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INDEX-DIGEST

Dower For cases in Dec.Dig. & Am.Dig. Key-No.Series & Indexes see same topic and KEY-NUMBER VIII. PLEADING, EVIDENCE, AND AS Cm84 (N.Y.App.Div.) Production of books in SESSMENT.

aid of examination permitted.-Angel 7. Del (B) Evidence.

Fuogo-Giera, 805. 174(1) (N.Y.Sup.) Cost of repairs held

DISMISSAL AND NONSUIT. competent evidence of damages.--Mencaccy v. Studebaker Corporation of America, 718.,

I, VOLUNTARY. Evidence of market value of automobile be

6 (N.Y.Sup.) Plaintiff's right to disconfore accident held competent.--Id.

tinue on payment of costs held absolute.--El

liott Electrical Supply Co. y. Gilmartin, 280. DEATH. 11. ACTIONS FOR CAUSING DEATH,

11. INVOLUNTARY. (D) Pleading and Evidence.

On 54 (N.Y.App.Div.) Complaint not disCom 58(1) (N.Y.App.Div.) Burden of proving Amberg v. Allen, 29.

missed because wrong procedure followed. contributory negligence on defendant: -Cooper-C5874) (N.Y.App.Div.) Complaint demandstein v. Eden Brick & Supply Co., 63. m58(1) (N.Y.Ct.CI.) Burden of proving .con-only, dismissed.-Chadbourne v. Ritz Carlton

ing equitable relief, but stating action at law tributory negligence on defense.-Wolf v. State, Restaurant & Hotel Co., 805. 754.

Om73 (N.Y.App.Div.) On motion challenging (E) Damages, Forfeiture, or Fine.

sufficiency of complaint, allegations assumed

to be true.-Cortright v. Anderson, 729. Cam 99 (4) (N.Y.Ct.CI.) $15,000 held fair compensation.-Wolf v. State, 754.

DISTRICT AND PROSECUTING
DEDICATION.

ATTORNEYS.
I. NATURE AND REQUISITES.

Om (N.Y.Sup.) District attorney is quasi ju

dicial officer.-People ex rel. Pringle v. ConEm 19(5) (N.Y.App.Div.) Filing of map of way, 104. street by property owner identical with map filed

DIVORCE. by cominissioner held dedication.--In re Èighteenth Ave, in City of New York, 167.

II. GROUNDS.

On 27 (3) (N.Y.Sup.) Quarreling, or single act DEEDS.

of violence, not rendering cohabitation unsafe, See Mortgages.

pot ground for separation.-Wendt v. Wendt,

46. DESCENT AND DISTRIBUTION,

III. DEFENSES. See Executors and Administrators; Wills.

54 (N.Y.Sup.). Decree for defendant, prov

ing plaintiff's adultery after condonation of deIII. RIGHTS AND LIABILITIES OF HEIRS fendant's adultery.-Kamrowski v. Kamrowski, AND DISTRIBUTEES.

80. (A) Nature and Establishment of Rights in General,

IV. JURISDICTION, PROCEEDINGS, AND

RELIEF. Com 90(4) (N.Y.App.Div.) Evidence held to

(D) Evidence. show instrument conveying interest in estate induced by deception.-First Nat. Bank v. Om 130 (N.Y.App.Div.) Evidence held insuffiWright, 774.

cient to show "cruel treatment."-Belden v. Defendants held to have burden of proving Belden, 543. no fraud was practiced in procuring convey- 130 (N.Y.Sup.) Evidence held insufficient ance.-Id.

to warrant separation for cruel and inhuman DETECTIVES.

treatment.-Wendt v. Wendt, 46.

Om 133(1) (N.Y.App.Div.) Evidence held inCam3 (N.Y.Sup.) Appointment under competi-sufficient to show abandonment."-Belden v. tive classification without examination illegal. Belden, 543. -Farrington v. Fleming, 3.

(E) Dismissal, Trial or Hearing, and New DISCOVERY.

Trial. II. UNDER STATUTORY PROVISIONS.

151 (N.Y.App.Div.) Evidence held to au(A) Interrogatories and Examinations of

thorize granting new trial after verdict for deParties and of Other Persons.

fendant wife.-O'Keeffe v. O'Keeffe, 769. Cews 28 (N.Y.App.Div.) Order for examination

(F) Judgment or Decree. by deposition before trial may be united with 171 (N.Y.App.Div.) Judgment in separaone for discovery.-Fey v. Wisser, 30.

tion action bar to action for children's mainm47 (N.Y.Sup.) Plaintiff held not entitled to tenance.-Dumarest y. Dumarest, 218., take deposition before trial of defaulting defendant as "adverse party."-Syracuse Mortg. VII. OPERATION AND EFFECT OF DICorporation v. Kepler, 193.

VORCE, AND RIGHTS OF DI54 (N.Y.Sup.) Examination before trial

VORCED PERSONS. without notice to adverse party denied.-Syra-0326 (N.Y.Sup.) Danish divorce by royal cuse Mortg. Corporation v. Kepler, 193.

decree held valid in New York.-Sorenson v. 74 (N.Y.App.Div.) Employer entitled to Sorenson, "620. examination of employee, but not to production (327 (N.Y.Sup.) Danish divorce, after wife of books of firms not parties.—-Fey v. Wisser, left jurisdiction, held valid.--Sorenson v. Soren30.

son, 620.

DOWER. (B) Production and Inspection of Writings and of Other Matters.

I. NATURE AND REQUISITES. 80 (N.Y.App.Div.) Order for examination om 12(1) (N.Y.) No right in estate by entireby deposition before trial may be united with ty.-In re Dunn's Estate, 236 N. Y. 461, 141 one for discovery.-Fey v. Wisser, 30.

N. E. 915.

Dower

202 NEW YORK SUPPLEMENT

II. INCHOATE INTEREST.

Voter reaching majority in January, 1922, or (B) Bar, Release, or Forfeiture. thereafter, must produce literacy certificate.

-Id. Om49(2) (N.Y.App.Div.) Agreement by dev- One who has been entitled to vote for years, isee to increase legacy charged on land, in con- but has not availed himself of that privilege, sideration of release of dower, held binding.not subject to literacy test.-Id. Appell v. Halbe, 364.

V. REGISTRATION OF VOTERS. III. RIGHTS AND REMEDIES OF WIDOW.

em 103 (N.Y.) Inspectors of elections held not 79(3) (N.Y.Sup.) Evidence held to show authorized to conduct literacy tests. People ex that wife joined in conveyance.-Martello v. rel. Chadbourne v. Voorbis, 236 N. Y. 437, 141 Cagliostro, 703.

N. E. 907.
DUE PROCESS OF LAW.

VI. NOMINATIONS AND PRIMARY ELEC. See Constitutional Law, em 312.

TIONS.

em 121(2) (N.Y.App.Div.) Candidate for party EJECTMENT.

position not entitled to file certificate of declina. I. RIGHT OF ACTION AND DEFENSES. tion after expiration of statutory period.

Neary v. Voorhis, 236. Owl (N.Y.App.Div.) Action for possession of property and for damages is in "ejectment."- IX. COUNT OF VOTES, RETURNS, AND Schick v. Wolf, 601.

CANVASS. el? (N.Y.App.Div.) Right to possession and superior title in plaintiff necessary.-Schick v. of ballots marked "protested, wholly blank or

Suws 260 (N.Y.Sup.) Statute authorizes recount Wolf, 601. em 18 (N.Y.App.Div.) Possession obtained by

void" only.-People ex rel. Widmeyer v. Grufraud or force is no defense to action of eject

nert, 135. ment.--Schick v. Wolf, 601.

Recount denied, where petition shows result Omw 19 (N.Y.App.Div.) Right to possession and

would not be changed.-Id. superior title in plaintiff necessary.-Schick v. Wolf. 601.

X. CONTESTS. 26(2) (N.Y.). No equitable defense unless 299(!) (N.Y.Sup.) Statute relating to defendant could sue to enjoin prosecution of preservation of ballots held not to authorize remedy at law.--Golde Clothes Shop v. Loew's recount.-In re Barrett, 20. Buffalo Theatres, 236 N. Y. 465, 141 N. E. 917. Discrepancies in other districts do not war

rant opening election machines.-Id. ELECTION OF REMEDIES.

Court cannot require opening of ballot box w I! (N.Y.App.Div.) Applicable only where

in absence of statute.-Id. there is choice of two inconsistent remedies.

Purpose of statute relating to examination Schenck v. State Line Telephone Co., 378.

or preservation of ballots.-Id. Omar 12 (N.Y.App.Div.) Action barred by stat

Court may not order re-examination where ute of limitations held not election.-Schenck am 299(3) (N.Y.Sup.) Irregularities held not

no official announcement has issued.-Id. V. State Line Telephone Co., 378.

to require examination of voting machines.ELECTIONS.

In re Barrett, 20.

On 300 (N.Y.Sup.) Election commissioner and 1. RIGHT OF SUFFRAGE AND REGULA- party committee entitled to be heard in elecTION THEREOF IN GENERAL.

tion contest.-In re Barrett, 20. Om 101/2 (N.Y.Sup.) Constitution guarantees equal facilities to all electors.-Lynn v. Nichols,

EMINENT DOMAIN. 401. Fww27 (N.Y.Sup.) Use of voting machines held 1. NATURE. EXTENT, AND DELEGATION

OF POWER. not unconstitutional.-Lynn v. Nichols, 401.

Om 10(1) (N.Y.) Private corporation cannot III. ELECTION DISTRICTS OR PRECINCTS condemn property purchased when unable to AND OFFICERS.

agree with tenant as to privilege of terminaCm47 (N.Y.Sup.) Statute providing for ap- tion of lease.-Golde Clothes Shop v. Loew's pointment of board of elections held not inval. Buffalo Theatres, 236 N. Y. 465, 141 N. E. 917. id.-Lynn v. Nichols, 401. Om51 (N.Y.Sup.) Courts cannot require ap

II. COMPENSATION. pointment of bipartisan election board, instead

(C) Measure and Amount. of single election commissioner.-Lynn v. Nichols, 401,

149 (N.Y.App.Div.) Claimants in proceed.

ings to acquire title to street held entitled to IV. QUALIFICATIONS OF VOTERS. only nominal damages.-In re Eighteenth Ave. Om60 (N.Y.) Statute providing for presenta

in City of New York, 167. tion of certificates or diplomas as evidence of (D) Persons Entitled and Payment. "literacy" held not unconstitutional.-People ex rel. Chadbourne v. Voorhis, 236 S. W. 437, held entitled to award for land taken for streets.

em 153 (N.Y.Sup.) Under contract purchaser 141 N. E. 907.

Statute providing for certificates as evidence-Fox Film Corporation v. Hirschman, 854. of literacy held not to infringe election inspec-111. PROCEEDINGS TO TAKE PROPERTY tors' constitutional power.-Id.

AND ASSESS COMPENSATION. Legislature may adopt reasonable methods of ascertaining qualifications of voters.-Id. Em 202(1) (N.Y.App.Div.) Reception of test.

Literacy test law upheld, if within reasonable timony of landowner's experts for exaggerated range of legislative discretion.-Id.

damages held not error.-In re Bronx Parkway Om 84 (N.Y.Sup.) Citizen naturalized on De-Commission, 249. cember 2, 1921, not entitled to vote without w202 (4) (N.Y. App.Div.) Evidence of feasiproducing literacy certificate.-Ferayorni v. ble development of vacant land held properly Walter, 91.

admitted, where testimony of value was based

must

over

INDEX-DIGEST

Evidence For cases in Dec.Dig. & Am.Dig. Key-Xo.Series & Indexes see same topic and KEY-NUMBER on market value only-In re Bronx Parkway For review of rulings relating to evidence, see Commission, 249.

Appeal. Oma 205 (N.Y.App.Div.) Award three times es- Reception at trial, see Trial, en 60; Witnesses. timate of condemnor's witnesses, and one-third of owner's witnesses, held not excessive.-In ré

I. JUDICIAL NOTICE. Bronx Parkway Commission, 249,

Om 5(2) (N.Y.App.Div.) General knowledge 232 (N. Y.App.Div.) Visit of commissioners that dirt roads become rutty in spring and fail. of appraisal to manufacturing plant in vicinity -Roberts v. Town of Eaton, 360. to determine usability of water held not er m5(2) (N.Y.App.Div.) Common knowledge ror.-In re Bronx Parkway Commission, 249. that 242-story frame house of type constructed om 237(7) (N.Y.App.Div.) Court be 30 years ago passing in Bronx.-In re Loewus' guided by record only.--In re Bronx Parkway Will, 406. Commission, 249.

Om 20(1) (N.Y.App.Div.) Court takes judicial 265(1) (N.Y.Sup.) Court has power to re-notice that dealers in dairy products largely view comptroller's audit of compensation to ex; organized.-Dairymen's League Co-op. Ass'n v. pert witnesses in proceedings to acquire school Holmes, 663. land. - In re Eighteenth Ave in Borough of wo 46 (N.Y.App.Div.) Judicial notice taken of Brooklyn, City of New York, 230.

regulations promulgated by federal govern.

ment by executive order.-In re Rosenberg's EQUAL PROTECTION OF THE LAWS. Will, 324. See Constitutional Law, Cam 210-212.

II. PRESUMPTIONS,

Om65 (N.Y. App.Div.) Testatrix presumed to EQUITY.

have knowledge of inheritance and estate taxes. See Conversion; Discovery; Injunction; Ref--Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. v. Winthrop, 456.

Facts shown to exist ormation of Instruments; Specific Perform-m 67(1). (N.Y.Sup.) ance; Trusts,

presumed to continué.–Gallagher v. Perot, 441.

mo73 (N.Y.App.Div.) Bonds presumed regu1. JURISDICTION, PRINCIPLES, AND

lar.--Almirall & Co. v. McClement, 139. MAXIMS.

Cm77(1) (N.Y.App.Div.) Unfavorable infer(A) Nature. Grounds, Subjects, and Ex

ence cannot be drawn from failure to call hostent of Jurisdiction in General.

tile witness.--Vollmer v. Automobile Fire Ins.

Co. of. Hartford, Conn., 374. Cor 17 (N.Y.) Court cannot divest legal titles 82 (N.Y.Sup.) Acting police justice preexcept in accordance with settled jurisdiction. sumed to act within his authority in admitting -Golde Clothes Shop v. Loew's Buffalo Thea- defendant to bail.-People v. Humphrey, 772. tres, 236 N. Y, 465, 141 N. E. 917.

m89 (N.Y.App.Div.) Devise held to (C) Principles and Maxims of Equity.

come presumption that contract to convey or

devise still in effect.-Schick v. Wolf, 601. Cm65(2) (N.Y.App.Div.) Writing letters to old customers of corporation held violation of IV. RELEVANCY, MATERIALITY, AND dissolution agreement, precluding equitable re

COMPETENCY IN GENERAL. lief against other member, under clean hands (A) Facts in Issue and Relevant to Issues. maxim.-Dworsky v. Herstein, 72.

naf 13(1) (N.Y.App.Div.) Price quotations by II. LACHES AND STALE DEMANDS.

firms unable to sell held not proper basis for

finding market price.-Becker v. Arnstaedt & 71(1) (N.Y.Sup.) Right not lost by mere Co., 627. delay without estoppel.-National Cash Register ww1134) (N.Y.Sup.) Method of ascertaining Co. v. Remington Arms Co., 691.

value of corporate stock having no market val

ue, stated.-Pett v. Spiegel, 650. ESTATES.

(B) Res Geste. See Descent and Distribution; Dower; Ex

ecutors and Administrators: Life Estates; ou 123(11) (N.Y.App.Div.) Statements made Perpetuities; Remainders; Wills.

considerable time after accident held do part of

res gestæ.--Page v. Hirsch, 787. ESTOPPEL.

V. BEST AND SECONDARY EVIDENCE. III. EQUITABLE ESTOPPEL.

Om 181 (N.Y.Sup.) Photostatic copies held not (A) Nature and Essentials in General. admissible for want of preliminary proof.Om62(2). (N.Y.App.Div.) Authorized acts of Miller v. Insurance Co. of North America, 295. state officers may estop state. People v. Finch,

VII. ADMISSIONS. Pruyn & Co., 582.

(D) By Agents or Other Representatives. (B) Grounds of Estoppel.

243(2) (N.Y.App.Div.) Driver's declaraOm 90(1) (N.Y.Sup.) No estoppel to deny, ac tions as to ownership of automobile held not quiescence in appropriation of invention, where binding on defendants.—Page v. Hirsch, 787. no knowledge thereof.--National Cash Register Co. v. Remington Arms Co., 691.

VIII. DECLARATIONS. ww90(1) (N.Y.Sup.) City employee, not only (A) Nature, Form, and Incidents in Gennot protesting, but indicating he was leaving

eral. permanently, when resignation was read, estopped to deny signature.-Daley y. Walsh,' 750. em 271 (19) (N.Y.Sur.) Legatee's letters be.

fore knowledge of legacy held not inadmissible, EVIDENCE,

as self-serving.--In re Fricke's Will, 906.

C271 (22) (N.Y.App.Div.) Written stateSee Criminal Law, 369-370; Discovery. ment showing range of market prices as comFor evidence as to particular facts or issues pared with contract prices held improperly sub

or in particular actions or proceedings, see mitted to jury.-Becker V. Arnstaedt & Co., also the various specific topics.

627.

ment.

Evidence

202 NEW YORK SUPPLEMENT IX. HEARSAY.

EXECUTORS AND ADMINISTRATORS. Om 320 (N.Y.Sup.) Testimony as to contents See Descent and Distribution; Wills. of cases based on tags thereon held hearsay.-Miller y. Insurance Co. of North America, 295.

II. APPOINTMENT, QUALIFICATION, AND

TENURE.
X. DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE,

Om 10 (N.Y.Sur.) Administration held original,

and not ancillary, and within court's jurisdic(C) Private Writings and Publications. tion.--In re Bliss' Estate, 185. ww352(3) (N.Y.Sup.) Recitals in minutes of Ame 20 (7) (N.Y.Sur.) Second marriage held directors' meeting not binding on stockholder. valid, where first wife failed to show contrary.

-In re Hafner's Estate, 638. -Gallagher v. Perot, 441. ww359(2) (N.Y.App.Div.) Motion picture of

AND performance by vaudeville dancer before injury 111. ASSETS, APPRAISAL,

INVEN

TORY. held incompetent evidence.-Gibson v. Gunn, 19.

Co46 (N.Y.Sur.) May collect insurance pol

icy.-In re Mullin's Estate, 758. XI. PAROL OR EXTRINSIC EVIDENCE AF-59 (N.Y.Sur.) Nominal shares of stock isFECTING WRITINGS.

sued to others held to belong to owner of rest (A) Contradicting, Varying, or Adding to

of stock. In re Baechler's Will, 485. Terms of Written Instrument.

Evidence held to warrant finding that mortCom 384 (N.Y.Sup.) Parol evidence rule one of page belonged to estate under unrecorded as

signment.-Id. substantive law.-Guinzburg v. Blustein, 333, Evidence held not to prove testator owned Rationale of parol evidence rule stated.-10. bond and mortgage found in his safe.-Id.

2397 (4) (N.Y.Sup.) Parol evidence rule applicable to subscription signed by only one par. 1v. COLLECTION AND MANAGEMENT OF ty.---Guinzburg v. Blustein, 333.

ESTATE. 420(3) (N.Y.Sup.) Oral condition merged in subsequent written subscription.-Guinzburg

(A) In General. v. Blustein, 333.

Om 121 (2) (N.Y.App.Div.) Statute authoriz

ing administrator with the will annexed to ex(C) Separate or Subsequent Oral Agree- ecute discretionary power of sale given to ex

ecutor held rétroactive.-Hollenbach v. Born, Om444(2) (N.Y.App.Div.) Parol evidence con

170. tradicting provision requiring execution in New York not available.-Alhambra Amusement Co. (B) Real Property and Interests Therein. y. Associated First National Pictures, 605.

Om 132 (N.Y.Sur.) Executor may set off 444 (2) (N.Y.Sup.) Oral agreement of con- against rent cost of making improvements.-In dition caunot modify written subscription.-re Baechler's Win, 485. Guinzburg v. Blustein, 333.

Oww 138(1) (N.Y.App.Div.) Direction to sell

property as of date of testator's death held (D) Construction or Application of Lan- fundamental requirement.-In Juilliard's guage of Written Instrument.

Will, 429. Cm.450(8), (N.Y.App.Div.) Contract held ambiguous, so that evidence of practical construc- V. ALLOWANCES TO SURVIVING WIFE, tion was admissible.-Sarachen & Rosenthal

HUSBAND, OR CHILDREN. v. Wilson & Co., 591.

w 181 (N.Y.Sur.) Personal property and pro

ceeds of fire policy held unbequeathed assets, XII. OPINION EVIDENCE.

out of which widow entitled to statutory ex

emptions.--In re Mullin's Estate, 758. (B) Subjects of Expert Testimony. 513(2) (N.Y.App.Div.) Expert testimony VI. ALLOWANCE

PAYMENT OF as to proper manner of repairing ceiling ad

CLAIMS. missible.-Slater v. Barnes, 107.

(A) Liabilities of Estate,

221 (4) (N.Y.Sur.) Evidence held to estabXIV. WEIGHT AND SUFFICIENCY.

lish claim against estate for money collected Cw595 (N.Y.Sup.) Court entitled to draw in- by testator for legatee.-In re Baechler's Will, ferences from established facts.--Gallagher y.

485. Perot. 441.

(C) Disputed Claims. 601 (4) (N.Y.Sup.) "Market value” of stock established by sales so numerous as to fix value. withdraw rejected claim granted.-In re Jahn's

Co 251 (N.Y.Sur.) Application for leave to -Pett v. Spiegel, 650. Private sales of unlisted stock held not con

Ex'rs, 505. clusive evidence of value.-Id. Market value of unlisted stock held not shown

XI. ACCOUNTING AND SETTLEMENT, by few private sales of stock.-Id.

(B) Proceedings for Accounting. Evidence held sufficient to establish "good 472 (N.Y.Sur.) No trial of issues on comwill" value of stock.--Id.

pulsory accounting proceeding.-In re Hanna's Evidence in respect to value of stock held to Will, 42. show theatrical business of realty corporation not extrahazardous.-Id.

(D) Compensation.

2498 (N.Y.Sur.) Value of specific legacies EXCHANGE OF PROPERTY.

must be excluded in ascertaining whether gross

value of estate exceeds $100,000 in determinm4 (N.Y.Sup.) Time is of essence of con- ing executor's compensation.-In re Story's Estract to exchange.- Wilson v. Brauer, 771. tate, 184.

re

AND

INDEX-DIGEST

Garages For cases in Dec.Dig. & Am.Dig. Key-No.Series & Indexon see samo topic and KEY-NUMBER XII. FOREIGN AND ANCILLARY ADMIN

IX. OPERATION AND EFFECT OF ISTRATION.

STATUTE. 518(1) (N.Y.Sur.) Administration held or-w128 (N. Y. Sup.) Indemnitor not liable, iginal, and not ancillary.-In re Bliss' Estate, where assignment of lease to principal debtor 185.

was invalid.-Klampert v. Hirsch, 266. Em523 (N.Y.Sur.) Transmissal of nonresident Em 129(2) (N.Y.App.Div.) Part performance decedent's assets to domiciliary state should be not sufficient to take contract out of statute.-denied except in the interest of creditors or Alhambra Amusement Co. v. Associated First beneficiaries.-In re Bliss' Estate, 185.

National Pictures, 605, Transmissal of assets to domiciliary state, en 138(4) (N.Y.sup.) Defendant liable at conto aid it in collecting inheritance taxes, denied tract price for services under contract within -Id.

statutè.-Jacobsen v. Rice Import Co., 233. Om 524 (1) (N.Y.Sup.) Foreign trust company may sue in this state as foreign executor.--St. X. PLEADING, EVIDENCE, TRIAL, AND Louis Union Trust Co. v. Hoffstaedter, 71.

REVIEW,

160 (N.Y.App.Div.) Refusal to charge oral EXEMPTIONS.

contract not terminating within year void held

reversible error.-Goldberg v. Markel, 817. See Taxation, 204-251.

FRAUDULENT CONVEYANCES.
FACTORS.

1. TRANSFERS AND TRANSACTIONS See Brokers.

INVALID.

(C) Property and Rights Transferred. FORCIBLE ENTRY AND DETAINER.

mw44 (N.Y.) Creditors held not to have right 1. CIVIL LIABILITY.

to that part of proceeds transferred to wife of Emi (N.Y.App.Div.) Remedies of one unlaw. insolvent, but belonging to another.-Frank v. fully dispossessed stated.-Schick v. Wolf, 601. Von Bayer, 236 N. Y. 473, 141 N. E. 920. Ont (N.Y.App.Div.) Entry under contract to

(E) Consideration. convey while devisees were absent held forcible entry; "forcible entry and detainer."--Schick Om 86. (N.Y.) Antecedent indebtedness is "valv. Wolf, 601.

ue" within statute.--Frank v. Von Bayer, 236 C 5 (N.Y.App.Div.) Person in lawful posses. N. Y. 473, 141 N. E. 9:20. sion not required to eject persons entering by

(H) Preferences to Creditors. force.-Schick v. Wolf, 601.

ww121 (N.Y.) Judgment debtor did not lose FORESTS.

right to prefer creditors because he adopted

wife's name for his bank account.--Frank v. See Woods and Forests.

Von Bayer, 236 N. Y. 473, 141 N. E. 920.

II. RIGHTS AND LIABILITIES OF PARFRAUD.

TIES AND PURCHASERS. See Frauds, Statute of; Fraudulent Convey

(A) Original Parties.

183(2) (N.Y.) Payments essential to pres II. ACTIONS.

ervation of property allowable to grantee.(A) Rights of Action and Defenses.

Frank v. Von Bayer, 236 N. Y. 473, 141 N. E.

920. 31 (N.Y.App.Div.) Remedies of defrauded Payments by transferee of expenses incurred purchaser.-Trowbridge v. Oebmsen, 833. in preserving creditors' fund 'held allowable,

though she participated in fraud.-Id. (C) Evidence.

Om 184(1) (N.Y.) Wife accepting assignment

in fraud of creditors could not offset loans to 250 (N.Y.Sup.) Must be proved.--154 West husband.-Frank v. Von Bayer, 236 N. Y. 473, Fourteenth Street Co. v. D. A. Schulte, Inc., 141 N. E. 920. 737. FRAUDS, STATUTE OF.

III. REMEDIES OF CREDITORS AND PUR

CHASERS.
V. AGREEMENTS NOT TO BE PERFORMED

(G) Evidence.
WITHIN ONE YEAR OR PUR-
ING LIFETIME.

Em 277(3) (N.Y.) When burden on defendant 44(1) (N.Y.App.Div.) Agreement to set

to show purchase for value.-Frank v. Von aside money for two-year course of study not Bayer, 236 N. Y. 473, 141 N. E. 920. within statute.-Robinson v. Hayes' Estate, 732. Em 299 (13), (N.Y.App.Div.) Evidence held not 45(1) (N.Y.Sup.) Contract for year from

to show bulk sale of goods and fixtures in grostated date within statute.-Jacobsen v. Rice cery store.-W. H. Dunne Co. v. Du Mond, Import Co., 233.

024.

301 (2) (N.Y.) Notice of grantor's fraud

ulent intent and grantee's participation inferVIII. REQUISITES AND SUFFICIENCY OF

able from circumstantial evidence.-Frank v. WRITING.

Von Bayer, 236 N. Y. 473, 141 N. E. 920. om | 15(3) (N.Y.App.Div.) Contract not to be performed within one year held not enforceable,

(I) Trial. not being subscribed by party to be charged: w308(6) (N.Y.) Significance of circumstancAlhambra Amusement Co. v. Associated First National Pictures; 605.

es tending to show knowledge of fraudulert inOm 118(5) (N.Y.CityCt.) Buyers' letters re

tent held for jury.--Frank v. Von Bayer, 236 questing postponement of delivery and describ- N. Y, 473, 141 N. E. 920. ing goods purchased held sufficient compliance with statute.-Tilton & Keeler v. Bachrach,

GARAGES. 506.

See Livery Stable and Garage Keepers.

ances.

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