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ing with 11 in. flooring, at $24 per M., allowing one-eighth for matching?

12. A field 160 yds. long by 120 yds. wide is to be enclosed with a fence 4 boards high, each board 6 in. wide. Find the cost of the boards at $18 per M.

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MEASURES OF CAPACITY.

Liquid Measure. Liquid Measure is used in measuring all kinds of liquids.

Table.
4 Gills (gi)

1 Pint (pt.).
2 Pints 1 Quart (qt.).
4 Quarts 1 Gallon (gal.).

gal. qt. pt. gi.
1 4 8 32.

Scale : 4, 2, 4. 1. The capacity of cisterns, reservoirs, etc., is commonly expressed in gallons or in barrels.

2. The standard liquid gallon of the United States contains 231 cubic inches.

3. The barrel (bbl.), as a measure of capacity, is estimated at 31] gallons; the hogshead (hhd.) at 63 gallons; neither, as a commercial vessel, holds a fixed quantity.

4. The beer gallon, of 282 cubic inches, is no longer in use.

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EXERCISES. 1. Reduce the following:

1. 7 pt. to gills.
2. 8 qt. to gills.
3. 37 gal. to pints.
4. 795 pt. to gallons.
5. 4957 gi. to gallons.
6. 4 gal. 5 qt. 1 pt. 4 gi. to gills.
7. 5 bbl. 7 gal. to gills.
8. 9560 gi. to barrels.

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9. Å gal, to the fraction of a barrel.

10. 1 bbl. į gal. 1 pt. to pints. 2. How many cu. in. in 8 gal.? 3. How many gal, in 4956 cu. in.?

PROBLEMS.

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1. A cistern is 16 ft. long, 12 ft. wide, and 9 ft. deep. How many bbl. of water does it hold?

2. How many hhd. will a cistern contain that is 12 ft. long, 7 ft. wide, and 2 ft. 10 in. deep ?

3. Find the cu. in. in the space that will hold 63 bbl.

4. If a vat contains 54,762 cu. in., how many bbl. of water will it hold?

5. If a cu. ft. of water weighs 1000 ounces, what is the weight of 10 hhd. of water?

6. How many cu. ft. in a cistern that contains 100 hhd. ?

7. A cistern 8 ft. long by 6 ft. wide contains 5 ft. of water. How many gal. of water are therein ?

8. How deep must a cistern be to contain 40 hhd. if it is 14 ft. long by 6 ft. wide ?

Apothecaries' Liquid Measure. Apothecaries' Liquid Measure is used for measuring Jiquids required by medical prescriptions.

Table. 60 Drops (gtt ) or minims (m) 1 Fluid drachm (f 3). 8 Fluid drachms

1 Fluid ounce (fZ). 16 Fluid Ounces

- 1 Pint (0.). 8 Pints

1 Gallon (Cong.). Gtt. is from the Latin gutta, a drop. Minim is from the Latin minimus, the least. 0. is from the Latin octarius, one-eighth. Cong. is from the Latin congius, gallon,

EXERCISES.
Reduce :

1. 12 pints to fluid drachms.
2. 48 fluid ounces to pints.
3. 12 gal. 3 pt. to fluid ounces.
4. 51 pt. to gallons.
5. 34 Cong. 3 0.1 f33 f 3 to m.
6. 1860 m to gallons.
7. 16 Cong. 6 0. 7 f 3 to f 3.
8. 27,408 f 3 to Cong.
9. 4 Cong. 2 O. 15 f 3 7 f 3 to m.
10. 8,472,347 m to Cong., etc.

Dry Measure. Dry Measure is used in measuring dry substances, such as grain, roots, fruit, etc.

Table. 2 Pints (pt.)

1 quart (qt.). 8 Quarts

1 Peck (pk.).
4 Pecks

1 Bushel (bu.).
bu. pk. qt. pt.
1=4 32 64.

Scale : 2, 8, 4. A standard bushel contains 2150.42 cubic inches. 7 cubic feet of corn in the ear equals 3 bushels of shelled corn.

Liquid and Dry Measures Compared. 1. Since 1 liquid gallon 231 cu. in.,

1 liquid quart how many cu. in. ?
1 liquid pint how many cu. in. ?

1 liquid gill how many cu. in. ?
2. Since 256 dry gills 1 bu. 2150.42 cu. in.,
1 dry gill

how many cu. in. ? 1 dry pint

how many cu. in. ? 1 dry quart

how many cu. in. ? 1 dry gallon

how many cu. in. ?

1 gal. 1 qt. 1 pt. 1 gi. 3. Liquid Measure: 231, 573, 283, 732 cu. in. 4. Dry Measure: 2684, 67}, 33}, 8} cu. in.

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EXERCISES. Reduce:

1. 12 pt. to quarts. 6. 25 bu. 3 pk. 7 qt. to quarts. 2. 5 bu. to pecks. 7. 38 bu. 5 qt. 1 pt. to pints. 3. 32 qt. to bushels.

8. 42 pt. to quarts. 4. 16 qt. 1 pt. to pints. 9. 402 pt. to pecks. 5. 899 qt. to bushels. 10. 19 pk. 7 qt. 1 pt. to pints.

PROBLEMS.

1. How many cu. in. in 8 bu.? 21 bu.?
2. How many bu. in 27,692 cu. in. ?

3. How many cu. in. in a bin 9 ft. long, 8 ft. wide, and 6 ft. high?

4. How many bu, will a bin hold that is 10 ft. long, 7 ft. wide, and 7 ft. high ?

5. What must be the depth of a bin to contain 250 bu. of grain, its length being 12 ft. and its width 6 ft. ?

6. What must be the length of a bin whose width is 6 ft. and depth 41 ft. to contain 400 bu. of rye?

7. A bin 8 ft. long, 7 ft. wide, and 5 ft. deep is full of oats. What is the value of the oats at $.25 a bushel ?

8. If a vessel holds 700 gal. of water, how many bu. of grain will it contain ?

9. How many bu. of grain will a bin hold that is 9 ft. 5 in. long by 3 ft. 6 in. wide by 7 ft. deep ?

10. If rain falls to the depth of 11 in., how many cu, in. fall on one acre ?

11. A rectangular box exactly contains a bu. The length of the box is 16 in., its width 15.5 in. Find its depth.

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12. How many bu, of corn will a biu hold that is 8.5 ft. long, 4.25 ft. wide, and 71 ft. deep?

13. The capacity of a bin is 1583.2 bu.; its length is 9 ft. and depth 9 ft. Find its width.

14. How many cu. ft. in 600 bu, of wheat ?

15. How many cu. ft. in 500 bu. of potatoes, heaped measure ?

1 bu. heaped meas. = Ibu. stricken meas.

16. How many cu. ft. in a bushel ? 17. How many gal, in a cubic foot ?

18. A bin 18 ft. long, 49 ft. wide contains 40 cu. yd. Find its depth. 19. A bin measures 6 ft. 5 in, by 3 ft. 9 in. by 4 ft. 6 in.

6 . How many bushels of wheat will it hold? How many bushels of corn in the ear?

MEASURES OF WEIGHT.

Weight is the measure of the force that attracts bodies to the earth.

Avoirdupois Weight. Avoirdupois Weight is used in weighing all materials except gold and silver.

Table. 16 Ounces (oz.) 1 Pound (lb.). 100 Pounds

1 Hundred-weight (cwt.). 20 Hundred-weight

- 1 Ton (T.).
T. cwt. 16.
1= 20 = 2000 32,000.

Scale : 16, 100, 20.
The pound 7000 grains.
The ounce -- 16 drachms.
The long ton 2240 lbs.

02.

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