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MENTAL ARITHMETIC

CONTAINING

THE PRINCIPLES OF ARITHMETIC

WITH

NUMEROUS PROBLEMS FOR ORAL ANALYSIS

AND SOLUTION

BY

ALBERT N. RAUB, Ph.D.

PRESIDENT OF DELAWARE COLLEGE, AND AUTHOR OF “SCHOOL MANAGEMENT,"
“METHODS OF TEACHING," A PRACTICAL RHETORIC,” “STUDIES IN

ENGLISH AND AMERICAN LITERATURE.'

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Copyright, 1894 by ALBERT N. RAUB
Copyright 1894, by THB WERNER COMPANY

PREFACE.

THE educational public have become so accustomed to the term mental arithmetic, and the title has become so distinctive, that it would probably be unwise to call the exercises prepared for a book of this kind by their proper name—oral arithmetic. Mental Arithmetic is therefore used as the name of the book, because this title has become most familiar to both teacher and pupil.

The author has tried to make this work not only progressive and practical in its character, but also to adapt it to the wants of those who believe that oral and written arithmetic should be taught in conjunction, the mental or oral arithmetic being made to serve the purpose of developing the principles of the science by a class of problems simpler than are usually found in the written arithmetic, where the help of pen or pencil is an excuse for their presence.

Much of the opposition which once existed against the study of mental arithmetic arose partly because the subject was made too difficult, and partly because there was no visible connection, as ordinarily taught, between the oral and the written process. In order to overcome these objections all ambiguous or mere puzzle problems have been discarded, and

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