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by evaporation Pour the solution now into a wine-glass, and of the zinc has been effected, is a very offensive gas. It is, proceed as follows:
however, soluble in water, which solution is less offensive Into the Florence Alask put about half an ounce of the than the gas itself, and sufficient for many purposes. Before, sulphuret of iron, broken small (about the size of peas); add therefore, disposing of our apparatus, let us make a solution. a mixture of six parts by measure of water, and one part by
Begin by taking out the terminal glass tube from the India measure of oil of vitriol: quickly replace the cork of the rubber, supply a clean glass tube in its place, and proceed as Florence flask, and dip the end of the glass tube into the follows :vessel containing the zinc solution. From the contents of the Florence flask a very offensive, but at the same time a very
Pig. 11, useful gas will pass ;-it is called sulphuretted hydrogen, or hydro-sulphuric acid. The general disposition of the apparatus is represented in the accompanying wood-cut, fig. 9.
Observe now the result. The zinc solution immediately
Pour into the four-ounce phial cold distilled water, until deposits a white powder, and no other metal, except zinc, wouid, the vessel is about two-thirds full, then cause the gas to pass under the conditions of our experiment, have deposited a white through it in bubbles - the operator agitating the bottle
frepowder. Thus arises & most important addition to our know- quently, fig. 11. Continue the operation until the water refuses ledge concerning zinc. To obtain this white powder, which to dissolve any further portion of gas, which may be known by is called sulphuret of zinc, being a compound of sulphur and removing the bottle from the table on which it stands; grasp it zinc,--to obtain this white compound, I say, is the object to If the water be not yet satisfied, it will endeavour to suck in
firmly, pressing the thumb against its mouth ; agitate briskly. which all our care and attention have been directed-all our the thumb, fig. 12. Give it, therefore, more gas, and when cork-boring, and furnace-making energies,
brought into play,, fully charged, label it thus— Hydro-sulphuric Acid Solution,” hardly justifies the trouble with which it has been achieved. ) and set it aside, fig. 13. Not 60; the result is all important, as will soon be perceived.
Fig. 12. One instance of its importance, slightly anticipating another
Flg. 13. part of our subject, I will now give.
Zinc is readily thrown down out of its solution in oil of vitriol and water, by transmitting through it a current of sulphuretted hydrogen gas, as we have seen. Most other metals are also capable of being thrown down by this gas, but iron is one of a few exceptions. Hence, supposing iron and zinc had both been dissolved in oil of vitriol and water, and the proposition had been to separate the iron from the zinc, this might readily have been effected by pouring through the mixed solution a stream of sulphuretted hydrogen gas, which would have thrown down the zinc, but left the iron.
We have not quite left the zinc yet. We shall return to it hereafter ; meantime, let the wine-glass be labelled "Sulphuret of Zino," covered with a pane of glass to protect it from dust, and set aside, fig. 10. Fig. 10.
LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-No. LXVII.
By John R. BEARD, D.D.
AGREEMENT OF THE SUBJECT AND VERB.
While the subject of a proposition may agree with a qualifying
adjective and a limiting or defining article, it specially agrees with ZINC
the verb. The agreement is of two kinds, one of form, another of substance ; one flexional, another logical.
We may express these facts differently, by saying that if the verb is in the plural number, its subject must be in the plural number; and if the subject is in the plural number, in the plural number must the verb be. In other words, both subject and verb take the same condition; and this is what I mean by stating that the subject and the verb must agree. Avoid, therefore, the error common with uneducated people, of joining together subjects and verbs of different numbers. This error most commonly consists in omitting the 8 where it should be placed, namely, in the third per
son singular, and putting the 8 where it should not be placed, The student will have noticed that the sulphuretted hydro- namely, in the third person plural. I subjoin the present tense gon, or bydro-sulphuric acid gas, by which the throwing down in its
we love you love
It is she, it is he, it is they, it is we.
Apposition may be regarded as a case of a compound sentence, 1. I loves
and so might have been reserved until we treat of that part of our 2. thou loves
subject. Thus, in the instance 3. he love
“But he, our gracious master, kind as just."- Barbauld.
in ay be written out in full in this way :1. I love
He who is our gracious master and who is kind and just. 2. thou lovest
CORRECT THE FOLLOWING INACCURACIES. 3, he loves
The master and mistress is going to town. I loves to see boys In the third person singular and plural, nouns may take the at play. The consequence of your follies are that you will be place of pronouns ; thus, we say,
miserable. To die and to be no more is not the same thing. You Pronouns : he
gives the children too many sweetmeats. Let thou and I serve drinks they drink they drink
the Almighty. Nouns : the man drinks the men drink the women drink
“Do not think such a man as me contemptible for my garb."The subject and the verb then must be in the same person. Addison. Now the only person that ends in s is the third person ; conse- “ His wealth and him bid adieu to each other."-Priestley. quently, an § put to the verb in any other person is an
" The Jesuits had more interest at court than him.-Smollett. ungrammatical addition.
“ We sorrow not as them that have no hope."--Matarin. In general, then, the rule is this :
"A stone is heavy and the sand weighty; but a fool's wrath io The subject and the verb must be in the same number and person; heavier than them both."--(Prov. xxvii. 8.) or, to state the same fact differently, the subjects and their verb must
“Better leave undone, than by our deeds acquire agree in number and person.
Too high a fame, when him we serve 's away." --Shakspeare. Nouns of multitude, i. e., nouns signifying many, take their verbs " Now therefore come, let us make a covenant, I and thou."-(Gen. in the plural.
xxxi. 44 ) When, however, the idea of one predominates, that is, when you " Yet I supposed it necessary to send to you Epaphroditus, my regard the object spoken of as a whole, and not as consisting of brother, and companion in labour, and fellow-soldier, but your mesparts, then a collective noun requires its verb to be in the singular senger, and he that ministered to my wants.-- (Philipp. ii. 25.) number ; as,
“ Amid the tumult of the routed train,
The sons of false Antimachus were alain;
He, who for bribes his faithlese counsels sold,
And voted Helen's stay for Paris' gold."!-- Pope's Iliad. for the word people gives the idea of many persons.
" The first, the court baron, is the freeholders' or freemen's court."-Nouns are of the third person, But some grammarians have
Coke. ascribed all the three persons to nouns. In only one form of con
" The angels adoring of Adam is also mentioned in the Talmud." struction, however, namely, the form that bears the name of Sale. apposition, can nouns have a first, a second, as well as a third
" It was necessary to have both the physician and the surgeon's person ; e. g.,
advice."Cooper, Nuuns in the first person: It is I, your old friend.
* And love's and friendship's finely-pointed dart second Thou, the man of my heart.
Fally blunted from each indurated heart."-Goldsmith.
He, the king of the Jews.
SKELETON MAPS.-NU. IV.
AFRICA. number, person, and case, they refer to the same person or thing, Our Map of France, with the Railways, not being ready for this and when the second is put in order to explain or add something number, we have inserted, for the use of our Geographical Stuin meaning to the first. The essence of apposition is in the fact that a word or words are endeavour to fill up, as we trust they have done the former
denis, a Skeleton Map of Africa, which they would do well to apposed (ad, to, and pono, I put), with a view to explain, enlarge, Skeleton Maps, from the lists of the Latitudes and Longitudes or quality a foregoing noun or pronoun. observe that in every case of apposition there are two parts, the vacant space in the left hand corner at the bottom of this Map,
of places giren on the margin or in the text. * Under the apposed part, and the part to which the apposition is made. Thus, intended for the name Africa, is a scale of British miles, of in the sentence, “ Richard, the king, lost his crown," the king is which each division stands for 100 miles distance on the Map. the apposed part, and Richard is the part to wbich the apposition The middle parallel of Latitude, marked 0 at both ends, is the is made. You will now readily see that the added part will partake of the 10, 20, 30, &c. on the sides, and proceed upwards to the top of
Equator; from this parallel, the Latitudes which are marked person as well as the number of the part to which the addition is the map, are North Latitudes; and those which are marked 10, made. Call the latter the principal part; call the former the sub-20, 30, &c. on the sides, and proceed downwards to the bottom ordinate. Then the rule may stand thus :
of the map, are South Latitudes. The dotted parallels of Lati. In apposition, the subordinate part agrees with the principal | tude are the tropics; the one in Lat. 23° 28' N. being the tropic part.
of Cancer, and the other in Lat. 23° 28' S. being the tropic of And this agreement will in general be not only in person and Capricorn ; between these two parallels, the sun shines vertically number, but also in gender and in case ; so that if the principal at noon on every place of the torrid zone, two days in the year. part is of the feminine gender, in the feminine gender will the sub- In laying down the Latitudes on this map, there will be ordinate part be; and whether the principal part stand to the verb little or no difficulty, inasmuch as the parallels of latitude have of the proposition in the relation of subject or object, in the same been made parallel straight lines; only let it be observed that relation will the subordinate part stand.
every black or white space on the sides of this Map must be In the sentences, “ It is 1; it is the Lord ; the Lord sitteth king reckoned two degrees of Latitude, that is, 120 Geographical for ever," and others in which the second noun or pronoun aids to miles, or about 140 British miles. In laying down the Longimake up the intended idea, the second must of course have the tudes, however, there will be considerable difficulty, owing to same grammatical relations as the first which it aids. Thus, king the curvature of the meridian lines. This will be obviated by has the same grammatical relations as the Lord. In other words, graduating with a pencil the Equator, or the parallel of Latithe rule mar be stated tbus :
tude marked 0 at both ends, exaotly like the degrees of LatiThe vcrb to be, and other verbs which in themselves do not tude at the sides of the map; for on the Equator the distance erpreis a complete idea, take the same.case after as before then. between one degree of Longitude and another is exactly equal Consequently, to say
" It is me," in answer to the question to the distance between one degree cf Latitude and another "who is that?" is ungrammatical.
* The list of the Latitudes and Longitudes of the Capitals or Remark, however, that it, used generally, is an exception so far Chief Cities in Africa will be found at page 62, vol. iii., of the as gender and number are concerned, for it is idiomatic to say ' Popular Educator."
on any meridian. Supposing, then, that the Latitude and 1. The trigonometrical rule for the construction of this table, Longitude of a place are given, and you wish to find its place is to multiply 60 Geographical miles, the length of a degree of on the map in order to lay it down; supposing, also, that the Longitude on the Equator, by the cosine of the given Latitude, Equator has been so graduated as we have said, and that the product will be the length of a degree of Longitude in the the degrees of Longitude are marked at every 10 degrees, given Latitude. exactly like the degrees at the top and bottom of the map; then place a piece of whalebone, or other equally flexible substance, on the given degree of Longitude at the top, at the
LESSONS IN ITALIAN GRAMMAR.-No, I. Equator or middle, and at the bottom, and it will assume
By CHARLES TAUSENAU, M.D., very nearly the proper curve form of the meridian ; while in of the University of Pavia, and Professor of the German and Italian this position, make a mark close alongside the piece of whale. Languages at the Kensington Proprietary Grammar School. bone at the given degree of Latitude, and this mark will represent the exact position of the place on the map whose Lati
INTRODUCTION, tude and Longitude are given. Remember, however, that propose to teach the grammar, structure, and vocabulary of every black or white space at the top and bottom of this map the Italian language by a method not commonly adopted by must be reckoned two degrees of Longitude, or 120 miles of Longi. the learned. A considerable experience in tuition has contude; these degrees or miles of Longitude vary in size according vinced me that a strict adherence to scientific forms, though to their position on the map,-a fact which must be sufficiently all-important in the cultivation of a language, does not tend to obvious to the attentive reader, seeing that the meridian lines the advantage of the learner. Writers of practical grammar ert, taper towards the poles both northward and southward, and that for the most part, in studying system too much. They teach all meridian lines do actually meet at the poles on the globe itself. grammar as they would the pure mathematics, as if an abstract
The following table will show the exact size of the science of itself, and not as a practical guide through the degrees of Longitude in Geographical miles of Latitude idiomatic intricacies of living languages. Such instructions according to their distance from the Equator ; if the size of may be very scientific in form, but they do not follow nature. these degrees be wanted in British miles, you have only There is no due separation of that which is the foundation, or to add to the number of Geographical miles given, one-sixth as it were the skeleton of a language, from those things which part of itseif, for a first approximation to the truth; to obtain are the ornaments, the delicacies, the accidents and exceptions the next approximation, a very close one, deduct one tenth of of speech. A language should be taught as anatomy is the preceding sixth-part from the first approximation, and you taught. We must first thoroughly study the bones, if we will have the number of British miles required. Suppose, for would successfully trace the intricate ramifications of nerves example, that you wished to know the length of a degree of and arteries. The learner of a foreign tongue cannot for him. Longitude in Lat. 40° north or south of the Equator. Look in self judge of what is material or immaterial to his sure and the table, in the column marked Deg. Lat. for 40, and in the rapid progress. It will be my endeavour to instruct by a col. adjoining column to the right marked Geog. miles, you will find loquial and natural, rather than a grammatical and purely 45.96; this shows that the length of a degree of Longitude in scientific method. Lat. 40°, is only about 46 Geographical miles, or exactly 45
The Italian language has for a long time been regarded in such miles and 96 hundredth parts of a mile. In order to find this country as a fashionable branch of education. Knowledge the number of British miles, take one-sixth part of 45-96, which of it has been reckoned an indispensable accomplishment of is 7.66, and add this part to itself ; this gives 53.62 for a first cultivated society, but rather, as it would seem to me, as a approximation to the truth; next take one-tenth part of 7.66, serviceable attendant at Italian picture galleries and operas, wnich is 766 or 77 nearly, and deduct this part from 53-62, than as a guide to the philosophy of a Dante, the invention of the first approximation ; this gives 52.85 for the next approxi. an Ariosto, or the sagacity of a Machiavelli. The present is mation. Tnus, we find that a degree of Longitude in Lat. 40° perhaps the first considerable attempt that has been made to is only 52:85 British miles.
popularise this noble and melodious tongue.
The Italian is the first born of the old language of Rome, Table showing the Length a Degree of Longitude on any Parallel and owns a strength and beauty worthy of its noble origin. of Latitude, between the Equator and the Poles :
In cultivation, it is the oldest of European tongues. When
Dante wrote, English, French, and German were comparatively Deg. Lat. Geog. Miles. Deg. Lat. Geoz. Miles Deg. Lat. Geog. Miles. rude dialects. To Italy, the world owes the preservation and re
generation of learning and the Arts; and its tine soil, the fertile
mother of great spirits of old, has produced to the latest times 0 60 00 31 51:43
men who have enriched every intellectual pursuit alike by their 59 99 50.88
27:24 2 59 96
genius and learning. The language in which they expressed 59 92
that infinite variety of thought and sentiment, contains a
66 24.40 literature, the rich mine of which is in foreign countries only 59 77 48 54
23 45 known to solitary and toilsome explorers. The time may not 59 67
22:48 be distant when the increased intercommunication of nations, 7 59 55
21 50 and the progress of popular education, will lay these rich 59 12
70 20:52 treasures open to the many. 59 26
71 19 53 For its own intrinsic merits, however, as a language, Italian 10 59 09
72 18 54 deserves to be studied by every one who would enjoy the 11 68 89
pleasures of style, inexhaustible in variety: the energy of Dante, 58 69
the graphic power of Boccaccio, the lyrical grace of Petrarca, 58 15
75 15.53 68 2!
the refinement of Ariosto, the ornament of Tasso, the satire 45
of Berni and Aretino, the historical dignity of Guicciardini and 16 57 67 47 4092
12:48 Botta, the point and perspicuity of Macchiavelli, the hilarity of 17 57 38
11:45 Casti, the music of Metastasio, and the Roman manliness of 18 67 06
10 42 Alfieri. And they who would cultivate language for its excel 65.73
9.38 lence must seek that of Italy for the ideal beauty of expression. 20 56 38
My method will be a natural, a simple, and, I trust, an easy 21 56 01 52 3691
I shall discard, as much as possible, all the conventional 22 55 63
terms of grammar. I shall not travel by the old beaten path. 55 23 23
way through the parts of speech. My grammatical progress 54.81 24 55 34 41
will imitate the action of the mind in the formation of a sen, 25 54.38 56 33.53
87 53 93 26
tence, with a due regard to peculiarities of idiom. As a child 57 32 68
first learns the name of a thing, I begin with the noun, as soon
0 00 as I have clearly explained the principles of pronunciation; and 29
as the child demonstrates its progress in thinking, by connect, 52:48
ing an action or suffering with the object named, I shall 61 29 09
60 30 00 30 51 96
40 41 42 43
12 13 14
43 88 43 16 42 34
proceed at once to the verbs. The verb is the life of a language, out the leading errors which Englishmen commit in pronounc- . and he who knows the verbs thoroughly has miastered the ing Italian. The reason of this is, that men are apt to transfer chief difficulty of his task. The remaining kinds of words will involuntarily the peculiarities of their own language to that be taught and discussed in the same natural order.
which they are studying. The first effort therefore in learning to These lessons will contain, if I may so speak, two grammars. pronounce Italian, should be to forget your native peculiarities, Presuming that I may find two classes of readers,-one anxious In the mastery of the pronunciation of the continental lanfor knowledge by the most easy and rapid manner, the other guages, and particularly of Italian, the Englishman's great diffi. with more preparation, inclination, and leisure for study,–I culty is in the vowels. have so shaped my labour as to combine in a form sufficiently The Englishman, perhaps from childhood, has heard no vowel marked though not separated, an elementary grammar which sounds but those of his own island-his four sounds of a, his shall give the before-mentioned indispensable foundation and four sounds of o, his three sounds of u, his two sounds of ¢, and skeleton; and a grammatical treatise which shall, with philo- his two sounds of 1,--sounds little swayed by rule, and changing sophical reasons, satisfactorily explain the ornaments, the continually. He begins Italian, but carrying to the study the delicacies, the accidents, and exceptions of the language. complex vocal habit of his language, it must be some time
As I have said, I shall not divide my grammar into parts of before he can comprehend and practise the simplicity and perspeech, but into paragraphs. In the paragraphs I shall dis- manence of the sound of one Italian a, one Italian é, one Italian u, tinctly mark the line of separation between the elementary two Italian e's, and two Italian o's. He therefore pronounces no grammar and the grammatical treatise by the title of "ADDI- vowel purely, and wherever he may move in Italy, his insular
The student who only desires to learn the nativity will be instantly recognised by the facchino of any language sufficiently to enable him to read, speak, and write village inn, from his inveterate habit of giving to the lialian á, with tolerabie accuracy, need only attend to the numbered that most comical of sounds to a Tuscan ear, of a in hat und fut. paragraph ; but he who would learn the language thoroughly, Another radical error committed by Englishmen in prise must follow me closely and carefully in all I may find occasion nouncing Italian, arises from two opposite principles which to say in the additional remarks.
may be said to be the fundamental rules of the accentuation of Each paragraph will be complete in itself--a decided step in the languages. In English, every word has its leading, marked, knowledge of the language. Every principle of the language or strongly accented syllable--generally speaking the root of will be clearly illustrated by examples, including vocabularies the word; and it follows that while this syllable is distinctly and exercises.
marked by the voice, the subordinate unaccented fade anay I have now only to ask the earnest and fatient attention of in the utterance into an airy nothingness that can hardly be my pupil readers.
described. It is quite different with Italian. It has its I.
accented syllables just as English, but the accent on the one
does not destroy the vocal enunciation of the others. On the I shall teach the pronunciation of the Italian language in contrary, full and substantial justice must be done to every more detail than is generally pursued in English tuition. The syllable, each being clearly sounded, full and roundly with profit to be derived from the study of any living language is the vowels, and in a resonant or vibrating tone with the conmuch less if we are unable to pronounce it correctly. We can
sonants. The contrast may be observed in the pronunciation make little practical use of our theoretical acquirements, it in of any of the many words of a kindred sound in both languages communication with those to whom this language is the derived from the same classic stock. Take the following: mother tongue, we can neither make ourselves understood when
Italian, we speak, nor understand when we are spoken to. And besides,
Dif-fi-col-tá. no man, though he may gather the sense, can relish or even
Vo-lon-ta-ria-men-ti. comprehend the beauties or delicacies of great poets, and prose
De-te-sta-bil-men-te. writers too, in any language, and more especially in that
Ge-ne-ro-sa-men-te. of Italy, without an accurate knowledge of the sounds. In
In-dif fe-ren-te-men-te. reading such poets as Ariosto or Tasso, the pleasure does not
Re-pe-ti-zi-o-ne. consist altogether in appreciating the thoughts or even shades of thoughts, but in the faculty to enjoy that divine harmony This peculiarity of the English language, it may be remarked, to which they bave attuned the language. One may relish the is the great obstacle which every English poet has enbeauty of the rose, but if he is deprived of the sense of smell, countered in the effort to naturalise the classic measures of he can admire only a lifeless beauty. Such students of the antiquity. Contrasted with the open limpid vocalisation of Italian poets, to use a more homely figure, may read their poetry Italy, the pronunciation of the English is to an Italian so with the satisfaction with which one might admire a Turkey obscure or indistinct, as very frequently not to be even undercarpet, who has seen the reverse side only. There is no insu- stood. It might be presumed that in a word so sonorous as perable or even very considerable difficulty in mastering detestabilmente or volontariamente it would be impossible to miss Italian pronunciation ; but a thoughtful attention to some the true sounds, yet an Englishman will, generally speaking su leading principles, and a student-like diligence, are conditions slur over what he would from the analogy of his own language essential to success. My thoughtful and industrious pupils conceive to be the subordinate parts of the word, as to be often will very soon find that a prolixity in this the very outset of quite unintelligible to an Italian. my labours which might seem trifling, is really most impor. A third and radical difference between the two languages, as tant-one of the fundamental parts of the language.
regards the principles of pronunciation, proceeds from what I am aware that I am writing for the most part for adult may be termed the vocal mechanism or the physical principles readers; but let them for a little space for et the dignity of of enunciation. Shortly stated, the physical difference is this, manhood; for every learner of a larguage, be ne as old as Cato in England, they speak from the mouth; in Ilaly, from the was when he learnt Greek, should be regarded as a child chest. The Englishman whispers his words through the palate, learning to express his thoughts. Indeed the more he is tongue, teeth, or lips ; the Italian throws them out with the taught a foreign tongue as the child his mother's speech, the vigour of his lungs. When therefore the Englishman attempts better for him.
the pronunciation of Italian after his accustomed mode, he con. A living language can never be accurately and completely fines the open sounds of Italy to the limited mechanism of his expressed by signs. They who profess the contrary only hissing or lisping articulation above the throat, and turns mislead the uninformed. But a tolerable approach to accuracy Italian melody into harmonious discord, now a croak, now a in fixing pronunciation may be made by letter-signs represent. hiss. ing analogous sounds familiar to the ear in one's own lan- These are the radical differences and difficulties which my guage. If one has made himself so faniliar with the imitated readers must strive to overcome. This is only to be accomsounds, as to have acquired a considerable vocal command of plished by a constant recollection of these points of difference the leading ones, he may very soon accurately and perma- in connection with the rules I am about to state and illustrate, nently acquire them, by a few brief communications with an and by reading aloud, and with a clear and distinct voice uttered educated native.
from the chest, every Italian word which I may have occasion Perhaps the most useful beginning I can make, is to point to give in the course of the grammar
LESSONS IN GREEK.-No. VIII.
a whip. The minds of men are led by the harp. Ravens croak. By John R. BEARD, D.D.
The pipe (plural) delights shepherds. The she-goals are driven to the meadow. The shepherd sings to the pipe. The daughter
has a beautiful face, but a bad voice. THE THIRD DECLENSION (Continued). NOUNS WHOSE STEM ENDS IN A CONSONANT.
Of another class under this head, the stem ends in a T sound,
that is, in either o, T, KT, 0, or vo. The nouns in the ensuing c. The Nominative appends o to the stem.
table are ή λαμπας (instead of λαμπας), α torch; ή κορυς (inOf this subdivision the first class has a stem which ends instead of κορυθς), o helmet; ο, ή ορνις (ορνιθς), a bird; ο αναξ a Psound, or in a K sound; that is, in either β, π, φ, or in (ανακτς), αking; and ή έλμινς (ελμινθς), « tapeworn. γ. γγ, κ, χ. Observe that with a P sound makes it, and
S. Ν. with a K sound, makes &
έλμινς G. λαμη άδ-ος κορινθ-ος ορνίθ-ος ανακτος έλμινθος i storm. . ó raren.
ó the gullet (throat). D. λαμπάδ-ι κορύθ-ι ορνίθ.ι ανακτ-ι έλμινθ-1 S. Ν. λαιλαψ κοραξ λαρυγξ Α. λαμπάδ-α κορυν
ορνίν ανακτ-α έλμινθ-a G. λαιλαπ-ος
έλμινς D. λαιλαπκοράκι
Ρ. Ν. λαμπάδ-ες κορύθ-ες ορνιθες ανακτ-ες έλμινθες λαιλάπα κοράκα
G, λαμπάδων κορύθων ορνίθων ανακτων ελμινθ ων λαιλάψ κοραξ λαρυγξ
D. λαμπά σι* κορσι* ορνί-σι* αναξ. * έλμι-σι* Ρ. Ν. λαιλάπες κοράκ-ες
Α. λαμπάδ -ας κορύθ ας ορήθ-ας ανακτ-ας έλμινθ- ας G. λαιλάπ-ων κοράκ - των λαρυγγ-ων
Υ. λαμπάδες κορύθ-ες ορνίθ-ες ανακτες ελμινθ-ες D, λαιλάψι κοραξ-ι
D. Ν. Α.V.λαμπάδ-ε κορύθ-ε ορνιθ-ε ανακτ-ε ελμινθε Α. λαιλάπας κοράκ. ας λαρυγγ-ας
G.D. λαμπάδ-οιν κορύθ-οιν ορνίθ-ων ανακτ-οινέλμινθουν V. λαιλαπ-ες κοράκ ες
λαρυγγ-ες D. N, A.V. λαιλαπ-ε κοράκ - 6
The noun o, η παις, child, has in the vocative παι.
λαρυγγ·ε G, D. λαιλαπ-Οιν κοράκ-οιν λαρυγγουν Here belong the adjectives in ις and ι, (gen, ίδος, ίτος) as o,
ή ευχαρις, το ευχαρι, (g. έτος), pleasing, graceful; also, those in Here belong the adjectives in ξ (gen. γος, κος, χος) and Ψας, gen. αδος), as o, η φυγας, (g. φυγάδ-ος), an exile, or banished (gen. πος), as o, ή, άρπαξ, άγος (Latin rapar, English ανασιομε); person; those, too, in ης, α. ητος), 15 ο, ή αργης, (g. ητος), white; ό, ή ήλιξ, έκος, αεφualis, of the same age ; ο, ή μωνυξ, ύχος, one- those, moreover, in ως, (g. ωτος) as ό, ή αγνως, (g, αγνωτος), hoofed, having solid hoofs (μονος, alone, one, μια ονυξ, a hoof), (unknown; and those in ις, (g. ιδος), as ό, ή αναλεις, (κ. αναλ. and o, ή αιγιλιψ, ίπος, lofty.
κίδος), without strength ; ή πατρις (sc. γη ιαnd,) g. πατρίδ-ος,
one's native country; finally, those in 'ūs, (g. ūčos), as o, ? VOCABULARY.
νεηλυς, (g. νεηλυτος), recently come. Οψ, οπος, ή, voice; (Lat. vox.) Αγων, ωνος, o, a contest in the
VOCABULARY. Ωψ, ωπος, ή, the countenance, public games. fair,
a cock. .
Γελως, ωτος, ο, 1aughter.
Φιλοχρημοσυνη, ης, η, love 1 Μαστιξ, ίγος, ή, whip, αδω, I sing.
Ερως, οτος, ο, Ιove (English
money, avarice. erotic, as in erotic poems). Αθηναιος, o, an Athenian. scourge.
Πας, πασα, παν, every; in the Ορτυξ, υγος, o, a quail. Ιππος, ου, o, a horse.
Κακοτης, ητος, ή baseness. plural, παντες, all. Συριγξ, ιγγος, ή, a shepherd's Oρχηθμος, ου, o, a dance. Νεοτης, ητος, ή, youngness, “Απας, άπασα, απαν, another
youth. ρίφe, Pandean (from the Πολυπονος, ον, laborious.
form of πας, πασα, παν, the rural divinity, Pan) pipes Ελαυνω, Idrive.
"Ομοιοτης, ητος, ή, likeness, å giving the force of toge
resemblance. Τεττιξ, ίγος, o, the grasshopper. Κρωζω, I croak.
ther, all together, so of comΚαι--και, Φορμιγξ, ιγγος, ή, he harp.
Χαρις, ίτος, ή, loveliness, plea- hination, Κολαξ, άκος, o, a flatterer. Δε, but, μεν-δε, particles de- 8111gness, favour, οι nefit, Αδελφος, ου, o, a brother, Μυρμηξ, ηκος, o, the ant.
noting a contrast.
gratitude (Lit. gratia, Eng. Αδελφη, ης, ή, a sister. Φεναξ, ακος, ύ, a deceiver.
ΤΙλουτος, ου, ό, wealth,
Πλουσιος, α, ον, rich.
Ελπις, ελπίδος, ή, hope. Εγείρω, I stir up, arouse,
Παις, παιδος, ό, ή, a cliild, εon, awaken. Οι κορακες κρωζουσιν. Τους κολακας φευγε. Απεχου του daughter.
which φενάκος. Οι ανθρωποι τερπονται φορμιγγι και ορχηθμω και μου- Νυς, νυκτος, ή, light.
Φροντις, ίδος, ή, care.
here acts as an intensive, that Οι ιπποι μαστιξιν ελαυνονται. Αί φορμιγγες τους των ανθρωπων Πενης, πενητος, ο, ή, poor.
is, it strengthens the force
of the verb. θυμους τερπουσιν. Τεττιξ μεν τεττιγι φιλος, μυρμηκι δε μυρμης Κουφος, η, ον, light, light. Κατακρυπτω, I conceal. (ac.ή εστιν). Οι ποιμενες προς τας συριγγας αδoυσιν. Παρα minded,
Κολαζω, I punish, chastise. τους Αθηναιοις και ορτυγων και αλεκτρυονων αγωνες ησαν. οι Απορια, ας, ή. Want of means, Μακαριζω, I account happy
destitution, eed. ποιμενες τας των αιγων αγελας εις τους λειμωνας ελαυνουσιν.
congratulate. μυρμηκων και ορτυγων βιος πολυπογος εστιν. Πολλοι αγαύην
EXERCISES.-GREEK-ENGLISH. μεν ωπα, κακην δε οπα εχουσιν.
Οι ορνιθες αδoυσιν. Χαρις χαριν τικτει, ερις εριν. Μακαριζομεν ENGLISH-GREEK.
την νεοτητα. Απορια τικτει εριδας. Πλουσιοι πολλακις την Ιανoid a Hatterer. Ravens croak. You are delighted by the κακοτητα πλουτω κατακρυπτουσιν. Ω καλε παι, στερνε τον harp. Dances delight men. They drive the horses with (dat.) αγαθον αδελφον και την καλην αδελφην. Η φιλοχρημοσυνη μητης
κακοτητος άπασης εστιν. Οι πενητες πολλακις εισιν ευδαιμονες. * The ota, which is subscript with small letters, is written | Η σοφια εν τοις των ανθρωπων θυμους θαυμαστους των καλων by the side of capitals, but not sounded; thus φδη becomes | ερωτας ενεγείρει, ο θανατος τους ανθρωπους φροντιδων απολυει. Ωιδη, and αδω becomes Αιδω.
“Η φιλια δια ομοιοτητος γιγνεται. Oινος εγείρει γελωτα. Εν νυκτι Note, . stands for scilicet (that is, scire licet) and points βουλη τους σοφους γιγνεται. A word is understood, that 18, left out, and is to be | Οι ανθρωποι πολλακις κουφαις ελπισι τερπονται:
Οι σοφοι κολαζουσι την κακοτητα. : sc. is therefore equivalent to our that is, or supply: α. εστιν Γmeans that the verb εστι, 18, being omitted athor, is to be supplied by the reader.
• Instead of Λαμπαδσι, κορυθσι, ορνιθσι ανακτσι, a nil ελμινθσι,