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one rinses-bir taphors) ertent. 2. Identi ch the C:rseri ve ice

-c se reser lacce of the two nama, 3. Escrici Oczasinon ci te 1000: IT-QULLUcing link in the l'io liri. 4. C

i ne T ali: sirerse. 5. V Taties ( ILERI-Witwaniaides e vnd Eristing Cimbric and Celtic raon

1. That a people known to tseir deghbours as Cimmerii, Gimiri,
or (probabisi Gömerim, attained to considerable power in Western
Asia and Eastern Eur pe, within the period indicated by the date
B.C. 8 .to, or even earlier, is a fact which can scarcely be said to
admit of a doubt. If the information gained by Herodotus in
Scythia were considered as not sufficiently trustworthy for the
establishment of such a conclusion, yet the confirmation which his
statements derive from Homer, from Eschylus, from Callinus, from
Aristotle, and from geographical nomenclature, must be held to
remove all uncertainty on the point. The Cimmerians of Homer
have not indeed a very definite locality: they dwell “at the furthest
limit of the ocean stream, immersed in darkness, and beyond the

1 The ethnic name of Gimiri first , with the Galati of Asia Minor (int. occurs in the Caneiform records of the Jud. i. 6), in evident allusion to the time of Darius Hyötaspes, as the , ethnic title of Cymry, which ther, as Semitic equivalent of the Arian name so many other Celtic races, gare them. Saka (Zákai). The nation spoken of selves. But it must be observed that contained at this time two divisions, the Babylonian title of Gimiri, as the Eastern branch, named Humurja : applied to the Sacæ, is not a verla. ('Auúpylot of Hercdotus and Hella- | cuiar but a foreign title, and that it nicus), and the Tigrakhula or "ar. may simply mean the tribes” genechers," who were conterminous with rally, corresponding thus to the Hethe Assyrians. Whether at the same i brew oris, and the Greek Nduovioi, time these Gimiri or Saka are really In this case it would prove nothing Cymric Celts we cannot positively say. | concerning the ethnic character of Josephus identified the noi of Genesis | the race designated by it.-H. C. R.]

Essay I.



ken of the light-giving sun,"2_words which might perhaps be understood of a region outside the Pillars of Hercules; but considering the condition of Greek geographical knowledge and Greek navigation in Homer's day, it is far more likely that he intended by them some part of the northern coast of the Black Sea. Here Æschylus places Cimmeria 4 in close proximity to the Palus Mæotis and the Bosphorus; and here in the time of Herodotus were still existing a number of names, recalling the fact of the former settlement in these regions of the Cimmerian nation. The Greek colonists of the various towns planted upon the northern coast of the Black Sea, in the seventh and eighth centuries before our era, could not fail to form an acquaintance with the inhabitants of those parts, and would spread the knowledge of them among their countrymen. Further, there are grounds for believing that during the period of which we are speaking, frequent invasions of the countries towards the south were made by this same people, who, crossing the Danube and the Thracian Bosphorus, sometimes alone, sometimes in combination with plundering Thracian tribes, carried their arms far and wide over Asia Minor, and spread the terror of their name throughont the whole of that fertile region. Of one at least of these incursions the poet Callinus appears to have been a witness. It was universally recognized by the Greeks that these incursions proceeded from a people dwelling north of the Danube, in the tract between that river and the Tanais, and there seems no reason to doubt this location.

From the Cimmerians of this region it appears to have been that certain permanent settlements of the same race in Asia Minor were derived. Sinopé, on occasion of one of their raids, was seized and occupied, while probably on another the town of Antandros feli

Odyss. xi. 13-22.

(iv. 12). Hecatæus spoke of a town 'H d'is neipal'i kave Balvppóov 'Ikeavoio

Cimmeris (Fr. 2). Strabo has a Ευθα δε Κιμμερίων άνομων δημός τε πόλις τε,

“Mons Cimmericus” (õpos Keuuéploy) Η ρι και νεφελη κεκαλυμμένοι' ουδέ ποτ' αυτούς in Taurica, a “ Vicus Cimmericus's Hέλιος φαεθων καταδέ ρκεται ακτίνεσσιν, κ.τ.λ. (róun Kipepepikń) on the Asiatic side of

3 Comp. Eustath. ad Hom. Od. loc. | the Straits of Kertch, and an old cit. and Riccii Dissert. Homeric. p. 432. town “ Cimmericum ” (vii. p. 447, and See also Mr. Gladstone's Homer and xi. p. 721). the Homeric age,' vol. iii. p. 294.

Ô The Treres especially. See the 4 Prom. Vinct. 748-750.

Essays appended to Vol. I. Essay i. * Herodotus mentions, besides the | pp. 354-358. Cimmerian Bosphorus and a Cimme: 7 See Callinus, Fr. 2, and comp. the rian Ferry, some Cimmerian forts or | remarks of Bach, pp. 9-13. castles and a tract called Cimmeria | 8 Herod. iv. 12.

App. Book IV.

ni par 2:55 L 37 is and of these two places

DELS VE TEIL spesaded by Greek colonists ; DIS NETTET me &. as they stil, under the 1....** i

T 3.1-T IN - sized the principal race 1 * 722 31 s

a their position for a

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Leer man så vi Esre to the east, in - 1:Hicazisih S D nears by the same # EN

1 I 1-5 om we may probably Im VII 1 -1 u 20: The Prophet Ezekiel, 71. VIEL L.. ses izas a nation, and couples virun

as be Dorth quarter," i.e. 17 . U SISI 1 : S ass speak of Gumir as ** S:

E L 1e vi miss It is also very :

1 1 ES - SP s the Sacan or a lam is w srad over the Persian

TN 22 STORE T=cnps the name of Giminis 12 D 3 20 * Size oziraleat for the Arian 2 S 2 S Pets bà ses originally meant -2 s e ria cacciare in course of time to be sa

spates iisder, bowever, that by Herodotus :12222- I-"* si u s in an ethnic sense; and e pais de 2: acsizdi i wo trese Cimmerians were, to

ET DES i sed whether they can be identified U ser S erStace Woen skese questions have been siiteid bein g to trace the history and migrations of a perse e s assziszty of abore twenty-five hundred years, and Las raison desespacitbe Ukraine to the mountains of Wales.

- To bazi an eagraphical theory upon a mere identity of

A Pr. 190

Society, vol. xiv. part i. p. xxi., and See Gris Greece, vol. 1. p. 335 compare above, note : on gl. This codec is pertsps inrled in According to Festus and Plutarch tie Xaizsas Icine Tous cf Escay. the cane “Cimbri," which we shall los Sept. c. TL. 725).

find reason to identify with Cimmeri, • Arsc: 1. s.c.

in the oid Celtic and German tongues 3 Ezek. IIxvii. 6. «Gomer and all meant “robbers" (Fest. de Verb. nis bards: the bcuse cf Tegarmah of Signif. in. p. 77, “Cimbri lingua the north quarters, and all his bards : Gallica latrones dicuntur.” Plut, vit. and many peuple with thee."

Mar. c. 11, “Klubpous étovou á covea 4 Mos. Chcren. i. 11, sub fin.

repuarod Tojs András "'). But this 5 See Sir H. Rawlinson's Memoir on, meaning may have grown out of the the Babylonian and Assyrian Inscrip.l other, just as "robber" is connected tions in the Journal of the Asiatic with “rover."

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name is at all times, it must be allowed, a dangerous proceeding. The Jazyges of modern Hungary are a completely different race from the Jazyges Metanastæ who in ancient times occupied the very same country; the Wends are distinct from the Veneti, the Persian Germanii from the Germans, the Iberi of Spain from those of Georgia—yet still identity of name, even alone, is an argument which requires to be met, and which, unless met by positive objections, establishes a presumption in favour of connection of race. Now certainly there is the very closest possible resemblance between the Greek name Kuéploi and the Celtic Cymry; and the presumption thus raised, instead of having objections to combat, is in perfect harmony with all that enlightened research teaches of the movements of the races which gradually peopled Europe.

3. The Cimmerians, when the Scythians crossed the Tanais, and fell upon them from the east, must have gradually retreated westward. The hordes which from time to time have issued from Asia, and exerted a pressure upon the population of Europe, have uniformly driven the previous inhabitants before them in that direction.? Wave has followed wave; and the current, with the exception of an occasional eddy,8 has set constantly from east to west. If the Cimmerians therefore fled westward about B.c. 650-600, where did they settle, and under what name are they next met with in history? Herodotus knows but of three nations inhabiting central and western Europe—the Sigynnes, the Cynetians, and the Celts. Of these the Sigynnes and Cynetians, weak tribes who so soon disappear altogether from history, can scarcely be the great nation of the Cimmerii, which, until driven from the Ukraine by the force of the Scythian torrent, was wont to extend its ravages over large tracts of Asia Minor. If then we are to find the Cimmerii, driven westward B.c. 650-600, among the known nations of central or western Europe in B.C. 450-430, we must look for them among the Celts. Now the Celts had an unvarying tradition that they came from the east ;4 and it is a fact, concerning which there can be no question, that one of the main divisions of the Celtic people has always borne

? See Niebuhr's Researches, &c., | p. 52.

* Such as the Cimmerian inroad into Asia by the Caucasus, and the after wanderings of the Gauls. 9 Herod. v. 9.

Ibid. iv. 49.

? Ibid.

div. 49. 3 See Appendix to Book i. Essay i. On the Chronology and Early History of Lydia,' pp. 354 et seqq.

Prichard's Physical History of Mankind, vol. iii. ch. 3; Amm. Marcell. xv. 9.



tie name of Cymry as its special national designation Celts were andoabted'y the primitive inhabitants of Gaul, Belziam, and the British Islands-possibly a iso of Spain and Portugal. In all these coastries Cymry are found either as the general Celtic population, or as a leading section of it. These Cymry, or Cimbri (as the Ponans called them"). play on several occasions an important part in history: notices of them meet us constantiy as we trace the proprzess of the European peoples; acd in more than one place they have left their name to the country of their occupation as an endaring mark of their presence in it. Though the march of events, and especialy the pressure upon them of the great Gothic or Teatonic race, has for the most part wiped out at once their nationality, their language, and their name, yet they continue to form the substratum of the popalation in several large European countries;' while in certain favoured situations they remain to the present day anmixed with any other people, retaining their ancient tongie unchanged, and, at least in one instance, their ancient appellation. The identity of the Cymry of Wales with the Cimbri

5 Niebahr's conclasico, from an ela- . probably follows the excellent authoberate analysis of all the materials rity of Posidonius (see Niebuhr's Rom. which can be bronght to bear on the Hist. vol. ii. p. 520, note 1157, E. T). ely tistory of the Celtic pecple (Hist. Appian also identities the Cimbri with of Rome, vol. ii. p. 520, E. T.), is, that the Celts De Bell. Illyr. p. 758. KEA. the two nations, the Cymry and the rois mois KluBpois Afyouévous). The Gzel, may appropriately be comprised whole subject is well discussed by under the common name of Celts." I Dr. Prichard (Physical Hist. of Man.

& The Celts of the Spanish peninsula / kind, vol. iii. ch.3, $ 8). geem to have been Cimbri, for as ! 8 Wales still continues to be known Niebuhr shows (1. s. C.), they formed as Cambria, and one of our northern the bulk of the Ganls who invaded Italy, counties as Cumber-land. In France and these are expressly said to have Cambrai and (possibly) Quimper are a been of the Cimbric branch (Diodor. legacy of the Cymry. Spain has a Sic. v. 32). The Belgæ were exclu. small town, Cambrilla, and Portugal a sively Cimbrians, as also were the in. city, Coimbra, relics, probably, of the habitants of northern Gaul, who were same people. In like manner the supposed to have been British immi. Cimmerii left their name to the Tauric grants. In the British islands, Cimbric peninsula, which has continued to be Celts (Belgæ), at the time of Cæsar's known as the Crimea and Crim-Tartary landing, occupied the south coast to the present day. (Bell. Gall. v. 12).

As (Michelet, Hist. de France, vol. 7 Strabo (vii. p. 426) and Tacitus i. ch. ii.) France, Belgium, and Lom(German. 37) speak of the Cimbri as bardy. Germang; but this is probably a mis. The Cymric language is still take, consequent upon their holding spoken by the Bretons and by the large tracts east of the Rhine, which Welsh. The latter call themselves was considered to separate Gaul from “Cymry.I am not aware if the Germany. Diodorus, who declares name is in use among the former. them to have been Gauls or Celts,

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