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WHIT- that those who fell under this censure were remarkably disGIFT, orderly and turbulent. And lastly, he assures their lordships that nothing shall be done in his province, either by himself, or his brethren, but what tends to the peace of the Whitgift, Church, the support of the constitution, and the encouragement of the most pious and deserving part of the clergy.”
To give a further account of the archbishop's conduct, I shall mention some of his most remarkable visitation articles.
To begin: "It is ordered, that all preaching, reading, catechising, and other such like exercises, in private places and families, whereunto others do resort, being not of the same family, be utterly inhibited, seeing the same was never permitted as lawful under any Christian magistrate, but is a manifest sign of schism, and a cause of contention in the Church.
"That none be permitted to preach, read, or catechise, in the Church or elsewhere, unless he do four times in the year (at the least) say service, and minister the sacraments according to the Book of Common Prayer.
"That all preachers, and others in ecclesiastical orders, do at all times wear and use such kind of apparel as is prescribed unto them by the book of advertisements, and her majesty's injunctions anno primo.
"That one kind of translation of the Bible be only used in public service, as well in churches as chapels, and that to be the same which is now authorised by the consent of the bishops.
That from henceforth there be no commutation of penance but in rare respects, and upon great consideration, and when it shall appear to the bishop himself that that shall be the best way for winning and reforming the offender; and that the penalty be employed either to the relief of the poor of that parish, or to other godly uses, and the same well witnessed and made manifest to the congregation. And yet if the fault be notorious, that the offender make some satisfaction, either in his own person, with declaration of his repentance openly in the church, or else that the minister of the church, openly in the pulpit, signify to the people his submission and declaration of his repentance done before the
ordinary, and also in token of his repentance, what portion ELIZAof money he hath given to be employed to the uses abovenamed."
Id. fol. 131.
Orders for the better increase of Learning in the inferior Minis- 586. ters, and for the more diligent Preaching and Catechising.
Every minister having cure, and being under the degrees of master of arts, and barrister of laws, and not licensed to be a public preacher, shall, before the 2nd of February next, provide a Bible, and Bullinger's Decads,' in Latin or English, and a paper book, and shall every day read over one chapter of the holy Scriptures, and note the principal contents thereof briefly in his paper book; and shall every week read over one sermon in the said 'Decads,' and note likewise the chief matters therein contained in the said paper; and shall once in every quarter (viz., within a fortnight before or after the end of the quarter,) show his said note to some preacher near adjoining to be assigned for that purpose.
"Item. The bishop, archdeacon, or other ordinary, being a public preacher, shall appoint certain grave and learned preachers, who shall privately examine the diligence, and view the notes of the said ministers, assigning six or seven ministers, as occasion shall require, to every such preacher that shall be next adjoining to him, so as the ministers be not driven to travel for the exhibiting their notes above six or seven miles (if it may be); and the said preachers shall, by letters or otherwise, truly certify to the archdeacons, or other ordinary of the place, themselves being public preachers, and resident within or next to their jurisdictions, and for want thereof to the bishop himself, who do perform the said exercises, and how they have profited therein, and who do refuse or neglect to perform the same. The archdeacons, and others receiving the said certificates, shall certify the same once a year to the bishop, and that about Michaelmas.
"Item. That such as shall refuse to perform the exercises, or shall be negligent therein; and shall not, after admonition by the bishop, archdeacon, or other ordinary aforesaid, reform himself, if he be beneficed, shall be com
GIFT Abp. Cant.
pelled thereunto by ecclesiastical censure: if he be a curate, shall be inhibited to officiate within the jurisdiction.
"It is concluded, that the exercise above written, and no other, shall be henceforth publicly or privately used within any part of this province."
Secretary Walsingham, as hath been observed, was the Walsingham Dissenters' friend. This gentleman thought the three moves for indulgence articles somewhat of a grievance, and that the subscription might fairly be waved. He considered every man's conscience could not come up to the same sentiment; and that some allowance might be made for prejudice of education, for weaker understandings, and lower degrees of improvement that this was his opinion appears by his sending one Leverwood, a minister, to Lambeth, with a recommending letter. Here he desires the archbishop not to insist upon extremities, but to relax a little in favour of this minister, Id. p. 162. and admit his subscription upon the terms inclosed.
The archclose to the
Whitgift, in his answer to the secretary's letter, acquaints him, "that partly at his instance, he had forborne offering the test of the three articles to any persons already beneficed, and that the subscription was put to none but those who came either for orders or institution. That as to Lebishop keeps verwood's case, the dispensing in a single instance would constitution. weaken the constitution, and bring others to an expectation of the same indulgence. That his offer to subscribe the articles was short and evasive. For first he promises to subscribe as far as the law requires him: his meaning must be, the law requires no such subscription; for into this opinion some lawyers have misled him. Further, he promises to officiate with the Common Prayer, and with no other book. But here he covers himself with another reserve, and lays in for a liberty of using only so much of the Liturgy as he has a mind to. And that this was his meaning, appeared by his answer to several questions the archbishop put to him. So that, in fine, such a qualified imperfect subscription would be to little purpose."
The archbishop being thus inflexible, and steady to the Burleigh's constitution, some of the courtiers made an essay upon the Dissenters. Dissenters. They tried to bring this party to a temper,
motion to the
and draw some concessions from them, that this lessening ELIZAthe differences, and advancing towards the establishment, might set the Conformists more at ease, and make way for an accommodation. And here the lord Burleigh made the first proposal. This nobleman, upon some complaint against the Liturgy, bid the Dissenters draw up another, and contrive the offices in such a form as might give general satisfaction to their brethren. Upon this overture, the first classis struck out their lines, and drew mostly by the portrait of Geneva. This draught was referred to the consideration of a second classis, who made no less than six hundred exceptions to it. The third classis quarrelled the corrections of the second, and declared for a new model. The fourth refined no less upon the third. The treasurer advised all these reviews and different committees, on purpose to break their measures, and silence their clamours against the Church. However, since they could not come to any agreement in a form for divine service, he had a handsome opportunity of a release; for now they could not decently importune him any further. To part smoothly with them, he assured their agents, that when they came to any unanimous resolve upon the matter before them, they might expect his friendship, and that he should be ready to bring their scheme to a settlement.
Walsingham, who was more hearty in their interest, makes Sir Francis Walsingthe next trial. This statesman endeavoured to remove their ham's offer disgust, and made them a more tempting proposal. He from the offered them in the queen's name, that provided they would lay down their objections, and conform in other points, the three shocking ceremonies, as they accounted them, should be discharged; that is, kneeling at the communion, wearing the surplice, and the cross in baptism, should be expunged out of the Common Prayer. To these large concessions they replied in the language of Moses, "Ne ungulam esse relinquendam :" they would not leave so much as a hoof behind. Their meaning was, they would have the Church Liturgy wholly laid aside, and not be obliged to the use of any office in it. This stiff unexpected answer lost them Heylin's Walsingham's affection in a great measure, as this states- Presbyt. man afterwards affirmed to Knewstubbs, and Knewstubbs lib. 7.
WHIT to Dr. Burgess of Coleshill, from whom the learned Heylin
Abp. Cant. had this relation.
Dee 16, 1383.
Harpsfeld's death and writings
As the Dissenters were troublesome on one hand, so on the other some bigoted Papists engaged in desperate designs. For instance, one Somerville, a Warwickshire gentleman, heated to rage and distraction by some scandalous pamphlets, made his way privately towards the queen's apartment, assaulted one or two with his drawn sword, and, being apprehended, confessed he intended to kill the queen. For this treason, himself, one Edward Ardern, esq., of the same county; Ardern's wife, their daughter, married to Somerville; and one Hall, a priest, were arraigned at Guildhall, and brought in guilty. About three days after, Somerville despatched himself in the prison; Ardern was hanged, drawn, and quartered; the women and the priest were pardoned. This last is said to have drawn Ardern into the conspiracy, and afterwards turned evidence against him.
This year Nicholas Harpsfield died. He was bred in Winchester school, from thence removed to New-college, in Oxford, where he took the degree of doctor of law, and was afterwards archdeacon of Canterbury. In the reign of Edward VI. he quitted the kingdom, returned at that prince's death, and made a figure in the Church under queen Mary. Soon after queen Elizabeth came to the crown, he was imprisoned for denying her supremacy. During his confinement he wrote his Ecclesiastical History" in Latin. By this book, it appears he was a man of learning, and a master of style. He wrote six dialogues, against the centuriators. and Fox's "Martyrology," in defence of the pope's supremacy, the "Monastic Institution," the "Worship of Saints and Images," &c. It was published in the name of Allen Cope; for had not the author been concealed, he might have suffered in prison upon that score. He likewise wrote "Historia Hæresis Wickliffiance," and a treatise concerning marriage, occasioned by the divorce between king Henry VIII. and queen Katherine.
About this time, several Sussex ministers excepted to some parts of the rubric, and were suspended; but afterwards disengaged from their scruples, as appears by a letter of Mr. Aubry's in Whitgift's Register.