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FOIX, a town of France, in the depart ment of Arriege, at the foot of the Pyrenees. Lat. 43. 0 N. Lon. 1. 32 E.
FOKIEN, a province of China in Asia, commodiously situated for navigation and commerce, part of it bordering on the sea, in which they catch large quantities of fish, which they send salted to other parts of the empire. Its shores are very uneven, by reason of the number and variety of its bays; and there are many forts built thereon to guard the coast. The air is hot, but pure and wholesome. The mountains are almost every where disposed into a kind of amphitheatres, by the labour of the inhabitants, with terraces placed one above another. The fields are watered with rivers and springs, which issue out of the mountains, and which the husbandmen conduct in such a manner as to overflow the fields of rice when they please, because it thrives best in watery ground. They make use of pipes of bamboe for this purpose. The chief town is Foutcheou-Fou.
FOLARD (Charles), a French officer, born at Avignon, in 1669. In 1720 he became aid-da-camp to M. de Vendome, who undertook nothing without consulting him. For his great services he was rewarded with a pension, and the cross of St. Louis. He received a wound at the battle of Cassano, by which he was deprived of the use of his left hand. About 1710 he was made prisoner by prince Eugene, and on his being exchanged he was sent to Malta, to assist in its defence against the Turks. He afterwards served under Charles XII. of Sweden, and was present at the siege of Frederick shall, when that prince was killed in 1718. He then returned to France, and in 1719 served as colonel under the duke of Berwick. He died in 1752. He wrote as follows: 1. Commentaries upon Polybius, 6 vols. 4to. 2. A book of new Discoveries in War. 3. A
Treatise on the Defence of Places.
FOLC-LANDS, the name given to copyhold lands, in the time of the Saxons.
FOLCMOTE, or FOLKMOTE, according to Kennet, was the common-council of all the inhabitants of a city, town, or borough; though Spelman will have the folkmote to have been a sort of annual parliament or convention of the bishops, thanes, aldermen, and freemen, on every May-day. Dr. Brady, on the contrary, tells us, that it was an inferior court, held before the king's reeve, or his steward, every month, to do folk right.
FOLD. s. (palo, Saxon.) 1. The ground in which sheep are confined. 2. The place where sheep are housed (Raleigh). 3. The flock of sheep (Dryden). 4. A limit; a boundary (Creech). 5. A double; a complication; one part added to another. (from Filo, Saxon.) (Arbuthnot). 6. From the foregoing signification is derived the use of fold in com position. Fold signifies the same quantity add ed: as, twenty-fold, twenty times repeated (Matthew).
To FOLD. v, a. (from the noun.) 1. To
shut sheep in the fold (Milton). 2. To enclose; to include; to shut (Shakspeare). 3. To doubles to complicate (Collier).
To FOLD. v. n. To close over another of the same kind (Kings).
FOLIA, among botanists, particularly sig nify the leaves of plants; those of flowers being expressed by the word petals.
FOLIACEOUS SPIKE. In botany. A leafy spike. Having leaves intermixed with the flowers. Glandulæ foliaceæ. Leafy glande, or glands situated on the leaves. See GLAND. FOLIAGE. s. (folium, Latin.) Leaves; tufts of leaves (Addison). Representations of tufts or clusters of leaves.
FOLIATE, a name given by some to a curve of the second order, expressed by the equation +y=axy, being one species of defective hyperbolas, with one asymptote, and consisting of two infinite legs crossing each other, forming a sort of leaf. It is the 42d species of Newton's Lines of the third order.
FOLIATE TENDRIL. In botany. A tendril placed on the leaf. Foliate gem. A leaf bud. Containing leaves, not flowers.
FOLIATE CAUL. In botany. A leafy stalk. In opposition to aphyllabus, leafless.
FOLIATING OF LOOKING-GLASSES, the spreading the plates over, after they are polished, with amalgam, in order to reflect the image. It is performed thus: a thin blotting paper is spread on the table, and sprinkled with fine chalk; and then a fine lamina or leaf of tin, called foil, is laid over the paper; upon this mercury is poured which is to be distributed equally over the leaf with a hare's foot, or cotton: over this is laid a clean paper, and over that the glass plate, which is pressed down with the right-hand, and the paper drawn gently out with the left: this being done, the plate is covered with a thicker paper, and loaden with a greater weight, that the superfluous mercury may be driven out, and the tin adhere more closely to the glass. When it is dried, the weight is removed, and the lookingglass is complete. Some add an ounce of marcasite, melted by the fire; and, lest the mercury should evaporate in smoke, pour it into cold water; and, when cooled, squeeze it through a cloth or through leather.
Some add a quarter of an ounce of tin and lead to the marcasite, that the glass may dry the sooner.
FOLIATING OF GLOBE LOOKINGGLASSES, is done as follows: Take five ounces of quicksilver, and one ounce of bismuth; of lead and tin half an ounce each: first put the lead and tin into fusion, then put in the bismuth, and when you perceive that in fusion too, let it stand till it is almost cold, and pour the quicksilver into it; after this, take the glass globe, which must be very clean, and the inside free from dust; make a paper funnel, which put into the hole of the globe, as near to the glass as you can, so that the amalgam, when you pour it in, may not splash, and cause
the glass to be full of spots; pour it in gently, and move it about, so that the amalgam may touch every where. If you find the amalgain begin to get curdly and fixed, then hold it over a gentle fire, and it will easily flow again. And if you find the amalgam too thin, add a little more lead, tin, and bismuth to it. The finer and clearer your globe is, the better will the looking-glass be."
To FoʻLIATE. v. a. (foliatus, Latin.) To beat into laminæ or leaves (Newton).
FOLIATION. s. (foliatio, Latin.) The act of beating into thin leaves. 2. Folia tion is one of the parts of a flower, being the collection of those fugacious coloured leaves called petals, which constitute the compass of the flower (Quincy).
FO'LIATURE. s. (from folium, Latin.) The state of being hammered into leaves. FOLIGNI, an episcopal and trading town of Italy, in the duchy of Umbria. It is noted for its sweetmeats and paper-mills. Lat. 42. 48 N. Lon. 12. 24 E.
FO'LIO. s. (in folio, Latin.) A large book of which the pages are formed by a sheet of paper once doubled.
FOLIO, in merchants accounts, a page, or sometimes two; being so much of the ledger as contains both the debtor and creditor side of
FOLIOMORT. a. (folium mortuum, Lat.) A dark yellow; the colour of a leaf faded; vulgarly called philomot (Woodward).
FOLIS, or FOLLIS, anciently signified a little bag or purse; whence it came to be used for a sum of money, and very different sums were called by that name: thus, the scholiast on the Basilics mentions a follis of copper which was worth but the twenty-fourth part of the miliarensis; the glossa nomicæ, quoted by Gronovius and others, out of a hundred and twenty-five miliarenses, and another of two hundred and fifty denarii, which was the ancient sestertium; and three different sums of eight, four, and two pounds of gold, were each called follis.
FOLIUM ORIENTALE, in medicine. See SENNA.
FOLK. s. (Folc, Saxon.) 1. People, in familiar language (Sidney). 2. Nations; mankind (Psalms). 3. Any kind of people as discriminated from others (Shakspeare).
FOLKES (Martin), an English antiquary, mathematician, and philosopher, was born at Westminster about 1690; and was greatly distinguished as a member of the Royal Society in London, and of the Academy of Sciences at Paris. He was admitted into the former at 24 years of and made one of their council two years after; named by sir Isaac Newton himself as vice-president; and, after sir Hans Sloane, became president. There are numerous Memoirs of his in the Philosophical Transactions. Coins, ancient and modern, were a great object with him; and his last production vas a book upon the English Silver Coin, from the conquest to his own times. He died at
London in 1754. Dr. Birch had drawn up materials for a life of Mr. Folkes, which are preserved at large in the Anecdotes of Bowyer, p. 562 et seq.
FOLKSTONE, a town in Kent, with a market on Thursdays. It is a member of the port of Dover, governed by a mayor, and seated on the English Channel. Lat. 51. 5 N. Lon. 1. 14 E.
FOLLIA, a species of musical composition consisting of variations on a given air.
FOLLICLE. (from follis, a bag.) In botany. A univalvular pericarp, opening on one side longitudinally, and having the seeds loose in it. Pericarpium univalve latere altero longitudinaliter dehiscens, nec suturæ semina attigens. Exemplified in asclepias, apocynum, stapelia. See CONCEPTACLE.
In Philos. Botan. follicles (folliculi) are vessels distended with air: (air bags, with,} as at the root in utricularia, and on the leaves in aldrovanda.
FOLLICLE, in anatomy, a cell or little bag: it is generally applied to the cells of the cellular membrane, or of the simplest order of glands which (as the mucous) contain a single cavity and excreting duct.
FOLLICULOSE GLAND. One of the most simple species of gland, consisting merely of a hollow vascular membrane or follicle and an excretory duct; such are the muciparous glands, the sebaceous, &c.
To FOLLOW. v. a. (rolzian, Saxon.) To go after; not before, or side by side. To pursue as an enemy; to chase (Dryden). 3. To accompany; not to forsake (Milton). 4. To attend, as a dependant (Pope). 5. Ta go after, as a teacher (Dryden). 6. To succeed in order of time (Pope). 7. To be consequential in argument (Millon). 8. To imitate; to copy, as a pupil (Hooker). 9. To obey; to observe, as a guide (Tillotson). 10. To pursue as an object of desire (Hebrews). 11. To confirm by new endeavours (Spenser). 12. To attend to; to be busied with (Ecclus).
To FOLLOW. v. n. 1. To come after another (Ben Jonson). 2. To attend servilely (Shakspeare). 3. To be posterior in time. 4. To be consequential, as effect to cause. 5. To be consequential, as inference to premises (Temple). 6. To continue endeavours (IIosea).
FOLLOWER. s. (from follow.) 1. One who comes after another; not before him, or side by side (Shakspeare). 2. One who observes a leader (South). 3. An attendant, or dependant (Pope). 4. An associate; a companion (Shakspeare). 5. One under the command of another (Dryden). 7. A scholar; an imitator; a copier (Sprat).
FO'LLY. s. (folie, French.) 1. Want of understanding; weakness of intellect (Hawksworth). 2. Criminal weakness; depravity of mind (Shakspeare). 3. Act of negligence or passion unbecoming gravity or deep wisdom (Pope).
FOMAHAUT, or FOMALHAUT, in astro
nomy, a star of the first magnitude, marked, in Piscis Australis.
To FOMENT. v. a. (fomentor, Latin.) 1. To cherish with heat (Millon). 2. To bathe with warm lotions (Arbuthnot). 3. To encourage; to cherish (Wotton).
FOMENTATION. (fomentatio.) A sort of partial bathing, by applying hot flannels to any part dipped in medicated decoctions, whereby steams are communicated to the diseased parts, their vessels are relaxed, and their morbid action sometimes removed.
FOMENTER. s. (from foment.) An encourager; a supporter.
FOMES, the plural of which is fomites, (from fores, to cherish.) The contagious or other miasm that produces or feeds and maturates a disease.
FON. s. A fool ; an ideot: obsolete (Spen.). FOND. a. 1. Foolish; silly; indiscreet; imprudent; injudicious (Ascham). 2. TriAling; valued by folly (Shakspeare). 3. Foolishly tender; injudiciously indulgent (Addison). 4. Pleased in too great a degree; foolishly delighted (Prior).
To FOND. TO FO'NDLE. v. a. To treat with great indulgence; to caress; to cocker (Dryden).
To FOND. v. n. To be fond of; to be in love with; to dote on (Shakspeare).
FŐNDLER. s. (from fond.) One who
FONDLING. s. (from fondle.) A person or thing much fondled or caressed; something regarded with great affection (Swift).
FONDLY, ad. (from fond.) 1. Foolishly; weakly; imprudently (Pope). 2. With extreme tenderness (Sarage).
French poet, was born at Chateau-Thierry in 1621, and educated among the fathers of the oratory. He did not shew any marks of a poetical genius till he was past twenty. Soine of his pieces introduced him to the notice of the duchess of Bouillon, whom he followed to Paris, where he obtained a pension. Madame de la Sabbliere gave him apartments in her house, and here he resided twenty years in habits of intimacy with the greatest wits of the age. He died in 1695. Besides his Tales, he also wrote Fables, in both of which he possesses all the merit of originality. Four volumes of his miscellaneous works were printed at Paris, in 1744.
Fontaine's character is remarkable for a simplicity, candour, and probity seldom to be met with. He was of an obliging disposition; cultivating a real friendship with his brother poets and authors; and, what is very rare, beloved and esteemed by them all. His conversation was neither gay nor brilliant, especially when he was not among his intimate friends. One day being invited to dinner at a farmer general's, he ate a great deal, but did not speak. Rising up from table very early, under pretext of going to the academy, one of the company represented to him that it was not yet a proper time: "Well," says he, "if it is not I will stay a little longer." He had one son by his wife in the year 1660. At the age of 14 he put him into the hands of M. de Harley, the first president, recommending to him his education and fortune. It is said, that having been a long time without seeing him, he hap;pened to meet him one day visiting, without recollecting him again, and mentioned to the company that he thought that young man had a good deal of wit and understanding. When they told him it was his own son, he answered in the most tranquil manner, "Ha! truly I am glad on't."
FONDNESS. s. (froni fond.) 1. Foolishness; weakness; want of sense; want of judgment (Spenser). 2. Foolish tenderness Addison). 3. Tender passion (Swift). 4. Unreasonable liking (Hammond).
FONE. s. Plural of foe: obsolete (Spenser). FONG-TSIANG-FOU, a city of China, in the province of Chen-si. Its district contains eight cities of the second and third class. It is 495 miles S.W. of Pekin.
FONG-YANG, a city of China, in the province of Kiang-Nan. It is situated on a mountain, which hangs over the yellow river, and incloses with its walls several fertile little hills. Its jurisdiction is very extensive, for it comprehends 18 cities; 5 of which are of the second, and 13 of the third class.
FONS PULSATILIS. See FONTANEL
FONT, or BAPTISMAL FONT, a stone or marble vessel, at the lower end of a parish church, serving to hold water to be used in administering the sacrament of baptism.
FONT, in printing. See FOUNT. FONTAINBLEAU, a town of France, in the department of Seine and Maine, remarkable for its fine palace; a hunting seat of the late kings of France. Lat 48. 25 N. Lon. 2.47 E.
FONTAINE (John de la), the celebrated
FONTAINES (Peter Francis Guyot des), a French critic, born at Rouen in 1685. At fifteen he joined himself to the jesuits, but quitted them when he was thirty. In 1724 he succeeded the abbé Bignon in the management of the Journal des Savans. In 1731 he began a new work, called Nouveliste du Parnasse, ou Reflexions sur les Ouvrages nouveaux, which did not continue long. He started several other periodical publications, and died in 1745. He also translated several esteemed English books, and some of the Latin classics.
FONTANA (Domenico), an eminent architect and mechanic, born at Milan in 1543. He raised the Roman obelisk from the dust in the front of St. Peter's, a work deemed impracticable, and which many others had attempted in vain. He removed to Naples in 1592, and died there in 1607.
FONTANALIA, or FONTINALIA, in antiquity, a religious feast held among the Romans, in October, in honour of the deities who presided over fountains.
FONTANEL. s. (fontanelle, Fr.) An issue; a discharge opened in the body (Wiseman).
FONTA'NGE. s. A knot of ribands on the top of the headdress: out of use (Addison).
"FONTANELLA, (fontanella, of fons, a fountain.) Fons pulsatilis. In anatomy. The parietal bones and the frontal bones do not coalesce until the third year, so that before this period there is an obvious interstice, commonly called mould, and scientifically the fontanel, or fons pulsatilis. There is also a smaller space, occasionally, between the occipital and parietal bones, termed the posterior fontanel. These spaces between the bones are filled up by the dura mater and the external integuments, so that, during birth, the size of the head may be lessened; for at that time the bones of the head, upon the superior part, are not only pressed nearer to, but frequently wrap over one another, in order to diminish the size during the passage of the head through the pel vis.
FONTANE'SIA, in botany, a genus of the class diandria, order monogynia. One species: a Syrian shrub with opposite branches; opposite, entire, lanceolate leaves, flowers yellowish in axillary corymbs.
FONTARÁBIA, a sea-port of Spain, in Biscay, well fortified both by nature and art. It has a good harbour, though dry at low water, and is surrounded on the land side by the Pyrenean mountains. Lat. 43. 23 N. Lon.
FONTENAI-LE-COMTE, a town of France, in the department of Vendee. It has a woollen manufacture, and a famous fair for cattle. Lat. 46. 30 N. Lon. 0. 55 W. FONTENELLE (Bernard de), a celebrated French author, was born in 1657, and died in 1756, when he was near 100 years old. He discharged the trust of perpetual secretary to the Academy of Sciences above 40 years with universal applause; and his History of the Academy of Sciences throws a great light upon their memoirs, which are very obscure. The eloges which he pronounced on the deceased members of the academy have this peculiar merit, that they excite a respect for the sciences as well as for the author. In his poetical performances, and the Dialogues of the Dead, the spirit of Voiture was discernible, though more extended and more philosophical. His Plurality of Worlds is a work singular in its kind the design of which was to present that part of philosophy to view in a gay and pleasing dress. In his more advanced years, he published comedies, which, though they shewed the clegance of Fontenelle, were little fitted for the stage; and An Apology for Des Cartes's Vortices. M. de Voltaire, who declares him to have been the most universal genius the age of Louis XIV. produced, says, "We must excuse his comedies, on account of his great age; and his Cartesian opinions, as they were those of his youth, when they were universally received all over Europe."
FONTENOY, a town of Hainault, in the Austrian Netherlands, remarkable for a battle fought between the Allies and the French, in
May 1745, in which the latter were victorious. It is four miles S. W. of Tournay. Lat. 5032 N. Lon. 3. 26 E.
FONTEVRAULT, a town of France, in the department of Maine and Loire. Here was a famous abbey, founded by Robert d'Arbrissel in 1100. Lat. 47.9 N. Lon. 0.0.
FONTI'CUELUS (fonticulus, i, m. dim. of fons, an issue.) An artificial ulcer formed in any part, and kept discharging by introducing daily a pea, covered with any digestive ointment.
FONTINALIS. Water-moss. In botany, a genus of the class cryptogamia, order musci. Capsule oblong, latent, invested with an imbricate scaly sheath; fringe double; outer of sixteen broadish teeth; inner a conic reticulated membrane. Four species: three of them indigenous to our own country, and found on the brinks of rivulets and the trunks of trees. The most remarkable is f. antipyretica with purple stalks: so called from the difficulty with which it catches fire; or rather from the prac tice of the Scandinavians of lining the inside of their chimney places with this moss to defend them against taking fire.
FOOD. s. (Fæðan, Saxon.) 1. Victuals; provision for the mouth (Shakspeare). 2. Any thing that nourishes (Shakspeare).
FOOD, the substances eaten by animals, under the impulse of natural instinct, to sustain the body. Providence has ordained that different beings should be supported by such productions of the earth as are especially adapted to their orga nization. Various directions upon this subject, as it relates to man, will be found in the article DIET. The kinds of food usually appropriated to the use of different domestic animals are too well known to need a description. Some observations on the different qualities of fodder and grain that are used for horses may be important, and may point out the effects they produce on the body, in consequence of an improper use of them.
Hay is the principal fodder used for horses in Britain. Although there are a great number of herbs and grasses mixed with it, yet they are ali included under the general denomination of hay. The common distinction that is made is that of natural or meadow-hay, and the sown or rye-grass hay. The natural hay is generally used in the southern parts of Britain. From the method observed in the making of it, and allowing it to heat common smell, something like that of malt dried to a certain degree in the rick, it acquires an unon the kiln. This practice likewise gives it a sweetishness to the taste, and it is then called mow-burnt hay. Horses eat greedily of it; and, as it is of a soft quality, they swallow large mouthfuls without chewing it properly. This, produeing thirst, causes them to drink a great deal of water, which considerably increases the bulk of the stomach. In this state, the lungs, the diaphragm, and other viscera surrounding it, are compressed to an uncommon degree: and if the horse is then put to any exercise that requires activity or ex winded; for it is always observed, that the latter pedition, he is in danger of becoming brokendisease may be trace! to some instance of sharp exercise performed when the stomach is full. There is a greater number of broken-winded horses in countries where this kind of hay is used
than in those parts where rye-grass is the common A fodder. Gibson, however, in his treatise on the food of horses, condemns the use of rye-grass. He says, that in England, it is seldom given but in the months of August and September, except to horned cattle. Before Michaelmas it is tolerably hard and dry, especially in dry seasons; and many feed their working horses with it, mixed with dry clover: but afterwards it imbibes so much moisture that it becomes unwholesome, and few horses that have been used to good hay will care for it." Here, however, Mr. Clarke differs from Mr. Gibson; for be says, that, where rye-grass mixed with a little clover is much used, it is found to be a clean wholesome fodder for horses; and those that į are constantly fed upon it are not so subject to be broken-winded as those that are fed with natural hay that is mow-burnt, whilst, at the same time, they perform the exercises required of them with strength and vigour. Nor does he, in another respect, agree with Gibson, who, in the same page, says, that "soft hay, of all others, imbibes moisture the easiest, and retains the effects of it the longest, which generally turns it rotten and unwholesome, and so affords but a crude faint nourishment; and those horses that are forced to feed upon it, for want of better, are generally weak and faint, and in time grow diseased."
"It is well known," says Mr. Clark," that natural bay is much softer than rye-grass hay; of course, it is more liable to attract moisture, and to acquire all the bad qualities above mentioned: whereas rye-grass hay, being harder and firmer in its texture, will not so readily become moist; consequently, according to the author's reasoning, the latter should be the wholesomest fodder for horses. Another recommendation in its favour is, that, being harder and firmer than natural hay, it obliges a horse to chew it more completely be fore be can swallow it. This makes it easier of digestion, less bulky in the stomach, and, of course, not so liable to produce the bad effects which have been mentioned.
"But, whatever be the quality of hay, much depends upon its being well got in; for the best grass that ever was cut for this purpose may be spoiled by wet weather, or by bad management; and, where there is a choice, the best should always be given to horses that are employed in active exercises.
"Clover-hay," says Mr. Clark,“ should only be given to cattle and draught-horses, whose labour is slow and equal. It cannot be recommended as a proper fodder for horses that stand much at rest, nor to those who are used in violent exercise of any kind, as they are apt to over-feed upon it.
Wheat-straw is generally used as litter. It is seldom given as fodder, unless to draught horses, or when it is chopped or cut small, and mixed with oats, &c. in order to oblige horses to break their food thoroughly before they can swallow it. Yet the highest fed horses, when it is fresh laid before them, are not only fond of picking the unthreshed heads of wheat that remain on the straw, but are likewise fond of the straw itself, by way of a change.
"Barley and oat straw are the common fodder of cattle and farm-horses. They are seldom given to the better kind of horses, unless it be out of economy, or by way of amusing them when they stand idle in the stable, and to prevent them from being restless for want of other food.
- Pease and bean straw are a dangerous fodder
to horses that are not brought up or gradually accustomed to it, as it is hard of digestion. It is likewise apt to produce flatulencies, attended with griping pains and obstructions in the bowels. It is commonly given to work-horses and horned cattle.
"New hay of any kind should not be given to horses, more especially to those employed in active exercises, as they feed upon it too greedily, and swallow it without chewing it properly. It overloads the stomach, and, at the same time, produces a crude watery chyle, which disposes the horse to sweat much, which weakens greatly; therefore it should never be given till the superfluous moisture it contains is dried up, which will require some months after it is got in. But to such horses as are employed in very active exer cises, it should at least be eight or ten months old.
"Grass is the most natural food for horses; but, whether it proceeds from the coldness of the soil or climate in Britain, it does not produce such rich nourishment as to enable them to perform any active exercises with the same strength and vigour as in warmer climates, without the addition of grain, as oats, &c. When horses are allowed to run abroad, and have a sufficiency of oats, and, at the same time, are provided with proper shades to protect them from the inclemency of the weather, we find, from experience, that they thrive and perform any active labour as well as those horses that are kept in stables on dry food only; together with this advantage, that they are not so subject to diseases, nor to lameness, but what, in the latter case, may proceed from accidents among themselves.
"Grass is not only food, but it is likewise physic to horses-I mean the early or spring grass. When the viscera are sound, it cures most of the diseases they are subject to with more certainty and expedition than can be done by medicine. After a long course of dry feeding and hard labour, it restores the constitution to the highest health and strength. It cleanses the bowels, and carries off those chalky concretions that are apt to be produced in the stomachs of such horses as have been long used to dry hard feeding. It likewise carries off the different species of worms with which they are infested. It renovates, as it were, the whole mass of fluids in the body. It promotes all the secretions, and removes glandular obstructions; and, in many cases, it carries off stiffness in the joints, and other lameness; and, upon the whole, it restores the body to the highest state of perfection of which it is capable."
The author, however, observes, that the usual advantages that arise to horses from their feeding on spring grass are in a great measure lost to them, if they are allowed to continue through the summer, when the grass becomes too rank; for they then grow fat and corpulent, and by no means fit for active exercises of any kind, which cannot be attempted without danger. It is customary, indeed, when horses are too fat, and full of blood, to reduce them by bleeding, purging, &c.; but these, when too frequently repeated, impair their constitutions, and bring on a premature old age.
If, instead of undergoing this kind of medical discipline, those horses that are intended for hunting, &c. were taken up from grass as soon as it begins to shoot, and kept in constant daily exercise, although fed with a very moderate allow ance of oats at the time, as the hunting season approaches, both their feeding and exercise may