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Jewish washings to which I have now adverted, yet it was precisely like them in that main particular of immersion in water."-J. J. Gurney on the pecul. of Friends, p. 61.
“Whenever, in the law of washing, the flesh or * clothes is mentioned, it means nothing else than the
dipping of the whole body in the bath; for if any one dips himself all over except the tip of his little finger, he is still in his uncleanness." - Maimonides Hilch. Mikva, chapt. 1, sect. 2.
“Dipping, among the Jews, was a national custom." -Lightfoot's Works, vol. 1, p. 585.
Mr. Sawyer next quotes Judith xii. 7: "She abode in the camp three days, and went out in the night into the valley of Bethulia, and spartiCETO (dipped) Ev THE xapeußohn Enti tns anyns tou vdatos, washed herself in a fountain of water by the camp;" and remarks, that: " Banrıça, baptize, expresses ceremonial cleansing, by some mode differing from immersion.". · Maimonides, the great Jewish author, who ought to know as much concerning the language and customs of the Jews as Mr. Sawyer does, says, " A menstruous woman, as also all other unclean persons, were washod in some confluence of waters, in which so much water ought to be as may serve to wash the whole body at one dipping. Our wise. men have esteemed this to be a cubit square, and three cubits deep, and this measure contains 40 seahs (80 gallons) of water." ---Lightfoot's Works, vol. 2, p. 119.
"In the days of R. Joshua Ben Levi, some endean øred to abolish this dipping, for the sake of the women of Galilee, because by reason of the cold, &c. R. Josh wa Ben Levi said unto them, Do you go about to take away that which hedges in Israel from transgresa ion 3"--Hieros Beracoth, fol. 6, 3.
"The baptism of John was by plunging the bod ter the same manner of the washing of unclean petu
sons, and the baptism of proselytes."-Lightfoots Works, vol. 2, p. 121. .
That Judith washed, is probable; but it is not contained in the text. Does it follow, because baptism jo performed for the purpose of washing, that baptism and washing are the same thing? Mr. Sawyer might just as well give cool as the rendering of Bantiça, because hot iron is Bantiça, (dipped,) to cool it. Judith's washing or cleansing was bụt an effect of immersing herself'; and it is a notorious fact, that fountains in that hot climate were uniformly provided with conveniences for bathing; and if she simply wished to sprinkle her feet, or wash her hands, why did she go under the cover of night?
Ecclesiasticus xxxiv. 25: “He that particouevos atto vexpov washeth himself after the touching of a dead body, if he toucheth it again, what availeth his washing ?” Mr. Sawyer says, p.7,“ The mode of cleansing designated is that prescribed by Moses, Numb.xix, 19, and consists of sprinkling and washing, but not imession or dipping." But that this ceremonial bathing was total immersion, is evident from the fact that it is denoted by bzu dip or immerse, in the Hebrew.
“The baptisms with the Jews were not by sprink ling. The Hebrew bau dip cannot possibly signify sprinkle; baptism is never in the New Testament compared with Levitical sprinklings, but with the death and resurrection of Christ."-Starck's Hist. of Bapt. p. 8.
That sprinkling is named at Numb. xix. 19, is true; and so is bathing. These were two distinct actions, and both were enjoined: first sprinkle with the water of purification; and then immerse in water. We do not contend that the Levitical sprinklings were imme> sions; but that their bathings were, is evident, not only from this text, but also from Levit. xv. 5, 8, 11, 13, 21, 22, 27 : xvi. 26-28: xvii. 15, 16: Numb. xix.
7, 8, 19: Levit. xiv. 9: xvi. 4, 24: xxii. 0: Dent. xxiii. 11: 2 Chron. iv. 6.
.“ Unclean persons were immersed, and purified by sprinkling.”—Theodoret com. on Heb. ix. 10.
"In proselyte baptism, the male after circumcision in ked into the water, and completely immerses himself - Schneckenburger, Pros. Bapt. p. 141.
“As in the Jewish custom the persons stood in the vater, and having been instructed, and entered into a covenant to renounce all idolatry and take the God of Israel for their God, then plunge themselves under the water; it is probable that the rite was thus pet formed at Enon.” Dr. A. Clark's comment on Jolm bi, 23.
Mr. Sawyer next quotes Mark vii. 3, 4: "For the Pharisees and all the Jews, except they viyavtau, (wash their hands,) oît, eat not, holding the traditions of the elders; and (when they came) from the market, ex eept they Burttisoivtat, (immerse themselves,) they eat not; and many other things there be, which they have received to hold, as the Bartışuovs (immersing) of cups and pots, brazen vessels and of xdıvar,(beds.) Mr. Sawyer says, p. 10, that these persons and things were not immersed, but sprinkled, and assigns as a reason, "the unreasonableness of baptizing beds.” But on this principle he could as well decide that, Gen. vii. 15, * two of all flesh wherein is breath of life” did not go into the ark; and, Col. ii. 9, the fullness of the God head bodily did not dwell in Jesus Christ. The fact that Bantıswrtai (they immerse) is used in the 4th verso to distinguish the action from vıywrtar, (they wash hands,) in the 3d verse, fully proves that they did im merse themselves. *. Again, this washing of hands was done by all the Jews, young and old, male and female, at each time of eating; while the immersion (verse 4) was only per formed by the individual who had been at the market,
which probably did not occur more than once a week; and in addition to etymology and circumstances, we have the testimony of the most able Jewish writers, who were eye witnesses to the Jewish ceremonies. “If. the Pharisees touched but the garments of the common people, they were defiled all one as if they had touched a profluvious person, and needed immersion."Misna Chagi, chap. 2, sec. 7.
“In a laver which holds forty seahs of water, every defiled man dips himself, except a profluvious man; and in it they dip all unclean vessels.”—Maimonides Hilch. Mikvaot, chap. 9, sec. 5.
"Mark vii. 4: They bathed their whole persons.”— Vatablus Prof. of Hebrew in Paris.
"John ii. 6: There were set there six water pots, &c. They were placed there, some of them for the cleansing of cups and tables, and others for such purifications as required the immersion of the whole body.”— Dr. Macknight's Harmony, sec. 19.
That the cups, pots, &c. were immersed, is evident. * He that buys a vessel for the use of a feast, of a gertilè, whether a molten or glass vessel, 15 sun they dip them in the waters of the laver, and after that they may eat and drink in them; and such as they use for eold things, as cups and pots and jugs, they wash them, 75430227 and dip them and they are free for use; and such as they use for hot things, as cauldrons and kettles, (brazen vessels,) they heat them with hot water, and scour them, 13730727 and immerse them."-Maimonides Hilch. Abot, Hatumaot, chap. 12, sec. 6
Jewish beds were very different things from our beds. They were such as a man just recovered from the palsy could take under his arm and carry home with him. Matt. ix. 2–6: Mark ii. 9 : John v. 11, 12; and that they were immersed there can be no doubt. Jewish writers, who ought to understand their own laws and language as well as Mr. Sawyer, say,
“A bed that is wholly defiled, if b30,7 he dips it part by part, it is pure."-- Misna celim, chap. 18, sec. 5,
"70728 za 37507 if he dips the bed in it, (the pool of water, although its feet are plunged into the thick elay, (at the bottom of the pool,) it is clean.
0903.77 737 a pillow or bolster of skin, when a man lifts up the ends or mouth of them out of the water, the water which is within them will be drawn; what shali he do? 73502 he must dip them, and lift them op by their fringe.”—Misna Mikvaot, chap. 7, sec. 7.
The original law for immersing all these things is at Levit. xi. 32: xiv. 6--8: Numb. xxxi. 23, 24; but to ihis law many traditions were added.
The above immersions of persons, vessels and beds, fully explain Heb. ix. 10: Siapopois Bantiguos, divers washings; which were not different actions, as pousing, sprinkling, and immersing, but immersions on divers subjects and different occasions. That Bantiquoeg, verse 10, does not mean or include sprinkling, but stands opposed to it, and means immersion, is evident from the fact that Paul drops pantigua, immerse, and und uses partibw, sprinkle, verses 13, 19, 21, of the same chapter.
“ Divers immersions and ordinances concerning the flesh.” — Macknight's Translation.
"Jewish baptism is a solemn rite, instituted by God, in which proselytes of both sexes, in the presence of three credible witnesses, are dipped in water."-Reiskius.
The Talmud Tract, Repudii, speaking of Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, says, "he was made a proselyte by circumcision and immersion in water."
Mr. Sawyer's effort, p. 12, to identify bao dip, nynn wash, and .772 sprinkle, is as unsuccessful as his atMempt, p. 13, to find Buntitw in the Septuagint, at Ex. xxix. 4: Levit. viii, 6: xiv. 4-9: Numb, viii. 6.: xix. 17-19,