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Brokers

202 NEW YORK SUPPLEMENT

V. ACTIONS FOR COMPENSATION. of time stipulated in bill of lading held barred. Om 82(4) (N.Y.Sup.) In action for commis- --Id. sions, burden on broker to show that agreement Em 163 (N.Y.App.Div.) Shipper presumed to was reached through his efforts.-McEvoy v. know conditions of bill of lading.-Brewster v. Athens Hotel Co., 390.

Davis, 574. Om 86(4) (N.Y.Sup.) Evidence held not to sus-C165 (N.Y.App.Div.) Evidence held to wartain finding that broker was procuring cause. rant finding that stipulation limiting time for -McEvoy v. Athens Hotel Co., 390.

filing claim was waived.-Brewster v. Davis, Om88(3) (N.Y.App.Div.) Dismissal of com- 574. plaint in action for brokerage held error.-

(J) Charges and Liens. -Steele v. Chesebrough, 138.

w 188 (N.Y.App.Div.) Freight earned, though CANALS.

connecting carrier refused to accept goods.

Stevens v. Atchison, T. & S. F. Ry. Co., 195. I. ESTABLISHMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND Bill of lading providing for through trangMAINTENANCE.

portation to foreign port construed.-Id. www.13 (N.Y.App.Div.) Agreement relating to como194 (N.Y.Sup.) Failure to collect freight dam on Oswego river held not to violate Con- from party to whom goods were reshipped stitution.--People's Gas & Electric Co. v. City does not relieve original consignee.-New York of Oswego, 243.

Cent. R. Co. v. Satuloff, 297. State authorized to convey land along Oswego river not needed in connection with dam.-Id.

CERTIORARI. City's release of claims to state for convey

I. NATURE AND GROUNDS. ance of canal land held not waste of publicul (N.Y.Sups) Office of writ or order_stated. property.-Id. C 18 (N.Y.Ct.CI.) Evidence held to show neg. cm 22 (N.Y.App.Div.) Appellate Division can

---People ex rel. Hoesterey v. Taylor, 7. ligent construction caused leakage, damaging not interfere with refusal to remove members claimant's property.--Parker v. State, 177.

of board of child welfare.-Jones v. Dutchess CARRIERS.

County Board of Child Welfare, 235. I. CONTROL AND REGULATION OF II. PROCEEDINGS AND DETERMINATIOX. COMMON CARRIERS.

m49 (N.Y.Sup.) Return to writ to review de. (B) Interstate and International Trans- cision of board of appeals held insufficient. ® portation,

People ex rel. Parry v. Walsh, 48. 30 (N.Y.App.Div.) Through rate to foreign port invalid, unless published and filed.-Ste

CHANCERY. vens v. Atchison, T. & S. F. Ry. Co., 1957. See Equity. Agreement for services not provided for in

CHARITIES. schedules places no duty on carrier.-Id.

II, CONSTRUCTION. ADMINISTRATION, II. CARRIAGE OF GOODS.

AND ENFORCEMENT. (B) Bills of Lading, Shipping Receipts, 45(2) (N.Y.App.Div.) Charitable corporaand Special Contracts.

tion not totally exempt from liability for emCm 57. (N.Y.) Delivery without taking up bills ployees' negligence.-Phillips v. Buffalo Genof lading held not proximate cause of loss to

eral Hospital, 572. bank to which bills were delivered as security

Charitable hospital held not liable for negliafter wrongful change of dates.-Saugerties gent acts of nurses or physicians.-Id. Bank v. Delaware & Hudson Co., 236 N. Y.

Hospital held not liable to paying patient for 425, 141 N. E. 904.

negligent act of orderly.--Id. (F) Loss of or Injury to Goods.

CHATTEL MORTGAGES. Cm 132. (N.Y.App.Div.) After proof of delivery VIII. PAYMENT OR PERFORMANCE OF to carrier, burden on latter to show goods not

ONDITION, RELEASE, AND

SATISFACTION. lost while in its possession.-Pereira v. American Ry. Express Co., 789.

Cm 240 (N.Y.App.Div.) Mortgagee pot entitled C132 (N.Y.App.Div.) Cartage contractor, to both property and payment of debt on deconveying imported goods to appraisers' ware- fault.-Harrison v. Hall, 626. house, liable for loss, in absence of explanation.

IX. FORECLOSURE. -U. S. ex rel. Matthews v. Massachusetts Bonding & Insurance Co., 867.

Can 262(1) (N.Y.App.Div.) Sale to mortgagee, em 134 (N.Y.App.Div.) Evidence of time re- who was not present at public sale, held invalid. quired to transport part of consignment held-Harrison v. Hall, 626. sufficient to fix reasonable time for part undelivered.-Brewster v. Davis, 574.

CHILDREN. C 134 (N.Y.App.Div.) Evidence held to war- See Parent and Child. rant finding goods lost while in carrier's possession.-Pereira v. American Ry. Express Co.,

CITIES. 789. (H) Limitation of Liability.

See Municipal Corporations. , 159(1) (N.Y.App.Div.) Signing receipt stating shipment short held insufficient filing of

CLASS LEGISLATION. claim.-Brewster v. Davis, 574.

See Constitutional Law, 210-212. Cmos 159(2) (N.Y.App.Div.) Requirement of claim of loss within 6 months held reasonable.

COMMERCE. Brewster v. Daris, 574. cm 160 (N.Y.App.Div.) Requirement of com

II. SUBJECTS OF REGULATION, mencement of suit within 2 years and 1 day 16 (N.Y.Sup.) Employee working on con. held reasonable.-Brewster v. Davis, 574. struction of tunnel connecting states under

Action for loss commenced after expiration / navigable river subject to state Compensation

INDEX-DIGEST

Contracts
For cases in Dec.Dig. & Am.Dig. Key-No.Series & Iodexes see same topic and KEY-NUMBER
Law; "interstate commerce."-Sullivan p.lem212 (N.Y.App.Div.) Under police power,
Booth & Flinn. 807.

state has wide discretion in determining public
C27(1) (N.Y.App.Div.) Test of employment policy.—Miller v. City of Niagara Falls. 519.
in "interstate coinmerce" stated.-Conklin v. Reasonable classification having relation to
New York Cent. R. Co., 75.

public welfare valid.-Id.
En 27(5) (N.Y.App.Div.) Action for injuries On 230(3) (N.Y.App.Div.) Ordinance prohibit-
to railroad guard engaged in interstate com- ing licenses to aliens to retail soft drinks held
merce held properly brought under federal Em- not to deny equal protection of laws.-Miller v.
ployés' Liability Act.--Hodgert v. Delaware, L. City of Niagara Falls, 549.
&: W. R. Co., 793.
27(8) (N.Y.App.Div.) Employee repairing

XI. DUE PROCESS OF LAW.
engine held not engaged in interstate com-1m312 (N.Y.) Failure to serve affidavit with
merce.-Conklin v. New York Cent. R. Co., 75. summons served outside state does not deprive

Engine not an instrumentality of interstate defendant of notice to which constitutionally
commerce, when withdrawn for repairs.-Id. entitled.--American Bank v. Goss, 236 N. Y.

488, 142 N. E. 156.
COMMERCIAL PAPER.
See Bills and Notes.

CONTEMPT.

I. ACTS OR CONDUCT CONSTITUTING
COMMISSIONERS.

CONTEMPT OF COURT.
See Public Service Commissions.

w 13 (N.Y.Sup.) Willful perjury punishable

as contempt.-Miele v, Acierno, 816.
COMPROMISE AND SETTLEMENT. II. POWER TO PUNISH, AND PROCEED-

INGS THEREFOR.
6(1) (N.Y.App.Div.) No consideration for
settlement of claim for profits.Peralta v. Es Swr36 (N.Y.Sup.). Judge of New York County
cobar, 714.

Court of General Sessions, sitting as magis-

trate, authorized to punish for criminal con-
CONDEMNATION.

tempt;, "magistrate.”-People ex rel. Petrucci.

v, Hanley, 87.
See Eminent Domain.

CONTRACTS.
CONSTITUTIONAL LAW.

See Assignments; Bills and Notes; Compro-
See Statutes, 77-101.

mise and Settlement; Exchange of Proper-

ty; Frauds, Statute of; Guaranty; Nova-
For validity of statutes relating to particular

tion; Sales; Specific Performance; Vendor
subjects, see also the various specific topics.

and Purchaser.
II. CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION, AND EN-

1. REQUISITES AND VALIDITY.
FORCEMENT OF CONSTITU-
TIONAL PROVISIONS.

(A) Nature and Essentials in General.
48 (N.Y.Sup.) Statutes presumed constitu- 4(N.Y.App.Div.) “Implied contract” defin-
tional.---Lynn v. Nichols, 401.

ed.-Robinson v. Hayes' Estate, 732.
Courts should upbold constitutionality of empl0(4) (N.Y.App.Div.) News agent held not
statute, if possible.-Id.

obligated to buy papers, and contract not mu-

tual.-Van Slyke News Agency v. News Syndi-
III. DISTRIBUTION OF

cate Co., 725.
GOVERNMENTAL
POWERS AND FUNCTIONS.

(B) Parties, Proposals, and Acceptance.
(A) Legislative Powers and Delegation 15 (N.Y.App.Div.) Meeting of minds es-
Thereof.

sential.-- Watts v. Thomas Carter & Sons, 852.
cm 63(1) (N.Y.) Statute relating to certifi- am 22(1) (N.Y.App.Div.) Plain, unequivocal
cates as evidence of literacy held not delegation offer and acceptance essential.-Watts v. Thom-
of legislative powers.-People ex rel. Chad- as Carter & Sons, 852.
bourne v. Voorhis, 236 N. Y. 437, 141 N. E. C.23 (N.Y.App.Div.) Qualified acceptance in-
907.

sufficient.-Watts v. Thomas Carter & Sons,
63(2) (N.Y.App.Div.) Legislature may dele- 852
gate power to grant franchise.—People ex rel. 28 (3) (N.Y.App.Div.) Finding that rail-
Lehigh Valley R. Co. v. State Tax Commis- road agreed to pay note executed by corpora-
sion, 310.

tion owning all its stock held against weight of

evidence.- Bankers' Trust Co. v. International
(B) Judicial Powers and Functions. Ry. Co., 561.
70(1) (N. Y. Sup.) Statutory provisions

(D) Consideration.
cannot be enlarged.--People ex rel. Widmeyer
V. Grupert, 13).

Om56 (N.Y.App.Div.) Implied promise held
73 (N.Y.Sup.) Courts may not interfere sufficient consideration.-Dairymen's League
with ministerial duties of election officers.-- Co-op. Ass'n v. Holmes, 663.
In re Barrett, 20.

0 (N.Y.App.Div.) Agreement to set aside

money to enable another to pursue course of
IV. POLICE POWER IN GENERAL. studies supported by consideration.-Robinson

v. Haves' Estate, 732.
Cm81 (N.Y.App.Div.). Rights of individual ww75(2) (N.Y.App.Div.) Promise of addition-
must yield to those of community.-People v. al payment held without consideration.-Mc-
Weller, 149.

Gowan & Connolly Co. v. Kenny-Moran Co.,

513.
X. EQUAL PROTECTION OF LAWS.

Cm79 (N.Y.App.Div.) Defendant's promise to
210 (N.Y. App.Div.) Aliens protected in seller to pay for lightning rods, to which de-
right to earn living by ordinary occupations.- fendant or another already had title, held with-
Miller v. City of Niagara Falls, 549.

out consideration.-Dixon v. Walker, 283.

Contracts

202 NEW YORK SUPPLEMENT

(E) Validity of Assent.

Om 245(2) (N.Y.App.Div.) Contemporaneous Como 94(1) (N.Y.App.Div.) Fraud vitiates con- oral agreements merged in written agreement. tracts.-First Nat. Bank v. Wright, 774.

-Alhambra Amusement Co. v. Associated First General rule as to fraud stated.--Id.

National Pictures, 605. 96 (N.Y.App.Div.) General rule as to un-Cm 247 (N.Y.App.Div.) Burden on contractor due influence stated.-First Nat. Bank

to show that new contract for increased price Wright, 774.

was made.-McGowan & Connolly Co. v. KenOww.99 (1) (N.Y.App.Div.) Burden of proof gen- ny-Moran Co., 513. erally on party alleging fraud.–First Nat. Bank

IV. RESCISSION AND ABANDONMENT. v. Wright, 774.

ww993) (N.Y.App.Div.) Measure of proof Om.271, (N.Y.App.Div.) Contractor held not will be adjusted to protect weaker party.-entitled to rescind for architects' delay in apFirst Nat. Bank v. Wright, 774.

proving plans.-McGowan & Connolly Co. v.

Kenny-Moran Co., 513. (F) Legality of Object and of consideration.

V. PERFORMANCE OR BREACH. Om 105 (N.Y.Mun.Ct.) Violation of revenue 303(1) (N.Y.App.Div.) Plaintiff's sale of statute does not make contract unenforceable, property after defendant's breach of contract unless statute so provides.-Christophersen & held no defense.—Globe Const. Co. v. Globe Kiaer v. U. S. Nav. Co., 902.

Tile Co., 320. ww107 (N.Y.Mun.Ct.)'Where statute points 303(5) (N.Y.App.Div.) Owner's claim for out consequences of its violation, no other pen- delay in completing building contract not dealty enforced.-Christophersen & Kiaer v. U. feated by showing that it was partly his fault. S. Nav. Co., 902.

-General Supply & Construction Co. v. Goelet, Camill (N.Y.Sup.) Agreement to pay husband 721. money, in case legal divorce was followed by 305(1) (N. Y. App. Div.) Owner allowing religious divorce, not against public policy. - building contractor to continue after time for Lubbell v. Stolls, 229.

completion has elapsed can recover for delay. Om 136 (N.Y.App.Div.) Statutory declaration --General Supply & Construction Co. v. Goelet, necessary to make contracts void ab initio.- | 721. New Howard Mfg. Co. v. Cohen, 449.

w322(4) (N.Y.App.Div.) Finding of delay on

owner's part held against weight of evidence.II. CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION. General Supply & Construction Co. v. Goelet, (A) General Rules of Construction.

721.

CONTRIBUTION. Cm 147(1) (N,Y..App.Div.) Court's duty to ascertain parties intention. --Halperin v. McCrory 3 (N.Y.Sup.) Parties must be under comStores Corporation, 385.

mon burden or liability.-Exchange Mut. IndemOm. 162 (N.Y.Sup.) 'Apparent repugnancy rec- nity Ins. Co. v. Zurich General Acc. Fire & Life onciled, if possible.-Fox Film Corporation v.

Ins. Co., 720. Hirschman, 854.

64 (N.Y.App.Div.) Joint maker, paying 168 (N.Y.App.Div.) Circumstances stated more than sbare, held entitled to contribuunder which term may be implied.-Robinson tion.-Bronner v. Walrath, 577. v. Hayes' Estate, 732.

Om7 (N.Y.App.Div.) Only solvent debtors Terms implied only to enforce manifest equi- considered.-Bronner v. Walrath, 577. ty or carry out parties' intention.--Id. Om 169 (N.Y.App.Div.) Surrounding circum

CONVERSION. stances resorted to where contract is ambig. See Trover and Conversion. uous.-IIalperih v. McCrory Stores Corporation, 385.

em 20 (N.Y.Sur.) Proceeds of fire_policy held Ons 170(1) (N.Y.App.Div.) Practical construc- to pass as realty.-In re Mullin's Estate, 758. tion resorted to where contract is ambiguous. ---Halperin v, McCrory Stores Corporation,

CORPORATIONS. 385.

See Banks and Practical construction by parties surest evi

Banking; Carriers; Jointdence of meaning.-Id.

Stock Companies and Business Trusts; Muw 176(1) (N.Y.App.Div.) Meaning, of

nicipal Corporations; Public Service Comtract terms of which are undisputed for court.

missions; Railroads; Street Railroads. --Halperin v. McCrory Stores Corporation, 385. 1. INCORPORATION AND ORGANIZATION. (C) Sabject-Matter.

Owl (N.Y.Sup.) Are creatures of the state, ww196 (N.Y.App.Div.) Architect not liable for and can act only for purposes and in manner excess of cost over estimate.- Higgins v. G. authorized.-Peabody v. Interborough Rapid Piel Co., 874.

Transit Co., 287.

Omall (N.Y.App.Div.) Created by special act (E) Conditions.

held not “organized” before formal organizaOmw220 (N.Y.App.Div.) Provision that plain- tion.-In re Juilliard's Will, 429. tiff would complete course of study not im-30(5) (N.Y.App.Div.) Individual stockplied.-Robinson v. Hayes' Estate, 732.

holders of insolvent corporation held not liable

to mechanic's lienor.-Almirall & Co. v. Mc(F) Compensation.

Clement, 139. C-229(3) (N.Y.App.Div.) Discharge of ar

Use of corporation to evade personal liability chitects lield to give no right to commissions on

not illegal per se.--Id. work which was optional.--Higgins v. G. Piel Co., 874.

IV. CAPITAL, STOCK, AND DIVIDENDS.

(B) Subscription to Stock. III. MODIFICATION AND MERGER.

Om90(7), (N.Y.App.Div.) Whether corporation em 236 (N.Y.Sup.) Parties may waive agreed waived right to assert liability under stock subformalities in changing contract.-Peabody v. scription held for jury.--Armleder Motor Truck Interborough Rapid Transit Co,. 287.

Co. of New York v. Barnes, 472.

con

recover

use

INDEX-DIGEST

Counterclaim
For cases in Dec, Dig. & Am.Dig. Key-No.Series & Indexes see same topic and KEY-NUMBER
(C) Issue of Certificates.

(B) Representation of Corporation by Of.

ficers and Agents.
cm 98 (N.Y.Sup.). Decree requiring individual
defendants to deliver stock standing in plain-C398(2)(N.Y.Sup.) Stockholders, as such,
tiff's name improper.-Gallagher v. Perot, 441. cannot contract for corporation.--Peabody v.

Interborough Rapid Transit Co., 287.

Om 414(2) (N.Y.App.Div.) President held not
(D) Transfer of shares.

to have implied authority to agree to pay note
117 (N.Y.App.Div.) Fraudulent represen-executed by corporation owning all its stock.
tations held to entitle purchasers of stock to Bankers' Trust Co. v. International Ry. Co.,
rescind though seller falsely pretended to act 561.
as agent.-Amberg v. Allen, 29.

Cm 423 (N.Y.Sup.) Lender cannot
money loaned on defendant corporation's forged

notes, though check was deposited to defend-
V. MEMBERS AND STOCKHOLDERS,

ant's credit by forged indorsement and with-
(A) Rights and Liabilities as to Cor drawn by forged check.-Credit Alliance Cor-
poration.

poration v. Sheridan Theatre Co., 217.
em 171 (N.Y.Sur.) Nominal shares of stock am 426(10) (N.Y.App.Div.) Use of money re-
issued to others held to belong to owner of rest ceived on note executed by another corpo-
of stock. In re Baechler's Will, 485.

ration held no ratification of president's agree-
a 189(2) (N.Y.App.Div.) Shareholder can

ment to pay note.-Bankers' Trust Co. v. In-
invoke aid of equity to restrain exchange of ternational Ry. Co. 561.
corporate property.-Richter v. Sea Gate Ass'n,m428(12) (N.Y.Sup.) Knowledge of default-
68.

ing officer not imputed.-Credit Alliance Cor-

poration v. Sheridan Theatre Co., 217.
VI. OFFICERS AND AGENTS.

Ow429 (N.Y.App.Div.) Bank's knowledge held
(B) Authority and Functions.

to nullify implied authority to agree to pay

pote to bank-Bankers' Trust Co. v. Inter-
C297 (N.Y.Sup.) Directors must un national Ry. Co., 561.
trammeled discretion.—Peabody v. Interborough ww432(1) (N.Y.App.Div.) Bank's knowledge
Rapid Transit Co., 287.

held to nullify implied authority to agree to

pay note to bank or ratification of such agree-
(C) Rights, Duties, and Liabilities as to ment.--Bankers' Trust Co, v. International Ry.
Corporation and Its Members.

Co., 561.
ww31! (N.Y.App.Div.) Director entitled to in- IX. REINCORPORATION AND REORGAN-
spect books to enable him to perform his du-

IZATION.
ties.--People ex rel Bellman v. Standard Match am 575 (N.Y.Sup.) Evidence held to establish
Co., 840.

stockholder's claim to shares in new corpora-
Om 312(1)(N.Y.Sup.) Directors must not use tion.-Gallagher v. Perot, 441.
corporate funds for their own benefit.-Galla-
gher v. Perot, 441,

XI. DISSOLUTION AND FORFEITURE OF
www320(8) (N.Y.App.Div.) Stockholder, suing

FRANCHISE.
directors, need not allege demand on them.- 617(2) (N.Y.App.Div.) After dissolution,
Traub v. Arrow Mfg. Corporation, 121.

director not entitled to examine books for pur-
m321 (N.Y.App.Div.) Complaint held sufi -

pose inimical to his duties.-People ex rel. Bell-
cient, either in action by director for misuse of man v. Standard Match Co., 840.
corporate funds, or in derivative action by 619 (N.Y.App.Div.) After dissolution di-
stockholder. –Traub v. Arrow Mfg. Corpora- rector can only exercise power necessary to
tion, 121.
Action maintainable as derivative action by Standard Match Co., 840.

wind up business.-People ex rel. Bellman v.
stockholder, without alleging plaintiff was su-
ing for himself and others similarly situated.

COSTS.
-Id.

1. NATURE, GROUNDS, AND EXTENT OF

RIGHT IN GENERAL.
(D) Liability for Corporate Debts and
Acts.

Omw32(3) (N.Y.App.Div.) Not allowed plaintiff
325 (N.Y.App.Div.) Persons dealing with Nat. Bank v. Olmstead, 115.

to successful defense.-Amsterdam City
corporation must look to corporate assets. 42(6) (N.Y. App.Div.) Plaintiff charged with
Almirall & Co, v. McClement, 139.

as

costs, where defendant tendered amount and
mm 334 (N.Y.Sup.) Director, ratifying pay-
ment of dividends out of capitál, liable to cred- made deposit in court.-Hirsch v. Spitzer, 338.

48 (N.Y.Mun.Ct.) On dismissal of com-
itor.-City Investing Co. v. Gerken, 41.

plaint and counterclaim on merits, plaintiff held

not entitled to costs.-Li Mandri v. G. Weiss &
VII. CORPORATE POWERS AND LIABILI- Sons, 267.

On dismissal of complaint and counterclaim,
(A) Extent and Exercise of Powers in defendant held entitled to costs.-Id.

VII. ON APPEAL OR ERROR, AND ON
en 377 (2) (N.Y.App.Div.) Exchange of corpo NEW TRIAL OR MOTION THEREFOR.
rate property for stock to be distributed among em 250 (N.Y.Sup.) Argument
stockholders not authorized.-Richter v. Sea taxed against appellant, where appeal trans-

fee properly
Gate Ass'n, 68.
383 (N.Y.App.Div.) Corporation must act

ferred from preferred to general calendar.-
through agents having authority to act.-Bank: Cramer v. Perine, 325.
ers' Trust Co. y. International Ry. Co., 561. ww257 (N.Y.Sup.) Amendment

held not
389 (N.Y.App.Div.) In absence of evidence amendment of the case on appeal," entitling
of prohibition assumed that corporation au- adverse party to costs.-Cramer v. Perine, 325.
thorized to hold and sell securities of other
corporations.-People ex rel. Goodwin Sand

COUNTERCLAIM.
& Gravel Co. v. Law, 558.

See Set-Off and Counterclaim.

TIES.

General.

Courts

202 NEW YORK SUPPLEMENT

COURTS.

X. EVIDENCE. See Contempt; Criminal Law, Om97-100.

(C) Other Ofenses, and Character of Ac

cused. 1. NATURE, EXTENT, AND EXERCISE OF C 369(14) (N.Y.App.Div.) Testimony of disJURISDICTION IN GENERAL.

tinct crime held inadmissible on trial for per35 (N.Y.Sup.) Doubts as to jurisdiction jury:- People v. Barbuti, 126, resolved in favor of tribunal.-People v. Hum-m

370 (N.Y.App.Div.) Evidence of attempt to phrey, 772.

defraud insurance company held inadmissible to

show guilty knowledge in receiving stolen propII. ESTABLISHMENT, ORGANIZATION, erty.-People v. Barbuti, 126.

AND PROCEDURE IN GENERAL. (D) Rules of Decision, Adjudications,

XV. APPEAL AND ERROR, AND CEROpinions, and Records.

TIORARI. www.99 (I) (N.Y.App.Div.) Decisions of referee, (B) Presentation and Reservation in Low

er Court of Gronnds of Review. affirmed by Surrogate's Court and Appellate Division, held res judicata.-In re Pinkney, 818. m 1 036(1) (N.Y.App.Div.) Though not ob

Prior decision held not res judicata as re-jected to, testimony relating to theft of autospects method to be adopted in subsequent pro- mobile held prejudicial in prosecution for perceeding in apportioning funds between life jury.-People v. Barbuti, 126. beneficiary and remaindermen.-Id.

(G) Review. IV. COURTS OF LIMITED OR INFERIOR 1169(!!) (N.Y.App.Div.) Testimony relatJURISDICTION.

ing to theft of automobile held prejudicial in Bmw 169(1) (N.Y.Sup.) Municipal Court with prosecution for perjury.--People v. Barbuti,

126. out jurisdiction of action to recover possession of chattels alleged to be worth upwards of $1,000.-Kessler y. Zucker, 770.

XVII. PUNISHMENT AND PREVENTION OF

CRIME. En 183 (N.Y.App.Div.) County Court cannot decree specific performance of option for new

1208(9) (N.Y.Sup.) Indeterminate sentence lease.-Armstrong v. Shapiro, 305.

held definite sentence for maximum term.Como 188(3) (N.Y.Sup.) Municipal Court has no People ex rel. Haupt v. Lasch, 416. jurisdiction of partnership accounting.-Rosenthal v. Garber, 703.

CUSTOMS AND USAGES. Cm 188(10) (N.Y.Sup.) Action for possession om 10 (N.Y.Sup.) Buyer not liable to owner not maintainable in Municipal Court by condi- for part of purchase price of bracelet paid to tional seller.-Kessler v. Zucker, 770.

broker, in view of custom of trade.-Ungar v. Chrom 190 (2) (N.Y.Sup.) Municipal Court's

or- Frisch, 367. der declaring waiver of right to have case

DAMAGES. settled appealable.-Bendelari v. B. S. Moss Theatrical Enterprises, 295.

I. NATURE AND GROUNDS IN GENERAL. em 190(4) (N.Y.Sup.) Municipal Court not mm 6 (N.Y.App.Div.) Uncertainty as to amount authorized to adjudicate waiver of right to does not prevent award.-Acunto v. Schmidtsettle case.–Bendelari v. B. S. Moss Theat-Dauber Co., 1. rical Enterprises, 295.

III. GROUNDS AND SUBJECTS OF COMCOURTS OF APPELLATE JURISDIC

PENSATORY DAMAGES.
TION.

(B) Aggravation, Mitigation, and Reduc(B) Courts of Particular States.

tion of Loss. Ca 237(1) (N.Y.) Appeal held to lie withoutw59 (N.Y.App.Div.) Building contractor canpermission, where constitutional question was not offset against owner's claim for delay payinvolved.-People ex rel. Astoria Light, Heat & ments made by defaulting lessee.-General Sup.. Power Co. v. Cantor, 236 N. Y. 417, 141 N. E. ply & Construction Co. y. Goelet, 721. 901. CRIMINAL LAW.

IV. LIQUIDATED DAMAGES AND PEN

ALTIES. See Homicide; Pardon; Perjury.

Om79(1) (N.Y.App.Div.) Liquidated damages I. NATURE AND ELEMENTS OF CRIME

held allowable for breach of exclusive marketAND DEFENSES IN GENERAL.

ing contract.-Dairymen's League Co-op. Ass'n C20 (N.Y.Sup.) No innocent act can be part om 80(1) '(N.Y.App.Div.) Liquidated damages

v. Holmes, 663. of crime.-People v. Doud, 579.

for breach of marketing contract must be reaIV. JURISDICTION.

sonably related to actual damages.-Dairymen's

League Co-op. Ass'n v. Holmes, 663. 97(1) (N.Y.Sup.) That money secured by artifice was raised in New York did not give marketing contract held penalty.-Id.

Liquidated damages for breach of exclusive that state jurisdiction of crime.-People v. Doud. 579.

VI. MEASURE OF DAMAGES. C100(1) (N.Y.App.Div.) Supreme Court has no jurisdiction to make order in action not

(B) Injuries to Property. pending therein.-People v. Carfano, 223. Cama 112 (N.Y.Cț.CI.) Value of fruit trees, at

time previous claim allowed, is basis of present VIII. PRELIMINARY COMPLAINT, AFFI- damages.-Parker v. State, 177.

DAVIT, WARRANT, EXAMINATION,
COMMITMENT, AND SUMMARY

(C) Breach of Contract.
TRIAL.

mm 122 (N.Y.App.Div.) Rental value measure Cad234 (N.Y.Sup.) Hearing before magistrate of damages for delay in completing building not prosecution, but inquiry.--People ex rel. contract.-General Supply & Construction Co. Pringle v. Conway, 104.

v. Goelet, 721.

VI.

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