in the selection of the enumerated gars, exported during the first three months articles, which must be imported exclusive of 1822, was 393,5371. of which 214,000, ly in British ships, or in ships belonging were to the Mediterranean, to Hamburgh to the place whence the commodities come, 120,000). to Bremen 20000l and as well as in the relaxations which it al. Ireland 19,0001. The prices of Musco-" lows of the law with regard to Holland, vades rather gave way early in the week, &c. it will be acknowledged to have been and there were few purchases reported by drawn up with great wisdom and sound private contract, as the buyers waited the knowledge of the true principles of com- event of the public sale advertised for yesmerce. Mr. Wallace having deferred the terday : it consisted of, 591 hhds. 19 tierces “ warehousing bill ” to the next session, it and 50 brls. St. Lucia sugars, and, con does not require any notice at present. trary to the general expectation, the whole

The reports of the markets have been so sold freely, fully supporting the previous uniformly unfavourable, during the last market prices : low brown 508. a 5ls, the month, that we shall have little occasion remainder according to quality 54s. a 66$. ;. to go into detail.

the market since has been more firm tban. Cotton.-The accounts from Liverpool for several weeks preceding. In refined and the manufacturing districts having been goods there is little alteration : the finer generally unfavourable, the market has qualities are in good demand for home been very languid ; and though no general consumption, and at steady prices; the reduction can be stated, yet purchases purchases made for export are still inconmight be made a shade lower. In the siderable. Molasses are to-day 25s. At week ending the 18th, the purchases were public sales this week nearly 1000 chests 450 bales, all in bond, viz. 100 Pernams fair Havannah sugars were brought forward; 1141; 30 Bahias 91d; 80 Boweds 84d. a the whole sold heavily at a further reduce 9d. for good fair 10, and very ordinary 8d.; tion of 1s. a 28. a few stained Sea Islands very ordinary White, fine

.37s. a 378. 6d. 84d.; and about 250 Bengal 5 d. good

middling. ..33s. 6d. a 36s. fair, to 5şd. for good.

Yellow....

.258. a 26s. The public sale on the 18th, fair mid- By public sale this forenoon, about dling Bahia, 193 bags, were all taken in 2000 bags Bourbon sugars sold at the preat 9 d. a 10d., no offers.

vious prices ; ordinary yellow and fine This day (the 21st) there has been a sale brown 198. 6d. a 218.6d, low and damp at the India-house of 1000 bags of Surat, brown 178. 6d. a 18s. 6d. and 400 Bourbon. The Surats (being or. Average prices of raw sugars, by Gadinary to good in quality), were all sold at 5 d. a 6 d. per lb., being a reduction of May 25....

323. 8 d. Ad. a 4d. per lb. upon the sale in February June 1

.32s. 6 d. last; of the Bourbons about one half were

..33s. 80. sold at the extreme low prices of 91d. a

15...

.32s. 54d. 111d. for the common qualities up to

22.

30s. Ifd. real fine, and the remainder bought in at Coffee.- In the week ending June 4th, Id. a 11 d. per lb.

Jamaica declined from 38. to 5s. the cwt, At Liverpool, from the 18th of May to and Dominica from 1s. to 2s., and in the the 15th of June, the sales were only following week there was a further decling 25,050 , bags, and the arrivals nearly of 2s. per cwt. The public sales in these.

zette :

8

two weeks were considerable. On the 11th Hemp.-By public sale on Tuesday, 60 there were three public sales, the Porto tons sound St. Petersburgh clean Hemp Rico sold 28. a 38. higher, the St. Domingo sold 35l. 158. a 361. 10s.; it was of an inat foriner rates ; good ordinary Porto Rico ferior quality, soft. In Flax little doing. 1045. a 106s. 6d., fine ordinary 1078. @ Tallow, &c.—The demand for foreign 108s. 6d. middling 1178. 6d. a 120s. ; Tallow has become languid ; the prices middling Dominica 120s. a 120s. 6d. good must again be quoted lower : for yellow and fine middling 1248. a 130s. 6d.; or- cardle Tallow, parcels here, the nearest dinary to good ordinary St. Domingo 98s. price is 358., and for arrival 36s. a 100s. In the following week, though By public sale on Tuesday, 35 casks Si. the public sales amounted to 1,684 casks beria Tallow realized good prices, 325. & and 1,273 bags; the whole sold briskly, 33. 3d. and in general at prices 1s. to 28. per cwt. Palm Oil.---By public sale this forenoon, higher, but at three public sales on the 307 casks Palm Oil, chiefly 223. a 23s. 18th the prices declined again ls. to 28. and the market was heavy ; middling Do

Foreign COMMERCE. minica sold at 123s. to 123s. 6d. ; a large Archangel, May 10th.-Four vessels parcel of good middling Berbice was taken from foreign ports have already arrived, a in at 1298. to 130s. ; good middling Ja- circumstance unparalleled so early in the maica 1308. to 132s.6d. There have been season: on the other hand, very few barks very extensive public sales of coffee brought have yet come down from the interior, but forward this week; the whole has gone off most of them are in the neighbourhood, and with considerable briskness, and at full only detained by contrary winds. There is prices.

every appearance that, contrary to the usual This forenoon four sales were again course of things, our summer prices will be brought forward ; the quantity appeared to lower than in winter. Our last accounts be too considerable even for the present say that the Mats this year are of very good great demand: the prices were a shade quality, and that the supply will be greater lower, and the market dull, yet no general than was at first expected. reduction in the prices can be stated.

Riga, 24th May.-Flax. The prices Tea.-A good deal of sensation has been last paid were, for Thi-renhausen and excited by the accounts of the suspension Druiania Rackitzer, 45 r. ; grey ditto 40r.; of the trade at Canton, in consequence of cut Badstub, white 38 r. ; grey 36 r. ; an affray between some sailors of the Risten Threeband, 294 r. a 30 r.- Hemp. Topaze frigate and the Chinese. A con. Clean Ukraine has been bought at 100 a siderable advance has taken place in the 105 r. ; Polish ditto, 105 a 106r.; but prices since the conclusion of the India very little has been doing in it; inferior sale which commenced on the 4th instant. sorts on the contrary have not only conThe advance has been Id. per lb. on Bohea; tinued in constant request, but higher prices 2d. to 24d. on Congo, and 24d. to 4d. on have been given for them, viz. Ukraine, Twankay. The market yesterday and to- outshot, 85 r. ; Polish ditto, 87 r.; Ukraine day has been rather damped, by favourable Pass, 75t. ; Polish, 77 a 78 r.; and at intelligence up to the 19th February, when these prices there are more buyers than the differences with the Chinese authorities sellers. Polish Torse may be had at 47 r. were in a fair way of being arranged. -Hemp Oil, at 93 r. meets with but few

Rum, Brandy, and Hollands. The purchasers.Potashes. We have lately reRum market is extremely depressed, and ceived some supplies. Purchases might fine qualities are offered at a further reduc. have been made at 33 r. but there are few tion without facilitating sales to any extent. buyers.--Herrings. 13 Cargoes having ar. The low prices of Brandy have revived rived in a short time, the prices have been the demand, and an improvement of 2d. per rather depressed : Bergen in beech barrels gallon has taken place. Geneva without are offered at 72 r.; in fir barrels at 70 r. ; Alteration:

at which prices however there have been Spices.-There is a considerable re- considerable sales. No sale has yet been vival in the demand for Pepper, and few effected of the cargoes of Salt lately arrived, sellers of Company's at 64d. By public the purchasers refusing to give the prices sale this forenoon, 83 bags Pimento, mid- hitherto paid. While Havannah Sugars dling quality, sold at 8£d. good 8 d. have been sold at 17 cop. at from 4 to 6

Indigo.— The quantity arrived for the months credit; yellow, likewise on credit sale 9th proximo little exceeds 2,000 at, 114. cop. chests: there is little alteration in the Hamburgh, 8th June.- Coffee. Though prices.

the greater part of our divers spring sup. Logwood. The late arrivals from Ja- plies has arrived, yet except the inferior maica sell at 91. 98. per ton.

sorts which have been a trifle lower, all de. Oil.-By public sale on Tuesday, about scriptions have maintained their prices, 70 tons Sperm Oil, 401. a 421. ; 42 tons with a brisk demand. Above

35,000 lbs. Southern Oil, 20% 68. a 201. 158. of damaged Domingo has been sold by

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