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Not wandering poor, but trusting all his wealth
With God, who call'd him, in a land unknown.
Canaan he now attains; I see his tents [plain
Pitch'd about Sechem, and the neighbouring
Of Moreh; there by promise he receives
Gift to his progeny of all that land,
From Hamath northward to the desert south;
(Things by their names I call, though yet un-
nam'd ;)

From Hermon east to the great western sea;
Mount Hermon, yonder sea; each place behold
In prospect, as I point them; on the shore
Mount Carmel; here, the double-founted stream,
Jordan, true limit eastward; but his sons
Shall dwell to Senir, that long ridge of hills.
This ponder, that all nations of the Earth
Shall in his seed be blessed by that seed
Is meant thy great Deliverer, who shall bruise
The serpent's head; whereof to thee anon
Plainlier shall be reveal'd. This patriarch blest,
Whom faithful Abraham due time shall call,
A son, and of his son a grand-child, leaves;
Like him in faith, in wisdom, and renown:
The grand-child, with twelve sons increas'd,
From Canaan, to a land hereafter call'd [departs
Egypt, divided by the river Nile;
See where it flows, disgorging at seven mouths
Into the sea to sojourn in that land

He comes, invited by a younger son
In time of dearth; a son, whose worthy deeds
Raise him to be the second in that realm
Of Pharaoh: there he dies, and leaves his race
Growing into a nation; and, now grown,
Suspected to a sequent kin who seeks
To stop their overgrowth, as inmate guests
Too numerous; whence of guests he makes them

Divided, till his rescued gain their shore:
Such wonderous power God to his saint will lend,
Though present in his angel; who shall go
Before them in a cloud, and pillar of fire;
By day a cloud, by night a pillar of fire;
To guide them in their journey, and remove
Behind them, while the obdurate king pursues:
All night he will pursue; but his approach
Darkness defends between till morning watch;
Then through the fiery pillar, and the cloud,
God looking forth will trouble all his host,
And craze their chariot-wheels: when by com-
Moses once more his potent rod extends [mand
Over the sea; the sea his rod obeys;
On their embattled ranks the waves return,
And overwhelm their war: the race elect
Safe towards Canaan from the shore advance
Through the wild desert, not the readiest way;
Lest, entering on the Canaanite alarm'd,
War terrify them inexpert, and fear
Return them back to Egypt, choosing rather
Inglorious life with servitudes for life
To noble and ignoble is more sweet
Untrain'd in arms, where rashness leads not on.
This also shall they gain by their delay
In the wide wilderness; there they shall found
Their government, and their great senate choose
Through the twelve tribes, to rule by laws or

Inhospitably, and kills their infant males:
Till by two brethren (these two brethren call
Moses and Aaron) sent from God to claim
His people from enthralment, they return
With glory, and spoil, back to their promis'd
But first, the lawless tyrant, who denies [land.
To know their God, or message to regard,
Must be compell'd by signs and judgments dire;
To blood unshed the rivers must be turn'd;
Frogs, lice, and flies, must all his palace fill
With loath'd intrusion, and fill all the land;
His cattle must of rot and murren die ;
Botches and blains must all his flesh emboss,
And all his people; thunder mix'd with hail,
Hail mix'd with fire, must rend the Egyptian
And wheel on the Earth, devouring where it
What it devours not, herb, or fruit, or grain,
A darksome cloud of locusts swarming down
Must eat, and on the ground leave nothing green;
Darkness must overshadow all his bounds,
Palpable darkness, and blot out three days;
Last, with one midnight-stroke, all the first-born
Of Egypt must lie dead. Thus with ten wounds
The river-dragon tam'd at length submits
To let his sojourners depart, and oft
Humbles his stubborn heart; but still, as ice
More harden'd after thaw; till, in his rage
Pursuing whom he late dismiss'd, the sea
Swallows him with his host; but them lets pass,
As on dry land, between two crystal walls;
Aw'd by the rod of Moses so to stand

God from the mount of Sinai, whose gray top
Shall tremble, he descending, will himself
In thunder, lightning, and loud trumpets' sound,
Ordain them laws; part, such as appertain
To civil justice; part, religious rites
Of sacrifice; informing them, by types
And shadows, of that destin'd Seed to bruise
The serpent, by what means he shall achieve
Mankind's deliverance. But the voice of God
To mortal ear is dreadful: they beseech
That Moses might report to them his will,
And terrour cease; he grants what they be-
Instructed that to God is no access, [sought,
Without mediator, whose high office now
Moses in figure bears; to introduce
One greater, of whose day he shall foretel,
And all the prophets in their age the times
Of great Messiah shall sing. Thus, laws and
Establish'd, such delight hath God in men [rights
Obedient to his will, that he vouchsafes
Among them to set up his tabernacle;
The Holy One with mortal men to dwell:
By his prescript a sanctuary is fram'd
Of cedar, overlaid with gold; therein
An ark, and in the ark his testimouy,
The records of his covenant; over these
A mercy-seat of gold, between the wings
Of two bright cherubim; before him burn
Seven lamps as in a zodiac representing
The heavenly fires; over the tent a cloud
Shall rest by day, a fiery gleam by night;
Save when they journey, and at length they
Conducted by his angel, to the land [come,
Promis'd to Abraham and his seed :-the rest
Were long to tell; how many battles fought;
How many kings destroy'd; and kingdoms won;
Or how the Sun shall in mid Heaven stand still
A day entire, and night's due course adjourn,
Man's voice commanding, 'Sun, in Gibeon


And thou, Moon, in the vale of Aialon,
Till Israel overcome!' so call the third
From Abraham, son of Isaac; and from him
His whole descent, who thus shall Canaan win."
Here Adam interpos'd. "O sent from Heaven,
Enlightener of my darkness, gracious things
Thou hast reveal'd; those chiefly, which con-


Just Abraham and his seed: now first I find
Mine eyes true-opening, and my heart much

Erewhile perplex'd with thoughts, what would
Of me and all mankind: but now I see
His day, in whom all nations shall be blest;
Favour unmerited by me, who sought
Forbidden knowledge by forbidden means.
This yet I apprehend not, why to those
Among whom God will deign to dwell on Earth
So many and so various laws are given;
So many laws argue so many sins
Among them; how can God with such reside?"
To whom thus Michael. "Doubt not but that
Will reign among them, as of thee begot; [sin
And therefore was law given them, to evince
Their natural pravity, by stirring up
Sin against law to fight: that when they see
Law can discover sin, but not remove,
Save by those shadowy expiations weak,
The blood of bulls and goats, they may conclude
Some blood more precious must be paid for

Just for unjust; that in such righteousness
To them by faith imputed, they may find
Justification towards God, and peace
Of conscience; which the law by ceremonies
Cannot appease: nor man the moral part
Perform; and, not performing, cannot live.
So law appears imperfect; and but given
With purpose to resign them, in full time,
Up to a better covenant; disciplin'd [rit;
From shadowy types to truth; from flesh to spi-
From imposition of strict laws to free
Acceptance of large grace; from servile fear
To filial; works of law to works of faith.
And therefore shall not Moses, though of God
Highly belov'd, being but the minister
Of law, his people into Canaan lead;
But Joshua, whom the Gentiles Jesus call,
His name and office bearing, who shall quell
The adversary-serpent, and bring back
Through the world's wilderness long-wander'd
Safe to eternal Paradise of rest.
Mean while they, in their earthly Canaan plac'd,
Long time shall dwell and prosper, but when sins
National interrupt their public peace,
Provoking God to raise them enemies;
From whom as oft he saves them penitent
By judges first, then under kings; of whom
The second, both for piety renown'd
And puissant deeds, a promise shall receive
Irrevocable, that his regal throne
For ever shall endure; the like shall sing
All prophecy, that of the royal stock
Of David (so I name this king) shall rise
A son, the woman's seed to thee foretold,
Foretold to Abraham, as in whom shall trust
All nations; and to kings foretold, of kings
The last; for of his reign shall be no end.
But first, a long succession must ensue ;

And his next son, for wealth and wisdom fam'd, The clouded ark of God, till then in tents Wandering, shall in a glorious temple enshrine. Such follow him, as shall be register'd Part good, part bad; of bad the longer scroll; Whose foul idolatries, and other faults Heap'd to the popular sum, will so incense God, as to leave them, and expose their land, Their city, his temple, and his holy ark, With all his sacred things, a scorn and prey To that proud city, whose high walls thou saw'st Left in confusion; Babylon thence call'd. There in captivity he lets them dwell [back, The space of seventy years; then brings them Remembering mercy, and his covenant sworn To David, stablish'd as the days of Heaven. Return'd from Babylon by leave of kings [God Their lords, whom God dispos'd, the house of They first re-edify; and for a while In mean estate live moderate; till grown In wealth and multitude, factious they grow: But first among the priests dissention springs, Men who attend the altar, and should most Endeavour peace: their strife pollution brings Upon the temple itself: at last they seize The sceptre, and regard not David's sons; Then lose it to a stranger, that the true Anointed king Messiah might be born Barr'd of his right; yet at his birth a star, Unseen before in Heaven, proclaims him come; And guides the eastern sages, who inquire His place, to offer incense, myrrh, and gold: His place of birth a solemn angel tells To simple shepherds, keeping watch by night; They gladly thither haste, and by a quire Of squadron'd angels hear his carol sung. A virgin is his mother, but his sire

The power of the Most High: he shall ascend
The throne hereditary, and bound his reign
With Earth's wide bounds, his glory with the


He ceas'd, discerning Adam with such joy Surcharg'd, as had like grief been dew'd in tears, Without the vent of words; which these he breath'd.

"O prophet of glad tidings, finisher

Of utmost hope! now clear I understand [vain;
What oft my steadiest thoughts have searched in
Why our great Expectation should be call'd
The seed of woman: virgin mother, hail,
High the love of Heaven; yet from my loins
Thou shalt proceed, and from thy womb the


Of God Most High; so God with man unites. Needs must the serpent now his capital bruise Expect with mortal pain: say where and when Their fight, what stroke shall bruise the victor's heel,"

To whom thus Michael. "Dream not of their
As of a duel, or the local wounds
Of head or heel: not therefore joins the Son
Manhood to godhead, with more strength to
Thy enemy; nor so is overcome
Satan, whose fall from Heaven, a deadlier

Disabled, not to give thee thy death's wound:
Which he, who comes thy Saviour, shall recure,
Not by destroying Satan, but his works
n thee, and in thy seed: nor can this be

But by fulfilling that which thou didst want,
Obedience to the law of God, impos'd
On penalty of death, and suffering death;
The penalty to thy transgression due,
And due to theirs which out of thine will grow :
So only can high Justice rest appaid.
The law of God exact he shall fulfil
Both by obedience and by love, though love
Alone fulfil the law; thy punishment
He shall endure, by coming in the flesh
To a reproachful life, and cursed death;
Proclaiming life to all who shall believe
In his redemption; and that his obedience,
Imputed, becomes theirs by faith; his merits
To save them, not their own, though legal,

For this he shall live hated, be blasphem'd, Seiz'd on by force, judg'd, and to death condemn'd

A shameful and accurs'd, nail'd to the cross
By his own nation; slain for bringing life:
But to the cross he nails thy enemies,
The law that is against thee, and the sins
Of all mankind with him there crucified,
Never to hurt them more who rightly trust
In this his satisfaction: so he dies,
But soon revives; Death over him no power
Shall long usurp; ere the third dawning light
Return, the stars of morn shall see him rise
Out of his grave, fresh as the dawning light,
Thy ransom paid, which man from death re-

His death for man, as many as offer'd life
Neglect not, and the benefit embrace
By faith not void of works: this God-like act
Annuls thy doom, the death thou should'st have
In sin for ever lost from life, this act [died,
Shall bruise the head of Satan, crush his

Defeating Sin and Death, his two main arms; And fix far deeper in his head their stings Than temporal death shall bruise the victor's heel,

Or theirs whom he redeems; a death, like sleep,
A gentle wafting to immortal life.
Nor after resurrection shall he stay
Longer on Earth, than certain times to appear
To his disciples, men who in his life
Still follow'd him; to them shall leave in charge
To teach all nations what of him they learn'd
And his salvation; them who shall believe
Baptizing in the profluent stream, the sign
Of washing them from guilt of sin to life
Pure, and in mind prepar'd, if so befall,
For death, like that which the Redeemer died.
All nations they shall teach; for, from that day,
Not only to the sons of Abraham's loins
Salvation shall be preach'd, but to the sons
Of Abraham's faith wherever through the
So in his seed all nations shall be blest. [world;
Then to the Heaven of Heavens he shall ascend
With victory triumphing through the air
Over his foes and thine; there shall surprise
The serpent, prince of air, and drag in chains
Through all his realm, and there confounded
Then enter into glory, and resume [leave;
His seat at God's right hand, exalted high
Above all names in Heaven, and thence shall

When this world's dissolution shall be ripe, With glory and power to judge both quick and dead;

To judge the unfaithful dead, but to reward
His faithful, and receive them into bliss,
Whether in Heaven or Earth; for then the Earth
Shall all be Paradise, far happier place
Than this of Eden, and far happier days."

So spake the arch-angel Michaël; then paus'd, As at the world's great period; and our sire, Replete with joy and wonder, thus replied.

"O Goodness infinite, Goodness immense! That all this good of evil shall produce, And evil turn to good; more wonderful Than that which by creation first brought forth Light out of darkness! Full of doubt I stand, Whether I should repent me now of sin By me done, and occasion'd; or rejoice [spring; Much more, that much more good thereof shall To God more glory, more good-will to men From God, and over wrath grace shall abound. But say, if our Deliverer up to Heaven Must re-ascend, what will betide the few His faithful, left among the unfaithful herd, The enemies of truth? Who then shall guide His people, who defend? Will they not deal Worse with his followers than with him they dealt?"

"Be sure they will," said the angel; "but from Heaven

He to his own a Comforter will send,
The promise of the Father, who shall dwell
His Spirit within them; and the law of faith,
Working through love, upon their hearts shall
To guide them in all truth; and also arm[write,
With spiritual armour, able to resist
Satan's assaults, and quench his fiery darts;
What man can do against them, not afraid,
Though to the death; against such cruelties
With inward consolations recompens'd,
And oft supported so as shall amaze
Their proudest persecutors; for the Spirit,
Pour'd first on his Apostles, whom he sends
To evangelize the nations, then on all
Baptiz'd, shall them with wonderous gifts endue
To speak all tongues, and do all iniracles,
As did their Lord before them. Thus they win
Great numbers of each nation to receive
With joy the tidings brought from Heaven: at

'Their ministry perform'd, and race well run, Their doctrine and their story written left, They die; but in their room, as they forewarn, Wolves shall succeed for teachers, grievous wolves,

Who all the sacred mysteries of Heaven
To their own vile advantages shall turn
Of lucre and ambition; and the truth
With superstitions and traditions taint,
Left only in those written records pure,
Though not but by the Spirit understood.
Then shall they seek to avail themselves of


Places, and titles, and with these to join Secular power; though feigning still to act By spiritual, to themselves appropriating The Spirit of God, promis'd alike, and given To all believers; and, from that pretence, Spiritual laws by carnal power shall force


On every conscience; laws which none shall find
Left them inroll'd, or what the spirit within
Shall on the heart engrave. What will they then
But force the Spirit of grace itself, and bind
His consort Liberty? what, but unbuild
His living temples, built by faith to stand,
Their own faith, not another's? for, on Earth,
Who against faith and conscience can be heard
Infallible? yet many will presume:
Whence heavy persecution shall arise
On all, who in the worship persevere
Of spirit and truth; the rest, far greater part,
Will deem in outward rites and specious forms
Religion satisfied; Truth shall retire
Bestuck with slanderous darts, and works of faith
Rarely be found: so shall the world go on,
To good malignant, to bad men benign;
Under her own weight groaning; till the day
Appear of respiration to the just,
And vengeance to the wicked, at return
Of him so lately promis'd to thy aid,

The woman's Seed; obscurely then foretold,
Now amplier known thy Saviour and thy Lord;
Last, in the clouds, from Heaven to be reveal'd
In glory of the Father, to dissolve
Satan with his perverted world; then raise
From the conflagrant mass, purg'd and refin'd,
New Heavens, new Earth, ages of endless date,
Founded in righteousness, and peace, and love;
To bring forth fruits, joy and eternal bliss."

| Let us descend now therefore from this top
Of speculation; for the hour precise
Exacts our parting hence; and see! the guards,
By me encamp'd on yonder hill, expect
Their motion; at whose front a flaming sword,
In signal of remove, waves fiercely round:
We may no longer stay: go, waken Eve;
Her also I with gentle dreams have calm'd
Portending good, and all her spirits compos'd
To meek submission: thou, at season fit,
Let her with thee partake what thou hast heard
Chiefly, what may concern her faith to know,
The great deliverance by her seed to come
(For by the woman's seed) on all mankind :
That ye may live, which will be many days,
Both in one faith unanimous, though sad,
With cause for evils past; yet much more

He ended; and thus Adam last replied. "How soon hath thy prediction, seer blest, Measur'd this transient world, the race of time, Till time stand fix'd? Beyond is all abyss, Eternity, whose end no eye can reach. Greatly instructed I shall hence depart; Greatly in peace of thought; and have my fill Of knowledge what this vessel can contain ; Beyond which was my folly to aspire. Henceforth I learn, that to obey is best, And love with fear the only God; to walk As in his presence; ever to observe His providence; and on him sole depend, Merciful over all his works, with good Still overcoming evil, and by small [weak Accomplishing great things, by things deem'd Subverting worldly strong, and worldly wise By simply meek: that suffering for truth's sake Is fortitude to highest victory,

And, to the faithful, death, the gate of life;
Taught this by his example, whom I now
Acknowledge my Redeemer ever blest."

To whom thus also the angel last replied. "This having learn'd, thou hast attain'd the


Of wisdom; hope no higher, though all the stars Thou knew'st by name, and all the ethereal powers,

All secrets of the deep, all Nature's works,
Or works of God in Heaven, air, earth, or sea,
And all the riches of this world enjoy'dst,
And all the rule, one empire; only add
Deeds to thy knowledge answerable; add faith,
Add virtue, patience, temperance; add love,
By name to come call'd charity, the soul
Of all the rest: then wilt thou not be loth
To leave this Paradise, but shalt possess
A paradise within thee, happier far.-


With meditation on the happy end."

He ended, and they both descend the hill; Descended, Adam to the bower, where Eve Lay sleeping, ran before: but found her wak'd; And thus with words not sad she him receiv'd. "Whence thou return'st, and whither went'st,

I know ;

For God is also in sleep; and dreams advise,
Which he hath sent propitious, some great good
Presaging, since with sorrow and heart's distrese
Wearied I fell asleep: but now lead on;
In me is no delay; with thee to go,


Is to stay here; without thee here to stay,
Is to go hence unwilling; thou to me
Art all things under Heaven, all places thou,
Who for my wilful crime art banish'd hence.
This further consolation yet secure

I carry hence; though all by me is lost,
Such favour I unworthy am vouchsaf'd,
By me the promis'd Seed shall all restore."

So spake our mother Eve; and Adam heard Well pleas'd, but answer'd not: for now, too



The arch-angel stood; and from the other hill To their fix'd station, all in bright array

The cherubim descended; on the ground
Gliding meteorous, as evening-mist
Ris'n from a river o'er the marish glides,
And gathers ground fast at the labourer's heel
Homeward returning. High in front advanc'd,
The brandish'd sword of God before them blaz'd,
Fierce as a comet; which with torrid heat,
And vapour as the Libyan air adust,
Began to parch that temperate clime; whereat,
In either hand the hastening angel caught
Our lingering parents, and to the eastern gate
Led them direct, and down the cliff as fast
To the subjected plain; then disappear'd.
They, looking back, all the eastern side beheld
Of Paradise, so late their happy seat,
Wav'd over by that flaming brand; the gate
With dreadful faces throng'd, and fiery arms:
Some natural tears they dropt, but wip'd them

The world was all before them, where to choose
Their place of rest, and Providence their guide:
They, hand in hand, with wandering steps and
Through Eden took their solitary way.

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In the library of Trinity College, Cambridge, is a thin folio manuscript, marked, in the year 1799, when I was obligingly permitted by the master and fellows of that society to examine it, Miscell. R. iii. 4. It is handsomely bound; and to the inside of one of the covers is pasted a paper with this inscription: Membra hæc eruditissimi et pænè divine Poetæ olim miserè disjecta et passim sparsa, postea verò fortuitò inventa, et in unum denuo collecta à CAROLO MASON ejusdem Collegii Socio, et inter Miscellanea reposita, deinceps eâ quâ decuit religione servari voluit THOMAS CLARKE', nuperrimmè hujusce Collegii, nunc verò Medii Templi Londini, Socius, 1736. These papers were found by Dr. Mason, abovementioned, who was also Woodwardian professor at Cambridge, among other old and neglected manuscripts belonging to sir Henry Newton Puckering, a considerable benefactor to the library. They contain two draughts of a letter to a friend, who had importuned Milton to take orders; the following plans of Paradise Lost in the form of a tragedy, or mystery; the plans or subjects of several other intended tragedies, all in the poet's own hand; and entire copies of many of his smaller poems, in the same hand, except in a few instances, exhibiting his first thoughts and subsequent corrections. All these variations, Mr. Warton has observed, have been imperfectly and incorrectly printed by Dr. Birch. Various readings of this MS. have been also admitted into Dr. Newton's edition of all Milton's

poetical works; as have such, which relate to the respective pieces, and which have been more minutely investigated, in Mr. Warton's two editions of Milton's smaller poems. Upon a careful examination of this manuscript, I have discovered a few peculiarities, or variations of expression, which have escaped the notice of those who have preceded me in describing this literary curiosity; and which will be found in their proper places. For I have added, at the end of each particular poem, as of Lycidas, Arcades, and Comus; and at the end of each series of poems, as of Sonnets, Odes, and Miscellanies; the several various readings respectively belonging to them. In this arrangement I hope to gratify the reader: who, without interruption, (to use the language of Dr. after reading the finished poem, may then trace Johnson respecting the imperfect rudiments of Paradise Lost,) the gradual growth and expansion of great works in their seminal state; and observe how they are sometimes suddenly advanced by accidental hints, and sometimes slowly improved by steady meditation. For this reason also I have placed the dramatic plans of Paradise Lost at the conclusion of the poet's sublimer" heroic song;" and have subjoined, to the tragedy of Samson Agonistes, the plans of Milton's other intended dramas.

Of the tragedy or mystery there are two plans.

Afterwards master of the Rolls, and knight. 2 Mr. Warton says that sir Henry "had so great an affection for this college, in which he had been educated, that in his eightieth year he desired to be readmitted: and, residing there a whole summer, presented to the new library, just then finished, his own collection of books, amounting to near four thousand volumes. He was son of sir Adam Newton, tutor to prince Henry; and many papers written by that prince, or relating to him, are involved in the collection. Sir Henry took the name of Puckering in remembrance of his uncle sir Thomas Puckering of Warwickshire, a learned and accomplished man, brother in law to sir Adam Newton, son of lord keeper Puckering, a companion of the studies of prince Henry. Many of the books were presents to the prince from authors or editors. In Dr. Duport's Hore subseciva, a poem is addressed to this preserver of Milton's manuscripts, Ad D. Henricum Puckeringum, alias Newtonum, Equitum baronettum. Cantabr. 1676. 8vo. pp. 222, 223. This sir Henry had a son, pupil to Dr. Duport at Trinity College, but who died before his father." TODD.

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