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Wheat, 60 lb. Beans, 60 lb. Wheat Bran, 20 lb.
Rye, 56 lb. Buckwheat, 42 lb. Salt,

56 lb. Corn, 56 lb. Flax Seed, 56 lb. Corn Meal,

50 lb. Barley, 48 lb. Hemp Seed, 44 lb. Corn in Ear, 68 lb. Oats,

32 lb. Potatoes, 60 lb. Clover Seed, 60 lb. Peas, 60 lb. Onions, 60 lb. Timothy Seed, 45 lb. NOTE.-Slight variations from the above exist among the States.

EXERCISES.
Reduce :

1. 3 T. to pounds.
2. 5 T. 4 cwt. 6 lb. to pounds.
3. 10 T. 327 lb. to pounds.

4. 95,000 oz. to tons.
5. 2 T. to ounces.
6. 10,406 lb. to tons.

PROBLEMS.

1. At $.05] a pound, what will 3 cwt. of sugar cost ? 2. What will 41 lb. of confections cost, at $.044 per ounce? 3. At $.08 per lb., what are 8 cwt. of beef worth? 4. How many grains in 9 lb. ? 5. What will 400 lb. of coal cost at $6.50 per T.? 6. How many bushels of corn meal in 2 T.? 7. How many pounds will 1000 bu. of oats weigh? 8. How many T. will 500 bu. of potatoes weigh?

a

9. Find how much more 160 bu. of wheat weigh than 200 bu. of barley.

10. Find the cost of 3024 lb. of rye, at $.66 a bu. 11. Find the value of 5 firkins of butter, at $.17 per lb. 12. In 30,000 lb. of pork how many barrels are there? 13. What is the weight of 105 bu. 33 pk. of potatoes ?

14. If a dealer has 27 long tons of coal and sells 7780 lb., how many

short tons remain ? 15. At $10 a barrel, what will a bag of flour cost, weighing 59 lb. ?

Troy Weight. Troy Weight is used in weighing gold, silver, and precious stones.

Table.
24 Grains = 1 Pennyweight (pwt.).
20 Pennyweights 1 Ounce (oz.).
12 Ounces

1 Pound (lb.).
16. pwt. gr.
12 : 240

= 5760.

Scale : 24, 20, 12. The carat, equal to 4 grains, is commonly used in weighing precious stones. Carat, as the unit of fineness for gold, means 24 Gold 14 carats fine is 14 gold and if alloy.

=

oz.

1

EXERCISES. 1. Reduce:

1. 9 pwt. 12 gr. to grains.
2. 204 gr. to pennyweights.
3. 70 lb. 2 oz. 19 pwt. 16 gr. to grains.
4. 4438

to ounces.
5. 5 lb. 11 oz. 15 pwt. 10 gr. to grains.
6. 8356 gr. to ounces.
7. 150 pwt. to oz.
8. 1 lb. to grains.

gr.

2. How many grains in a pound avoirdupois ?

3. How many more grains in a pound avoirdupois than in a pound troy ?

4. Which is heavier, and how much, a pound of lead or a pound of silver ?

5. How many pounds avoirdupois are there in 185 troy pounds?

6. Find the value in troy weight of 9 lb. 10 oz. avoirdupois.

7. If an ounce of gold is worth $25.75, what is the value of a pennyweight?

8. If 1898 sovereigns weigh 40.6172 lb. troy, how many grains does one sovereign weigh ?

Apothecaries' Weight. Apothecaries' Weight is used in prescribing and mixing dry medicines.

Medicines are bought and sold by avoirdupois weight.

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1. 1 02. Avoirdupois equals how many grains ?
2. 1 oz. Troy equals how many grains ?
3. 1 0. Apothecaries' equals how many grains ?

EXERCISES.
Reduce:

1. 967 to drachms.
2. 1443 to pounds.
3. 8 lb. 63 to drachms.
4. 8163 to pounds.
5. 18 lb. 53 43 19 to scruples.
6. 9523 to pounds.
7. 17 lb. 53 20 17 gr. to grains.
8. 105,840 gr. to pounds.

PROBLEMS.

1. Express 4567 grains apoth. in higher units.
2. How many 4-grain pills can be made from 63 29 ?

3. How many ounces of quinine will be required to make 1440 2-grain pills ?

4. How many 5-grain pills can be made from an avoirdupois pound of quinine ?

5. Change 13 53 19 16 gr. to the fraction of a pound. 6. Reduce 8 lb. avoirdupois to apothecaries' weight.

7. How much does a druggist gain who buys 15 lb. (avoir.) of drugs at $2.75 per pound and sells the same at $.20 per drachm, apoth. weight?

8. An apothecary bought 50 lb. 8 oz. of opium at 45 cents an ounce, and sold it at 3 cents a scruple. How much did he

a gain ?

MEASURES OF TIME. Time is measured by centuries, years, months, weeks, days, hours, minutes, and seconds.

The unit is the day, which is determined by the revolution of the earth on its axis. The year is determined by the revolution of the earth around the sun.

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1. A year is called Leap Year when the number denoting it is divisible by 4 and not by 100, or is divisible by 400.

2. A year is called a Common Year when the number denoting it cannot be thus divided.

3. The Calendar divides the year into weeks and months.

Table. 1. January, 31

days, Jan.

7. July, 31 days, July. 2. February, 28 or 29 days, Feb. 8. August, 31 days, Aug. 3. March, 31

days, Mar.

9. September, 30 days, Sept. 4. April, 30 days, Apr. 10. October, 31 days, Oct. 5. Мау,

31 days, May. 11. November, 30 days, Nov. 6. June, 30

days, June. 12. December, 31 days, Dec.

A Useful Stanza.
Thirty days hath September,
April, June, and November;
All the rest have thirty-one,
Excepting February alone;
To which we twenty-eight assign,
Till leap year gives it twenty-nine.

EXERCISES.
Reduce :

1. One day to seconds.
2. 86,400 seconds to days.

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