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PREFACE.

HE object of a text-book on Arithmetic should be to teach

the pupil to cipher, - to learn by doing. The shortest and surest road to a knowledge of Arithmetic is by solving problems, not by memorizing rules or by demonstrating propositions. The pupil should be trained to obtain results rapidly and correctly. He should be taught, in questions involving decimal fractions, to limit the answers to the number of decimals required by the nature of the examples, and to avoid all superfluous work. He should not be expected to discover the reason of a process until he fully understands the process; then he should be allowed to state the reason in his own language.

This Arithmetic is not intended for beginners; but it is presumed that pupils will have a thorough knowledge of our “Lessons in Number,' and be at least twelve years of age, before entering upon the study of this book.

Decimal fractions are introduced at the beginning of the book. Experience proves that when thus taught they present no difficulty. The difficulty of decimal fractions arises solely from comparing them with common fractions, and is avoided by teaching decimals first. The pupil learns the notation on both sides of the decimal point as easily as on one side; provided the notation on both sides is presented at the same time. Much time is saved by strict adherence to the motto, “Decimal fractions as soon as possible, thoroughly mastered; common fractions postponed as long as possible.”

The Metric System in a few years will be in common use, and will supersede other systems, as dollars and cents have superseded pounds, shillings, and pence. Taught immediately after decimal fractions, the system is easily learned. A great number of examples is given to show the simplicity of the system in its application to questions of common occurrence, and to furnish additional practice in operations with decimal fractions. The abbreviations used are such as have been adopted throughout Germany.

Many of the problems are original, but some have been obtained from French, English, and German sources. Though the problems are very numerous, it has been found, by actual trial, that a class of pupils fourteen to fifteen years old can accomplish the whole work of this Arithmetic, with one recitation a day, in a school year. The examples are intended to convey, incidentally, a great deal of accurate and valuable information; so that, by means of the index, the book becomes a book of reference for many physical and mathematical constants.

The introduction of logarithms will be welcomed by all who know the ease of learning the practical use of a four-place table, and the increased power given by it over mathematical questions. Teachers who have never taught or learned logarithms are assured that they will find no difficulty in the subject as here presented.

The method of “Supposition,” called in old Arithmetics" Position," has been restored to its rightful place, and is fully explained in the chapter on Approximations. This method is applicable to a large variety of problems, and is made very simple by logarithms.

We gladly acknowledge our obligations to many friends who have improved this work by their advice; and we also give assurance that any suggestions for its further improvement will be thankfully received.

THOMAS HILL.
G. A. WENTWORTH.

INDEX.

The black nurnbers refer to pages; the other numbers to sections.

common

measures

ADDITION, 44; tests, 56; com- | Chemical symbols and problems,
pound, 305.

462.
Air, composition of, 216, 220. Circle: linear ratios, 201, 202;
Alligation, 105, 265-267.

areas, 204–206; 188.
Amount, 353.

Clapboards, 320.
Annuity, 317; in reversion, 317 Cologarithms, 416.
(Ex. 16).

Commission, 349.
Antilogarithms, 421.

Common measure: greatest, 233,
Approximations, 424 et seq.; to 284;

and
decimals, 145; general, 425; to metric, 285 et seq.

common fractions, 426-429. Common multiple: least, 239, 240,
Average, 265; of payments, 267– 243; of fractions, 284.
271.

Condensation of sulphuric acid

and water, 266.
BELL metal, composition of, 215. Cone, 448; frustum, 450.
Board measure, 209, 317, 318. Cube, 192; cube root, 389; by
Bowl, measure of, 449.

logarithms, 413.
Brass, one variety, 215.

Cylinder, 445.
Brokerage, 349.

DECIMAL fractions, 25; reading,
CALENDAR, Julian and Gregorian, best way, 27; changing to
301.

common, 276, 277; circulating,
Cancelling factors, 155.

279–283; shortening decimals,
Carpeting rooms, 207, 189.

145.
Casting out nines, 170–173 ; elev- Discount, 356, 358; true, 361, 362,

note.
Catenary, 334.

Division, 149–168; by reciprocals,
Centrifugal force, 457.

162; contracted, 168; of two

ens, 174.

V

kinds, 150; compound, 308; by Height of objects in horizon, 458,
logarithms, 415-419.

459.
Double position, 425.

Horizon, distance of, 458, 459.
Drafts, 372–374.

Hydraulic press, 453.
Duties, 351; ad valorem, 231. Hydrostatic pressure, 453.

of, 68.

EARTH, circumference of, 97. INSURANCE, 350.
Ellipse, 451.

Interest, 352; compound, 367, 368;
Equation : solution of, 66; of pay annual, 369; computed by loga-
ments, 267.

rithms, 442.
Exchange, 372, 374; foreign, Invoice, 231.
263.

Involution and Evolution, 379–
Expansion : coefficient of, 340, 397; by logarithms, 412–419.

note; of air, ibid; of iron, 224;
of glass and steel, 320.

KNOT, 287, 302.
Exponent, 148; negative, 169 ;
logarithms, 411.

LEAP year, 301.

Lever, 343.
FACTORS: cancelling, 155; detect- Light: intensity of, 342; velocity

ing prime, 220–226; multiply-
ing by, 132; with negative ex Logarithms, 399 et seq.; common,
ponents, 228.

401 et seq.; calculation of, 402;
Falling bodies, 454.

characteristic and mantissa, 403–
Fractions : decimal, 25, 27; com 410; exponents, 411; of quo-

mon, 244-284; terms of, 250; tient, 415-419; of reciprocal,
improper, 252, 258; multiplica-

416, 417.
tion of, 262, 264; division of, Longitude, 313–316; reduction to
266 ; common denominator, 268; time and the reverse, 315.
addition, 270; subtraction, 271;
simplification, 272–274; chang- MEASURES: metric, length, 184;
ing common and decimal, 276, surface, 189; volume, 194, 197;
277; in compound numbers, weight, 199, 200; common, 287,
309-312.

293–300; comparison of metric

and common, 322; miscellane-
GRAVITY, accelerating force of, ous, 160; measure of time, 301;
454.

of angle, 302; temperature, 304.
Gun metal, composition of, 215. Mensuration of squares and rec-
Gunpowder : composition of, 215, tangles, 187, 293; triangles, 443;

220; specific gravity, 101. circles, 201-206, 188; cubes and

rectangular parallelopipeds, 210; | Principal, 353.
of prisms, 446; cones, 448; pyr- Progression, arithmetical, 430–
amids, 446; frustums, 450; bowls 434; geometrical, 435–441.
and boilers, 449; cylinder, 445; Proportion, 323–338; test of, 335;
sphere, 205, 211, 189.

compound, 339–340, also 267.
Miles, 287; nautical, or geograph- Pyramid, 446; frustum, 450.

ical, or knot, 287, 302, notes.
Money : U. S., 182; foreign, Rats per cent, 355.
303.

Ratio, 323.
Multiplication, 126; of decimals, Reciprocal, 161.

128; contracted, 143; by com- Reduction, 291, 292; time and
plements, 137; by reciprocals, longitude, 315, 316.
164; by factors, 132; com- Representative numbers, 345-347.
pound, 307.

Roots, 379-397; by logarithms,

413.
NOTATION, 2, 16.

Rule of Three, 336, 338; of false,
Notes of hand and bank discount, or double position, 425.

358.
Numeration, 2, 16.

SCREW, 344.

Shingles, 321.
ONCOMETRICS, 194, 196, 325-329. Similarity, geometrical, 398.

Sinking fund, 317 (Exs. 17, 18).
PARENTHESIS, when needed, 111; Solder, composition of common,
how to use, 67, 68.

216.
Partial payments, 363; U.S. rule, Sound: velocity of, 460, 461;

365; Vermont, New Hampshire, iron, 461; in water, 461.
and Connecticut, 252.

Specific gravity explained, 212,
Partnership, 342.

214, 215; table of some common
Pendulum, 452.

substances, 348; problems in,
Percentage, 343 et seq.

199.
Planets, approximate distances of, Sphere: surface of, 205, 189; vol-
69.

ume of, 211.
Poll tax, 351, Ex.

Stock, 370, 371; investments in,
Position, 425.

254, 259.
Pound, weight, 298, note; Eng Subtraction, 71; tests, 72; com-
lish money, 303.

pound, 306.
Powers, 148, 378–397.
Present worth, 360.

Taxes, 351.
Prism, 446.

Thermometers, 304,

in

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