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ence of 4 seconds. Now, since longitude is reckoned in degrees round the earth, can you tell me how to find the difference in time be!ween one place and another, after knowing their difference in longi. tude 1
A. Multiply the difference of longitude in degrees and minutes by 4; the product will be their difference in time, in minutes and seconds.
60. What is the difference in time between two places, whose difference in longitude is 2° 4' ? A. 2° 4' X 4 = 8 minutes and 16 seconds, the difference in time.
61. What is the difference in time between two places, whose difference in longitude is 5° 10' ? A. 20 m. 40 sec. What, when the difference of longitude is 8o? A. 32 m. Is 10° ? A. 40 m. Is 15° ? A. 60 m. = 1 hour. Is 15° 15'? A. 1 h, 1 m.
Q. The sun travels from east to west: which place, then, will have the earliest time ?
A. The one most easterly. 02. There are two places, the one situated in 100 E. longitude, and the other in 4o E. longitude ; what is the difference in time between these two places? When it is 24 minutes past 6 o'clock in the former, what hour is it in the latter? A. 24 minutes, difference in time; then, 10° being the most easterly place, it is there 24 minutes earlier than at 4°; that is, when it is 24 minutes past 6 at 10°, it is only 6 at 4°.
63. Boston is situated about 6° 40' E. longitude from the city of Washington; when it is 2 o'clock at Washington, what o'clock is it at Boston ? A. 26 m. 40 sec. past 2 o'clock
64. “ I recollect of reading a story once of a gentleman going to a foreign country, who had a fancy to look at a bright star every evening, at the same moment, with a certain lady whom he left behind, and they agreed to look at it at 9 o'clock;" but, it secms that, when the gentleman was in a different longitude, the time would, of course, be dif ferent; as, for instance, when he was in longitude differing 30° W. from where the lady was, she most probably had retired to rest, and was, perhaps, asleep, while he was gazing at the star. Can you tell me what o'clock it was, then, where she was ? When he was 60® of W. longitude from her, what hour of the night was it at the place where the lady resided ?
Exercises for the State. 1. Write down three millions, three hundred and three thousand, three hundred and three.
2. What is the difference between 50 eagles and 4599 dimes ? A. $40,10.
3. What number is that, which, being divided by 65, the quoticnt will be 42? A. 2730.
4. A captain, 2 lieutenants, and 30 seamen, take a prize worth $7002, which they divide into 100 shares, of which the captain takes 12, the two lieutenants each 5, and the remainder is to be divided equally among the sailors; how much will each man receive ? A. Captain's share, $840,24 ; each lieutenant's, $350,10, and each seaman's, $182,052.
5. Bring $400 into crowns, at 6 s. 8 d. each. A. 360 crowns.
6. Washington was born A. D. 1732; how many years old would he have been, had he lived until the end of the year 1827 ? and how many seconds old, allowing the year to con. tain 365 days ? A. 95 years, 2997972000 seconds.
7. The wheels of a cart are 5 feet in circumference, and that of a wheelbarrow 27 inches; how many more times will the latter turn round than the former, in going round the earth? How many more times in going through the earth, allowing the diameter to be f of the circumference? A. 32292480 times round the earth, 10764160 times through it.
8. How many minutes is it from the commencement of the Christian era to the end of the year 1827 ? A. 960928920.
9. Jacob, by contract, was to serve Laban for his two daugi:ters 14 years; when he had accomplished 10 years, 10 mo., 10 weeks, 10 days, 10 hours, 10 minutes, how many minutes had he then to serve ? A. 1416350.
10. R. duce 4.3 to its lowest terms. A. . 11. What is the value of of a cwt.? A. 1 gr. 20 lbs. 12. Waat is the amount of ,5 ,05 ,005 ,555 ,13765 and 8507?
A. 8303,237057. 13. Divide I by . A. 23. 14. From 174 take } off of 147. A. 1274. 15. Reduce 550 to a mixed number. A. 451 16. What is the value of ,425 of a pound? . 8s. 6 d. 17. Reduce 14 s. 6 d. 3 qrs. to the decimal 'of a pound.
A. ,72817. 18. From 1 of a pound, take ,0678 of a pound. 4. 20322.
19. If you give $60 for 25 yards of cloih, what will l yard cost ? A. $2,40.
20. A merchant sold 8 bales of linen, 6 of which contained 15 pieces each, and in each piece were 40 yards; the other 2 bales contained 12 pieces each, and in each piece were 27 yards; what did the whole amount to, at $1$ per yard? A. $5310.
21. A man, dying, left $10024 to his wife and 2 sons, to be divided as follows: to his wife to his eldest son of the remainder, and to his youngest son the rest; what is the share of each ? A. $3759 to his wife, $2506 to his eldest son, $3759 to his youngest.
22. A farmer sold a grocer 20 bushels of rye, at $,75 per bushel; 200 lbs. of cheese, at 10 cents per lb.; in exchange for which he received 20 gallons of molasses, at 22 cents per gab lon, and the balance in money; how much money did he receive? A. $30,60.
23. A has 150 yards of linen, at 25 cents per yard, which he wishes to exchange with B for muslin at 50 cents per yard ? how much muslin must A receive ? A. 75 yds.
24. A gave B 500 yards of broadcloth, at $2,50 per yard, for 600 umbrellas; what were the umbrellas apiece? A. $2,083 t.
25. A farmer sold a grocer 20 bbls. of apples, each barrel containing 3 bushels, at 40 cents per bushel-Á; 30 bushels of corn, at 90 cents per bushel-27; 500 lbs. of cheese, at 8 cents per pound-40; 200 lbs. of butter, at 17 cents per pound34; 75 bushels of turnips, at 19 cents per bushel-1425; 40 bushels of barley, at $14 per bushel-50; 25 bushels of rye at 95 cents per bushel-2375; and, in exchange, the farmer has received 2 bbls. of cider brandy, at 42 cents per gallon-2646 ; 4 bbls. of flour, at $84 per barrel-35; 60 gallons of molasses, at 34 cents per gallön-2040; 40 gallons of wine, at $1,50 per gallon-60; `10 lbs. of tea, at 73 cents per pound-730; $40 in cash; and he agrees to take up what is still due him, in rice, at 7 cânts per pound; how many pounds of rice must the grocer give the farmer to balance the account?
A. 340 lbs. 9 oz. 24 dr. 26. What quantity of cider, at $1,20 per barrel, will buy 2 barrels of rum, at $2 per gallon? A. 105 bbls.
27. A man exchanged 10 bushels of salt, at $1,50 per bushel, for 200 bushels of oats, at 25 cents per bushel; how much was the balance in his favor? A. $10.
28. A sold B 16 cwt. of sugar, at 84 cents per pound-14784; 20 bbls. of flour, at $114 per barrel-225; 17 chests of tea, each containing 8 cwt., at 53 cents per pound-807296; 30 tierces of rice, at $36 per tierce-1080; for which В gave up A his note of $400, that had been on interest 6 yrs. 7 mo. 15 days 559; in addition to which В gave A 700 dozen of wax candles, at $1,14 per dozen-798; and for the balance A consents to take P's note, payable in 24 years, without interest; but B, unexpectedly receiving some money, wishes to advance the cash, instead of giving his note ; what sum of ready money ought B to pay A, discounting at 55 per cent.? A. $7181,362 +.
29. A had 200 bbls. of flour, at $10,50 per bbl., for which B gave him $1090 in money, and the rest in molasses, at 29 cenis per gallon; how many hogsheads of molasses did he receive?
A. 80 hhds. 10 gala. 30. A has linen cloth, worth $,20 per yard, but, in bartering, he will receive $,30; B has broadcloth, worth $4,60 per yard, ready money : at what price ought B to rate his broadcloth, to be in proportion with A's bartering price?.
$,20 : $4,60 : : $,30 : $6,90, Ans. Or, multiply $,30 by the ratio of 20 to $4,60, that is, 23; thus, 23 x 30 = $6,90 ; for, $4,60 being 23 times as much as 20, it is plain that 23 times $,30, A's bartering price, will give B’s bartering price, Ans. $6,90.
31. A merchant, in bartering with a farmer for wood at $: per cord, rated his molasses at 25 dollars per hhd., which was worth no more than $20; what price ought the farmer to have asked for his wood to be equal to the merchant's bartering price ? A. $6,25. .
The last ten examples are proper questions in a rule usually called Barter.
32. What number is that, which, being multiplied by 15, will make & ? A. 26.
33. What number is that, which, being divided by 15, will make t? 4.
34. What decimal is that, which, being multiplied by ,62, will make ,25 ? A. ,4.
35. At $,75 per búshel, how much rye can be bought for $150 ?-200. For $600 ?-800. For $75 ?-100. A. 1100 bushels
36. (800 +12 +88) + (50-5) =how many ? A. 20. 37. E +144) ; (3,55,-55) =how many ? A. 23.
38. Two persons depart from one place at the same time; the one travels 35, and the other 40 miles a day; how far are they distant at the end of 10 days, if they both travel the same road ? and how far, if they travel contrary directions ? A. 50, and 750 miles.
39. Two men, A and B, traded in company; A put in $700 for 8 months, and B $1280 for 10 months; they gained $500 : what was the share of each ? A. A's share, $152,173; B's share, $347.826-t. * 40. How many cord feet of wood are contained in a load 8 feet long, 4 ft. 6' wide, and 5 ft. 3' high ? A. 111] ft. or 11 ft. 9/9..
41. What is the difference in time between two places, whord difference of longitude is 40° ?-2,40. 500 2-3,20. 60?. A. 10 h.
42. What time is it in 15° W. longitude, when it is 6 o'clock in 15° E. longitude ? A. 4 o'clock.
43. If a cow yield 16 qts. of milk in a day for 240days, ord 20 qts. make 1 pound of butter, or 10 pounds of cheese, aid
much more profitable is the making of cheese than butter, the price of butter being 25 cts. per pound, and that of cheese 81 cis. per pcund? A. $110,40.
44. If a field will feed 10 cows four weeks, how long will it feed 40 cos? A. 1 week.
45. A man bought a cask of wine, containing 126 gallons, for $215, and sold it at the rate of $2,75 per gallon; how much was nis whole gain? how much per gallon? and how much per cent. ? A. His whole gain, $31,50; per gallon, $,25; then,
25 = 01 per cent. 2,50
46. The rent of a certain farm is $500 ; the tenant employs 2 men; to each he pays $11} a month for 8 months-184; also a boy by the year, who is to have 2 suits of clothes, each worth $3,75-1750, besides his board, while attending school, 3 months, ( 12 weeks of the year, which is worth $,93 per week-1116; in the course of the year, the tenant loses 40 good merino sheep, valued at $5 per head-200; the skins brought him $1,12 a vece-45; the other expenses of the year are calculated to arerage about $,39 per day-14235; the sales of the farm are 43 follows, viz:--
1000 bushels of Potatoes, .... at $0,42 per bushel, -420,
16. ..... White Beans, ... $2,20 ..... 3520,
1 bushel . . Clover, ....... $0,25 . . quart, · 8,
400 pounds. . Merino Wool, . . . $0,45 , . pound, 180, aud 20 calves, at $44 per head-90; he carries 70 barrels of otder to the distillery, for one half of which he is to receive 1 qt of cider-brandy for 4 qts. of cider; the rest brings him $1,13 per barrel-3953; how much cider-brandy will he receive and how inuch will he clear, after deducting all the expenses of managing the farm, including the rent and loss, from the total a nount of sales? A $1338,97; 11024 qts. cider-brandy.
47. What difference is there between the compound interest of $10000 for 8 years, and the simple interest of the same sum far the same time? A. $1138,48.
48. What is the difference between the compound interest of $500 for 4 years, and the discount of the same sum for the same time? Å. $34,463.
19. What is the difference between the amount of $1800, at compouud interest, for 3 years, and the present worth of the same sum fir the same time? A. $618,405.