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arches. This aqueduct was built in order to convey to Nismes the water of the spring of Eure, which rises near Uzes.
GARDEN. s. (garda, Welsh; jardin, French.) 1. A piece of ground enclosed and cultivated, planted with herbs or fruits (Bucon). 2. A place particularly fruitful or delightful (Shakspeare). 3. GARDEN is often used in composition for hortensis, or belonging to a garden as garden-mould, garden-tillage, garden-ware (Mortimer).
GARDEN. The general expanse or plot of ground throughout which the art or science of gardening is called into exertion, whether for the purpose of landscape, flowers or esculents. See the article GARDENING.
To GARDEN. v. n. (from the noun.) To cultivate a garden (Ben Jonson).
GAʼRDENER.`s. He that attends or culti'vates gardens.
GARDENIA, in botany, a genus of the class pentandria, order monogynia. Corol twisted, berry inferior, two-celled, many-seeded; style elevated; two-lobed; segments of the calyx vertical. Nineteen species; chiefly East Indian plants, some spinous, others unarmed. From the bark of some species exudes a gum like gum elemi: the fruit of one species, G. dumetorum, thrown into the water intoxicates fishes.
GARDENING, the art or science of laying out a plot of ground for the purpose of landscape, esculents, or flowers.
GARDENING (Landscape), is justly entitled to be considered in the first place, as demanding very considerably more genius than either of the other divisions. It is now denominated over Europe, English or picturesque gardening; the former epithet being bestowed in consequence of the modern method of laying out pleasure-grounds having originated in our own country; and the latter in consequence of the principle upon which this method is founded, namely that of copying the style and character of the best painters of landscape, so as to transfer to nature and swell with actual life the well selected beauties which the taste of a correct artist introduces into a picture. General roughness of surface is the grand object in both; for it is hence chiefly that force and impression are derived. The painter indeed carries this principle even into his fore-ground, for he has no other means of exciting the idea of life and motion: but here the gardener has an advantage over the painter, for while the former smooths and polishes the lawn, by introducing into it his flocks and his herds he gives by their actual presence and motion that idea of life which the paint er can only attain through the medium of roughness and abrupt contrasts of light and shade. In every other respect, however, they coincide most minutely each equally disdains the line and the plummet, pursues an easy variety through all the Countless shapes it assumes, and gives an actual existence to whatever ideal forms and combinations the artist may have derived from a survey of nature in remote and unconnected features of wildness or grandeur.
It is truly extraordinary that the Chinese, although they are utterly destitute of taste in painting, and have never studied the effect of sudden masses of light and shadow, appear to have evinced
a true picturesque genius in their style of gardening. It is thus lord Macartney describes the emperor's palaces that lie scattered in the route
from Pekin to Gebol. "They are constructed upon nearly the same plan and in the same taste. They front the south, and are usually situated on irregular ground near the basis of gentle hills, which, together with their adjoining valleys, are enclosed by high walls and laid out in parks and pleasure grounds with every possible attention to picturesque beauty. Whenever water can be brought into view it is not neglected; the distant hills are planted, cultivated, or left naked according to their accompaniments in the prospect. The wall is often concealed in a sunk fence, in order to give an idea of greater extent. A Chinese gardener is the painter of nature, and though totally ignorant of perspective as a science, produces the happiest effects by, the management, or rather pencilling of distances, if I may use the expression, by relieving or keeping down the features with those of a dusky foliage, by bringing them of the scene; by contrasting trees of a bright forward, or throwing them back according to their bulk and their figure, and by introducing buildings of different dimensions, either heightened by strong colouring, or softened by simplicity and omission of ornament. There is no beauty of distribution, no feature of amenity, no reach of fancy which embellishes our pleasure grounds in England, which is not to be found here. Had China been accessible to Mr. Brown or Mr. Hamilton, I should have sworn they had drawn their happiest ideas from the rich sources which I have tasted this day; for in the course of a few hours I have enjoyed such vicissitudes of rural delight as I did not conceive could be felt out of England, being at different moments enchanted by scenes perfectly similar to those I had known there, to the magnificence of Stowe, the softer beauties of Woburn, and the fairy-land of Paine's-Hill."
In few words, modern picturesque or landscape gardening imparts to rural scenery what a noble and graceful deportment confers upon the human frame. It is something more than an imitative art; it is an endeavour to bestow on each individual reality, those beauties which judicious imitation would select from many, and combine in one fictitious representation.
Landscape-gardening, however, under the old English school was of a very different character. Its three grand divisions consisted of visto, parterre, and heath or wilderness, and they are well describ ed by sir William Temple in his account of MoorPark: the first was usually composed of a very broad gravel-walk garnished with rows of laurels for want of orange-trees, and was terminated at cach end by a summer-house. The parterre or principal garden to which the visto led was equally devoid of simplicity. "This garden (says his lordship) is best to be square, encompassed with a stately arched-hedge, the arches to be upon carpenters work, over every arch a little belly enough to receive a cage of birds, and over every space, between the arches, some other little figure with broad plates of round coloured glass, gilt for the sun to play upon." The wilderness with which the garden (properly so called) terminated, was, upon the whole, as formal, costly and unnatural. Yet the common sense of our own countrymen seems frequently to have opposed this absurd and graceless fiction even when most prevalent. Lord Bacon does not appear to have yielded to it with his whole heart; and in his description of the
heath as he denominates it, he has almost anticipated the ornamental scenery in general use in the present day. The genius of Milton soared equally above the trammels of fashion and corrupt taste: and what his masterly hand delineated as the garden of Paradise, was the basis upon which the fathers of the new system of English gardening, Kent and Brown, erected the whole of their principles.
The chief object at present pursued, and which ever ought to be pursued, in the construction of picturesque garden-scenery, is to follow nature and not to force her: to catch her own local views and intentions, and to perfect them: but by no means to banish or exchange them for views and intentions she may exhibit in other situations, even though these last may be more magnificent or imposing, in every respect endeavouring to intermix unity with utility, and utility with proportion or harmony of parts to the whole.
In doing this our chief attention is of course to be paid to the fore-ground; which is in general not merely of the highest importance, but the part which is usually most at the disposal of a proprietor. Wherever a man stands, the contiguous objects immediately before him form a fore-ground to the scene he is looking at; and by the foreground how much is the general prospect affected: there are few who delight in landscape who have not perceived that the general harmony of a scene results from a due proportion of its parts; but the greater distances, and especially the back-ground, are seldom within the power of art. How then may art, thus limited in the extent of her dominion, attempt to harmonize the whole scene? The answer is, by a judicious adaptation and disposition of the objects through which the eye beholds it. A path is a series of fore-grounds; and to adapt each part of this to the various combinations of the distant objects which always result from change of place or aspect is the proper business of art: to produce a selection of well adapted greens which shall contrast, or mix their colouring into it: such interruptions as may frequently give the charm of renewal to what we have been for a time deprived of; the absolutely unintervening foliage of shrubbery beneath the eye, and the shade of forest foliage above it; in which latter case the best portions of the distant scene may be selected and beheld from between the stems of the trees, which should be so situated as sometimes by affording lateral limits to reduce the view even to the strictest rules of composition; and, thus, from the varieties of the fore-ground the general, scene is also perpetually varied.
Distant scenery, however, can never be viewed in parts, but only altogether; and hence nothing can be more absurd than attempts which we often meet with, of counteracting the uniform operation of aerial perspective, by spotting the remote hills with little circumscribed clumps of dark foliage, and to intersect by regular fences what is formed to please only by the singleness and majesty of the
and hence can only be seen to full advantage by be ing contemplated alone. The more strictly ORNAMENTAL, or FLOWER-GARDEN, is of this character: which should, consequently, stand apart from the general scene, and be confined to some glade or other sheltered seclusion. The form and disposition of its beds, though very irregular, should not appear broken into too many round and disjointed patches, but only seem to interrupt the green sward walks, which, like the mazy herbage, that in forest scenes. usually surrounds the underwood tufts of thorn,wind carelessly among them, and running from side to side through every part of the scene, frequently meet the gravel path that leads round the whole. Here architectural forms, emblematic of the vir tues or the arts, the busts of the good and the wise, the votive tablets of friendship or gratitude, may often be gracefully and successfully introduced.
Still more remote should be the ESCULENT or KITCHEN-GARDEN. This should generally be situated on one side of the house, and near the stables, that dung may be easily conveyed into it; having under the wall borders which ought to be eight or ten feet broad. Upon those borders exposed to the south many sorts of early plants may be sown; while upon those exposed to the north we may have late crops; taking care, however, not to plant any sort of deep-rooting plants, especially beans and peas, too near the fruit-trees. We should next proceed to divide the ground into sections: the best figures for these is a square or an oblong, if the ground will admit of it; otherwise they may be of that shape which will be most advantageous to the ground: their size should be proportioned to the garden; if they be too small, your ground will be lost in walks, and the beds being enclosed by espaliers of fruit-trees, the plants will draw up slender, for want of a more open exposure. The walks should also be determined on the same scale: these in a small garden should be six feet broad, but in a larger one ten; and on each side of the walk there should be allowed a border three or four feet wide between it and the espalier, in which may be sown some small salads, or other herbs that do not take deep root, or continue long: but the larger divisions should not be sown or planted with the same crop two years together. In one of these divisions, situated nearest to the stables, and best defended from the cold winds, should be the hot-beds for early cucumbers, melons, &c. and to these there should be a passage from the stables, and a gate through which a small cart may enter. The most important points of general culture consist in well digging and manuring the soil, giving a proper distance to each plant, according to their different growths, as also in keeping them clear from weeds; for which last purpose we should always observe to keep our dung-hills clear from them; since if this is not done, their seeds will be constantly brought in, and spread with the dung about the garden.
Those who garden on a large scale ought to be provided with every convenience and facility. A proper spot should be appropriated for a range of hot-beds; and another for hot-houses and greenhouses. In gardens of this magnitude we expect also to meet with such out-buildings, as a toolhouse, and a room for the preservation of bulbs, seeds, and herbs. In the tool-house we expect to meet with gardening implements of every kind. Even in gardening upon a small scale, a choice of implements is equally desirable and profitable: it is the best mode of economizing time and labour,
and almost ensures to us that we shall have our work well done. If water can be introduced and kept clean, with verdant banks around it, we should certainly avail ourselves of such an advantage: the most central situation will always be found the most convenient. It should be fed from a pond rather than from a spring.
Plants are propagated by seeds, suckers, slips, offsets, divisions, cuttings, layers and grafts. Some are propagable by only one or two of these methods, and others by almost all of them. Under the separate articles allotted to the various plants that constitute the province of gardening, we have endeavoured to point out the best mode of management and propagation for each; and to these articles we shall refer the reader, without adding to the bulk of our work by a long and unnecessary recapitulation.
The following tables however will be found highly useful, as comprising the whole scope, and principles and practise of horticulture, in a bird's eye view, and we insert them accordingly :
Table of the number of crops required of each sort of vegetable, in order to have a regular succession through the year; and also of the time of sowing and planting them.
Kitchen-garden plants, seeds, and roots.
Feb. Mar. July
Mar. or Apr.
Mar. or Apr.
Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb.
Mar. or Apr.
Feb. Mar. Apr.
5 Oct. Jan. Feb. Mar. July
Jan. or Feb.
Feb. Mar. Apr. July
3 Mar. Apr. May
Jan. to Aug. and Nov.
Mar. Apr. June
Feb. or Mar.
June or July
Mar. to Sept.
4 Feb. Mar. May, June
3 Feb. Mar. June
Mar. May, June
2 May, June
Oct, or Nov.
2. May, June
Mar, or Apr.
Mar, or Apr.
Mar. or Apr.
Feb. or Mar.
Mar. May, June
Mar. or Apr.
4 Aug. Feb. Mar. May
Mar. or Apr.
Mar. or Sept.
Mar. or Sept.
Mar. or Apr.
June or July
Mar, or Apr.
Feb. June or July
§ 2. Annual flowers,
as soon as the plants touch one another, thin them, and leave them at four or six inches asunder; those you draw out, plant at the same distance. In July transplant them all upon beds, at eight inches asunder; there they must remain till the end of September, when they must be planted upon the borders of the flower-garden, and they will produce their flowers the next summer, after which they will perfect their seeds and die.
7. Poppy (yellow horned)
1. Canterbury bell 2. Colutea (Ethiopian) 8. Rocket 3. French honeysuckles 9. Scabious 4. Globe thistle 5. Honesty, or
To be sown on a moderate hot-bed in March or April, transplanted afterwards before they are too thick, in rich light earth, and covered with mats, 6. Mallow (tree) and in a month or six weeks into pots, or borders of the flower-garden.
1. African marygolds 2. Blue browallia
4. Cape marygolds
3. Chinese asters
9. Marvel of Peru 10. Mignonette 11. Nolana
12. Palma Christi
13. Stock-July flowers
6. Chinese or Ind. pinks 14. Sultan (yellow)
8. French marygolds
As you sow them, fix numbers to them corresponding with these, and you will readily know each sort when they appear.
§ 3. Hardy annual flowers,
To be sown in March or April on the borders of the flower-garden. Hollow the earth out in form of a little bason, about a foot over, and two inches deep; draw a circle near the edge half an inch deep, and drop a few seeds in it; thin them soon after they appear, and leave them at six inches distance, but the large sorts wider. In dry weather they will want frequent watering. Gather the seeds as they ripen, and you may save the expence of buying another season.
§ 4. Biennial flowers,
moon 11. Sweet Williams
§ 5. Perennial-rooted flowers,
Which if sown in the same manner as the biennials, and transplanted into the borders of the flower-garden, will continue for several years.
27. Fumatory 28. Garlic 29. Gentianella 30. Golden locks 31. Golden rod 32. Greek valerian 33. Hellibore 34. Hepatica
To be sown in March or April in beds very thin; 37. Ladies-mantlę
66. Side-saddle flower