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red in a district of red sandstone, grey in one of shales, black now 100 feet above the level of the sea, in the Gulf of in one of coal, and white in one of chalk. Boulders of this Bothnia. On the summit of this ridge lie scattered numerous description are easily accounted for. But all over Russia, large boulders of gneiss, in size from nine to sixteen feet in Poland, Germany, Holland, England, Ireland, Canada, and diameter. The sand on which the boulders rest is full of shells North America, broad plains and the sides of mountains have which now inhabit the Baltic sea. Hence, the boulders were boulders strewed over them, for which there is no paren: brought thither after the Baltic was formed, and were transrock within scores and even hundreds of miles.

ported across the waters of that sea. Boulders and stony fragments of this description abound in In Scotland, the Grampian Hills are from 3,000 to 4,000 feet England. They are frequently met with, in fields, half buried high. To the south of these mountains lies the deep and wide in the soil, and are often turned up by excavations in road- ! valley of Strathmore. To the south of Strathmore are the making and railway cutting. Whenever you see a boulder, it | Sidlaw Hills, composed of sandstone and shales. On the flanks suggests to you two questions : first, where has it come from? 1 of these hills, at an elevation of 1,500 feet above the ceea, are found and secondly, what brought it to the place it now occupies ? large blocks of mica schist, some of them three, some of them Geologists have examined these two questions with much fifteen feet, in diameter. Blocks of precisely the same charac. attention and skill, but they could find no satisfactory answers, ter ure strewed in the intervening valley of Strathmore, all of before they adopted the hypothesis of the transporting power which have come from the Grampians, fifteen miles from the of drifting icebergs and packed ice.

Sidlaws. To the South of the Sidlaws are the Pentland Hills, To interest you in the solution of these two questions, it is about 1,100 feet above the sea. On one side of these hills necessary to mention some of the most remarkable facts con- there is a huge block of mica schist, from eight to ten tons in nected with this boulder deposit, or, as it has been called, the weight, which must have come from the Grampians fifty miles NORTHERN DRIFT.

off, and which must have been borne over the Sidlaws about 1. There can be no doubt that all the boulders have come thirty miles distant. from the north; for their course, both in Europe and America, 3. The fragments which form these boulders have been is found to be either due north and south, or varying a few removed to an immense distance from their parent rocks, or degrees to north-west and south-enst. The immense plains of what geologists call rocks in situ. In the southern parts of Russia and Poland are covered with thousands of blocks of Russia and Germany many of these boulders are found at the granite, all of which agree in mineralogical character with the distance of 800 miles, and some even 1,000 miles, from the mountains of Lapland and Finland. In Denmark, Holstein, nearest rocks from which they could have been dislodged.

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and Pomerania, the sandy flats have, scattered over their wholej Boulders from Scandinavia are found on the declivities of the
extent, fragments of syenite, gneiss, and trap, exactly of the Alps. Instances of similar extent of transportation abound
same description as the rocks of Sweden and Norway. among the boulders scattered over the northern districts of

Boulders, containing specimens of almost all known rocks, the United States of America.
have been transported to the eastern counties of England. In 4. The most remarkable and the most puzzling circumstance
Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, Bedfordshire, Herts, Mid- in this formation, is the fact, that some of these boulders have
dlesex,

Essex, Suffolk and Norfolk have been found fragments evidently been transported from a lower to a higher level, from šilurian rocks, carboniferous series, lias, oolite, chalk, Near Kirby Lonsdale, there are many large blocks of trap, granite, and other crystalline rocks. Some of these boul. grauwacke scattered

over the mountain limestone at an elevaders could have come only from Norway and Sweden, for Sir tion of from 50 to 100 feet above the parent

rock, and even CHARLES Lyell traced them from those two countries to almost to the top of the Pell

, 500 feet above their original posiDenmark across the Elbe, through Westphalia, to the borders tion. In that district there is another case in which boulders of Holland. "We need not,” he says, " be surprised to find have been transported from the Vale of Eden, where the parent them reappear on our eastern coast, between the Tweed and rock is 500 feet above the sea, to and over the pass of Stainthe Thames--regions not half so remote from Norway as are moor, at the height of 1,400 feet, so that these boulders lie now many Russian erratics from the source whence they came.'' 900 feet above the level of the rock in situ. Similar facts are

On the western coast, and in the midland counties of Eng. found on Ben Erin on the western side of Glen Roy, on
land, similar facts are met with. On the coasts, in the plains, Arthur's Seat near Edinburgh, in the Isle of Man, and in North
and on the sides of the hills, of Lancashire and Cheshire, and America.
through Shropshire, Staffordshire, and Worcestershire, im-

One of the most singular facts connected with the elevated mense deposits of pebbles and a vast number of boulders are position of boulders occurs in North Wales. As the traveller found scattered, which must have been transported thither journeys westward on the Holyhead Road, he comes to Llyn from Cumberland and Dumfriesshire in Scotland.

Ogwen, and on his left rises à precipitous mountain called 2. Boulders have been transported across seas and lakes and Moel Tryfaen, which attains the height of 1,392 feet above the plains, and over the ridges of high hills and mountains. Near level of the sea. On the summit of this rock are found chalk Upsala, in Sweden, there is a ridge of sand and gravel that is flints associated with boulders of various kinds. There is

good reason to believe that the chalk Aints were transported denly. This is proved from the general absence of organic from Ireland, and therefore from a considerably lower level. remains in the clays and sands, which are found to cover the Facts of this description form one class of the difficulties which formation of the drift boulders, and from the complete preserpress upon the theory of icebergs as the agents of transporta- vation of the flesh and the hair of the elephants which were tion; for no Aoating ice could possibly transport boulders from discovered in the frozen mud of Siberia. a lower to a higher level. Mr. Darwin ascribes these results 4. This great and sudden reduction of the temperature to the joint action of floating icebergs and of packed coast ice. would fill the glens of the Polar mountains with immense He shows that on Moel Tryfaen the well-rounded pebbles of glaciers, which, as explained in our last lesson, would stretch chalk flints and other boulders were, in all probability, trans far into the waters of the Northern Sea. Even at the present ported by coast ice, though it is at the same time evident, fron day, many of the glaciers that descend the ravines of Spiztberthe extraordinary manner in which the laminæ of the slate gen project several hundred feet from the coast into the sea. rocks have there been shattered, that icebergs have also been Indeed, at this epoch, called the glacial period, it is probable driven against them when under water ; so that both actions that northern mountains of comparatively moderate height seem to have concurred in that neighbourhood,

would have their valleys filled with glaciers, and that vast You have now been informed of the remarkable positions of sheets of ice would stretch eastward, and westward, and southdistance and elevation in which boulders are discovered. Our ward, as far as the phenomena of boulders have been observed. next business is to try to answer the question,-how they 5. In other circumstances the icebergs detached from these came there. The most skilful geologists found it almost impos: glaciers that protruded into the Polar seas, would take up, and sible to account for the position of boulders, before they adopted convey to a distance huge masses of rock, which water alone, the glacial, or rather the iceberg theory, called also the glacio. however impetuous, could never have moved, and would aqueous.

transport them hundreds of miles without wearing off the angu. At first all inquirers were misled by the assumption that larity oftheir edges. the boulders had been transported and deposited by the deluge 6. As the lower surface of the icebergs would either be of Noah, on which account they gave to this formation the abraded by the action of the sea, or melted by the increased name of Diluvium. Others, and some of them very distin- | temperature in the south, the masses of clays, sands, gravels, guished geologists, like Mr. Hopkins of Cambridge, ascribed and boulders, which they had brought down as glaciers, or their removal to a series of diluvial waves that swept over the imbedded as coast-ice, would drop down and se scattered at land.

random over the bottom of the sea. Though the iceberg theory has its difficulties, and does not 7. The bottom of this sea might be extensive plains, or high fully meet all the phenomena of the case, yet it seems to come ridges of hills. When you consider that seven parts out of

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nearest to the vera causa, or the real agency that produced the eight of a high iceberg are under water, it is obvious that such result.

a deep body of ice, in moving southward, would strike against 1. It is certain that all the boulders come from the north. the crests or the flanks of these submarine ridges, and there deAll the rocks, of which boulders are specimens, are in situ posit its clays and boulders. These submarine hills became, at towards the north. All the shells which are frequently found another geological period, elevated, by volcanic action, to an in the clays associated with the boulders indicate a northern elevation much higher than the sea, and bearing on their climate. There seems also an intimate connexion between a ridges or sides the boulders that had been imbedded in their very cold or extreme northern climate, and the various geolo- surface of clay or sand. gical appearances which have been called glacial.

8. The application of the iceberg theory to the elucidation of 2. In the neighbourhood of the Baltic, the course of the boulder phenomena is in full harmony with all that science erratic blocks, and the grooving and the smoothing of rocks, | has taught us about glaciers. What we know of terminal have been traced from the level of the sea shore to elevations moraines corresponds with the accumulations of clay and gravel of above 3,000 feet. Nothing of this kind has been found which are called the Drift, and which are found associated either on the shores or on the sides of the rocks above the with the blocks or boulders. It also accounts for the smoothMediterranean, nor in the equatorial parts of Asia, Africa, and ing and grooving of rocks, for the parallelisms in the markings America.

or striæ on the surface of rocks, and for the high and precipi. 3. It can be proved that at an earlier age in the history of tous ledges on which the boulders have been lodged. our globe, at the close of the tertiary period, the northern Boulder phenomena, however, present three difficulties hemisphere was considerably colder than it is at present, and which the iceberg hypothesis does not seem to obriate. First, that this diminution in the temperature took place very sud- boulders are frequently found water-worn and rounded at the

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edges, -a result which would not be produced by transportal Now, imagine such a coast, şo covered with boulders, to be
in icebergs. Secondly, the size of the boulders, as a general subsiding. As it gradually subsides, the coast-ice would, by
rule, diminishes as their course is traced southward, whereas the first perful gale, be driven still higher up, and thus, as
an iceberg would easily have carried a block of twenty tons as the subsidence continued and the gales repeated, the boulders
far as a boulder of twenty pounds. Thirdly, floating icebergs would be impelled onwards and upwards. When this land
could not have placed boulders on elevations many hundred would again emerge and appear above the waves, the boulders
feet higher than the rocks from which they are derived. To on its sides or ledges would lie far above the neighbouring
enable the iceberg hypothesis to meet these difficulties, Mr. rock from which they were derived.
· Darwin has brought to its aid the agency of coast-ice, and Sir RODERIC MURChisox, in his “ Geology of Russia," has
especially the action which is called the packing of the ice, as thrown considerable light upon the boulder and drift deposits.
witnessed in high latitudes.

He thinks that when the granitic rocks of Norway and Sweden,
1. It is possible that such boulders might have been worn &c., were emerging from the ocean, their rugged pinnacles
and rounded while they were in charge of glaciers in polar were shattered into huge fragments by the expansive power of
· valleys, and worn in their progress towards the coast, before the severe frost of the period. Glacicts carried these enormous
they came far enough to form the constituents of an iceberg. masses to the sea-coast, whence they were taken up by icefloes,
The coast-ice, however, that is formed on shallow shores, even which, by the force of subaquæcus currents, transported them
where nó glaciers protrude, will take up and enclose the stones hundreds of miles to the south, and then deposited them
and pebbles that lie along the coast. When the ice melts, on the sea bottom. These submarine deposits were, in a
they drop, and the next winter's ice takes them up again. Or subsequent period, upheaved above the ocean to form the dis-
the coase-ice that imbeds them inay strand them with violence triels which are now called Russia and Germany, where the
on a different part of the shore ; and such ice may become boulders deposited by icebergs are the monuments of the
detached icefloes, which carry these fragments over rocky change by which the bottom of the sca became dry land.
shoals, and thus wear and polish them. As such coast-ice is
not very thick, it is likely to be landed iu shallow places : then,
by the action called the packing of the ice, the pebbles and
boulders imbedded in it will be driven up the beach, and will

LESSONS IN FRENC 11.--No. LXXIX. eventually be left perched on ledges of rock. On the sup

By Professor Louis FasqualLE, LL.D.
position that such a coast would become submerged and again
rise above the sea, it might be expected that boulders, which 139,-Virus REQUINING THE PREPOSITION de BEFORE AN
had thus been buoyed up by coast-ice during long-continued

INFINITIVE.
ages, would be well rounded.
2. The gradual decrease in the size of the boulders, the

Abstenir (s'), lo a'istain

Disol. r (se), to griere further we proceed from the parent-rocks, does not always hold Achever, to ji ni h

Accuser (s'), to accuse one's self Détourner, to dissuale good. Mr. Darwin says, that on the plains of Patagonia, Aflecter, to agi ct

Ditrérer to put ou the two largest boulders that he saw were near the outskirts of Alliger (3"), to griere

Diru, to say, tell

3.sconvenir, to deny
the deposit. When boulders are transported in sheets of ice, Agir (8'), unip., to be the question Discontinuer, to discontinue
or fragments of coast-ice, called icefloes, the buoying and Applaudir (s"), to rejoi se

Dispenser, to dispense
transporting agent is not of disproportionate power to iis burden. Apprehender, to apprehend Dispenser (-c), 10 forbar
As the icefloe decays, the heaviest fragments would naturally Avertir, lo toarn

Disculper (se), to ar logisk
be apt to drop out first. The accounts of navigators intimate Aviser (s"), to belhink ore's self Dissuader, tu dissuade
that the larger boulders taken up by coast-ice are, during Avoir coutume, to be accustone

Duuter, to doubt
come winters, not moved at all, while the smaller ones are

Esforcer (s), to endearour
drifting onwards.
Hence the boulders that have travelled Avoir envie, so wisid

Avoir dessein, to intend

Elfrayer (s'), to be frightened farthest, would, from having been repeatedly stranded every Avoir garde, to take care

Empeclier, to precent summer, be most worn, and therefore would be smaller than Avoir honte, to be asumed

Empresser (8'), to hasten those which had travelled a shorter distance.

Epouvanter (s"), to be frightened

Avoir intention, to intenu
The iceberg theory is itself almost sufficient to account for Avoir le temps, to hare tine

Entreprendre, to undertake

Enrager, to be reed this sorting of the boulders. Icebergs Roat in a sea of variable Avoir le courage, to hare couruje Etonner (9'), to wonder depth. The heavier boulders require larger icebergs to buoy Avoir peur, to lw, afoutil

Tviter, to arvid them up. The greater the voluine of the iceberg, the sooner

Avoir raison, to be right

Excuser (s'), to excuse one's self would it, in its southward course, strike against the shallower Avoir regret, to regret

Féliciter, to congratıslate parts of the sea bottom, and deposit its clays and blocks; but

Ivoir tort, to be wrong

Femdre, to fcign the smaller and lighter iccfoes, laden with finer gravel and

Avoir sujet, to have reason

Flatter (se), to fatter one's sely smaller boulders, would pass over to a much greater ais. Blamer, to Wame

Avoir soin, to take care

Frémir, to shviler

Garder (se), to take care tance.

Bruler, to rish ardenly 3. As to the transportal of boulders from a lower to a higher Censurer, to censure

Gúmir, to lament

Glurifier (se), to prile one's sl level, it is not supposed that this takes place universally, but | Ceszer, 1o cause

lasarder (se), to ventura only in certain favourable situations, and which inay be Chagriner (se), to grieve oe's self lliter (se), to hasien accounted for by the action called the packing" of icefloes. Charger, to desire, to intrust Imputer, to impule Voyagers who have navigated polar regions have stated that Charger (se), to take on one's self Indigner (s'), to be inulimaan! the pack-ice frequently piles up and leaves blocks of stone at

Chuis r, to choose

Ingérer (8"), to lake into one's koad the height of thirty feet above high water-mark.

Commander, to command

Iuspirer, to inspire
In accounting for the erratic boulders and grooved rocks of Conseiller, lo cleise

Conjurer, to beseech

Jurer, to swear
Canada and North America, Sir CHARLES L.YELL supposes that contenter (se), to be satisfied.

Nanquer, to fail
the land thus circumstanced first subsided grr dually into the Convaincre, to conrince

Méditer, to think, to in'end!

Dieler (se), to meldle sea, and then, by an agency from below, emerged and attained Convenir, to become, suit

Menacer, to threaten a higher level than before. While it was in the process of Corriger, lo correct

Mériter, to deserre sinking, the sea that then bordered it was covered with ice. Craindre, lo fear

Moquer (se), to largh at bergs floating from the north. As these bergs grounded on Decourager, to discourage

Mourir (figu.), to long the shallow bottoms, or the sides of ridges in the sea, the force Dédaigoer, to disdnin

Négliger, to neglecs that propelled them pushed along also materials of sand, Défendre, lo fo:bid

Niur, to deny gravel, and pebbles, which then lay at the bottom cf the sea. Détier, to challenge, toilure

Défendre (se), to derline

Pardonner, to er: use
By the combined forces of the current and of the iceberg, the Dépêcher (4'), (0 hesten

l'arier, to speak
rugged and angular blocks which were embedded in the lower D. saceontumer

Passer (se), to tlo rcilhou surface of the iceberg, and which projected out of it, would

l'ermettre, io permit

Cue),
have the power of marking or grooving the underlaying rocks, Digabituer

to luse of

P'ersuader, to persuade

l'iquer (se), to take pride in by which action the blocks themselves would become worn

Plaindre, to pity and rounded.

Désespérer, to despair

Plaindre (se), to complain

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Nous aimons, nous instruisons, | praise our children.

Prendre garde, to take care, heed Reprendre, to censure

(4.) The participle past, having avoir for an auxiliary, I'rendre soin, to take care Réprimander, to reprimand

agrees with its direct regimen, when that regimen precedes the Frescrire, to prescribe

Reprocher (se), lo reproach one's participle:-
Presser, to urge

Résoudre, to resolve

(self
Presser (se), to hasten

Ressouvenir (se), to remember La lettre que vous avez écrile. The letter which you have written.
Présumer, to presume
Rire, to laugh

Pédro, qu'as tu fait de nos mon. Pedro, what hast thou done with
Prier, to desire
Rougir, to blush

tures ?-Seigneur, je les ai attachées our horses? By lord, I have fast-
Promettre, to promise
Scandaliser (se), to take offence

à la grille.

LE SAGE ened them to the graie.
Proposer, to propose
Scoir (unip.), to become, suit

Les meilleures harangues sont The best addresses are those which
Proposer (se), to intend
Sommer, to summon
celles que le cour a dictées.

the heart has dic'ated.
Protester, to protest
Soupçonner, 10 suspect

MARMONTEL.
l'unir, to punish
Souvenir (se), to remember

Je les ai cherchés dans tous les I hare sought them in every corner,
Rebuter (se), to be weary
Susire (unip ), to suffice

coins, et je ne les ai pas trouvés. but have not found them.
Recommander, to recommend Suggérer, to suggest

MME, DE Genlis.
Refuser, to refuse

Supplier, to beseech
Regretter, to regret
Tenter, to attempt

(5.) But, if the direct regimen is placed after the participle,
Réjouir (se), to rejoice
Trembler, to tremble

this participle remains in variuble :-
Remercier, to thank

Vanter (se), to boast
Repentir (se), to repent

J'ai reçu votre lettre.

I have received your letter.

C'est la vérité elle-même qui lui It is truth itself which has dictated Il vaut micux hasarder de saurer It is better to run the risk of a dicté ces belles paroles.

to him those fine words.
un coupable que de condamner un sparing a guilty person, than to con-

BOSSET.
innocent.
VOLTAIRE. demn an innocent one.

Les dieux ont attaché presque The gods have attached almost as
Le monde se vante de faire des The world boasts that it can render autant de malheurs à la liberté, many misfurtunes to liberty, as to
heureux.
MASSILLON. men happy.

qu'à la servitude.

servitude.

MONTESQUIEU.
$ 133.-RULE.
(1.) Two or more verbs may govern the same object, pro-
vided they require the same regimen :--

CORRESPONDENCE.
We love, we instruct, and we
et nous louons nos enfants.

(We insert the following remarks "On Bathing when heated," This sentence is correct, because aimer, instruire, and lorer, readers who are fond of this exercise. Of course, we do not com

because we think them well worthy the attention of those of our being active verbs, govern one and the same case, the direct regimen.

mit ourselves entirely to the accuracy of every point, because we

have not had sufficient personal experience; but we coa sider that (2.) But when the verbs require different regimens, they there is much truth in what our correspondent says.) cannot govern one and the same noun; and therefore another form must be given to the sentence. We could not say in

ON BATHING WHEN HEATED. French,-Un grande nombre de vaisseaux entrent et sortent de ce port tous les mois,-A great number of vessels enter and go out Sir,--At the end of the article on Physical Education which has of ihis port every month, because the verb entrer reaches its regi- reference to bathing in your No. for August 27th, you place certain men by means of the preposition dans, and sortier by means of rules to be attended to by the bather before going into the water. the preposition de. We should say :

I am well aware that it has been long a popular as well as profeso

sional axiom that sudden vicissitudes of temperature are dangerous, Un grand nombre de vaisseaux A large number of vessels enter that a previous hot state of body augments the hurtful effects of cold entrent dans ce port et en sortent this port and leave it every month. however applied; but the proposition thus broadly stated is not tous les mois.

universally true. The in habitants of Russia are in the habit, while

reeking from vapour baths, of immediately rolling in the snow, or See $ 92, (1.) (2.), also note, and § 140.

plunging into cold water without suffering from the change. Cap

iain Scoresby, while in the Arctic Regions, often passed from his § 134.-THE PARTICIPLE Past.

room where the temperature was from 550 to 60° to the mast head, (1.) We have seen [$ 66, (3.)] that the participle past, not nience ; and other instances may be brought forward. Thus it is

where it was only 10°, without receiving any injury or inconveaccompanied by an auxiliary, assumes the gender and number plain that the proposition which assigns danger to extreme vicissi. of the noun which it qualifies

iudes of temperature requires some limitation; the effect of a sud. Les inimitiés sourdes et cachées Quiet and conccaled enmity is den descent from one point to another in the scale of temperature, vont plus à craindre que les baines more to be feared than open and de- varies according to the state of the body at the time. Man, toouvertes et déclarées. Noël. clared hatred.

gether with the warm-blooded animals, you are aware, by the faculty

of evolving heat, maintain the same degree of inward temperature (2.) The participle past accompanied by the auxiliary étre, under very different degrees of outward temperature. Now if this agrees in gender and number with the subject of the verb, power of evolving heat be entire, active and persistent, no peril whether the subject be placed before or after it. (See $ need attend even riolent alterations of external temperature. 135, (1.)]

Unusual heat of the body at the time when the cold is applied, so

far from implying danger, is really the condition of safety, provided Le fer est émoussé ; les bûchers | The sword is Wunted ; the piles that heat is steady and permanent; but if a person be exhausted sont éteints. VOLTAIRE. are extinguished.

and weakened by exercise, rapidly parting with his heat, if he La vertu obscure est souvent Humble virtue is often despised. remains at rest alter and during the application of cold, then it is méprisée. MASSILLON.

highly perilous, and likely to produce mischief. Thus cold is Les Grecs étaient persuadés, que The Greeks were persuaded, that dangerous not when the body is hot, but when the body is cooling l'âme est immortelle. the soul is immortal.

after having been heated. Thus those whose business it is to BARTHÉLEMY.

advise, may caution the public against the common mistake which Quant il vit l'urne où étaient When he perccived the urn in has had its origin in the unqualified credit given to the maxim, renfermées les cendres d'Hippias, il which were enclosed the ashes of that sudden vicissitudes of external temperature and exposure to Verga un torrent de larmes.

Hippias, lue shed a torrent of tears. cold while the body is hot are dangerous, whereas they are only Fénélox.

dangerous under certain circumstances. Thus wet feet or a wet

skin need cause no apprehension, so that active exercise is con(3.) The participle past, having avoir as its auxiliary, never cipued; but when that exercise ends, then it is that a change of agrees with the nominative :

clothes and a further avoidance of the application of cold is imporVous riez? Ecrivez qu'elle a ri. You laugh? Put down that she tant. You may safely tell the bather, ihat after walking on a hot RACINE. laughed.

day to the river's side, he had better not wait to cool himself a little dies amis ont parlé; leurs caurs My friends have spoken; {kæir before he plunges into the stream. The point to be remembered sont attendris, VOLTAIRE, hearts are muwed.

is that the heat which is preternaturally accumulated by exercise is Mes cousines ont lu. My cousins have read,

held with little tenacity, is dissipated by profuse perspiration, and BESCHERALLE.

is speedily lost when to this perspiration is added a state of rest

1

after fatigue, and it is then that cold is most apt to be prejudicial. are good.- VIOLINO (Bridport): Received, and under consideration.-d. We have an easy criterion as to the propriety of cold bathing, in COBBY ( Woodford): Yes, is in good condition, by paying the difference. the feelings of the person afterwards, --if the bath is followed by A PUPIL TEACHER's lines are very gnod, and do credit to his head and a glow of warmth,&c., it will do good, but if the bather feels cold and heart; but we cannot insert them in the P. E.-E. J. (Shelton) and A chilly, &c., it should be discontinued as being useless and hazardous. DROGHEDA SUBSCRIBER will, by writing to Mr. Dunn, Secretary of the In the former case cold bathing becomes a tonic, stimulating and Training School of the British and Foreign School society, at Borough. invigorating both to mind and body. The time for bathing requires (Plumstead): The Lizard Point, Cornwall, is the 1st southerly point of to be modified according to the health of the bather; if the powers England.-ZETA: Yes ; r is not pronounced at the end of French, except are too languid to admit of the necessary reaction, much benefit is under certain conditions ; see the lessons again. Bills of Exchange will be derived from mid-day bathing.

more fully explained.-W.J.: See Lessons in Geography. pp. 30, 61, 144, Apologising for thus writing, but the interest which I take in and 162, vol. 111.-E. H. COOKB (Kidderminster): Uder consideration, your valuable paper, and also

on the subject of bathing, which 1. G.B: (Ilchester): We fear that we cannot advise him; he should write I consider a necessary of life, will I trust be a sufficient excuse

GARDNER (Peasenhall): The French Lessons, reprinted from the P. E., I am, &c.,

MEDICUS. parts 1. and 11., will completely answer your purpose.-THOMAS Cuore

(Hartland): We fear that his suggestion, though good, is not practicable.. CHARLES W. 'Islington): Read the papers on the University of London in

vol. iii.-PhiloANTE (Bowling): 11 he has a special call, let hiin go on; il ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

not, we would advise him to pause. K, PINETAO: as is pronounced nearly like the English letter i in fine, wants of all our subscribers ; but they will see from our advertiseients and

SEVERAL WHO WISH TO BE ARTISTS: We are desirou, supply the though a little broader, like the English word aye. It is a compound of the notices that their wishes cannot consistently with these be iiqmediately Nounds ah and ee blended together. av is pronounced like the English a in gratitied; the subject, however, will not be overlooked. water, cu like the letter i in wine, or like oy in boy, we like toi in wise, and nu nearly like the word you, but with more stress upon the be sound. AN ORPHAN (London): Apply to the London Orphan Asylam, Clapton.There is a French expression, il y avail, for there was.

R. J. L. (Littleport) should take C. W. 15.'s advice, and write to the SecreOudor: Your plan of study is excellent, and appears from your letter YORKSHIRE PLOUGHDOY can get No. 4?, which is the one

omitted, to buy la

tary of the Committee of the Council on Education, Duwning-street, London.to answer well. Thanks for the hint you throw out. It shall not be lost Sheffield; but he should return bis copy of Part X. to the bookseller who sight of

supplied him with it as incomplete, and get a complete one instead of it.JAXES ROBINSON (Burnopfield): We have already stated, is answer to N. B. (Porisea) : Not directly, but by the introducuon of two or three other correspondents, that the capital Greek upsilon, though like the English Lemmas.-WRITING CLERK (Tralee): Under consideration.-R. B. N. Koss Y in form, has no resemblance to it in sound in writing Greek, it is only (Camberwell) : Right; yes-Puilo: Many thanks; you are perfectly right necessary to imitate the printed characters as nearly as possible, giving in everything; the mistakes have ariseu from careless printing for them a slope for the sake of convenience.

instance, the multiplier 128 should be 126, and the multiplier 196 should be Mavbaww : The Greek upsilon, when a capital letter, takes pretty 96; try these numbers, and you will find that the answers correspond.-as nearly the form, but not the pronunciation, of the Eaglieh Y. e has the UNDERGRADUATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON: Thanks for his hole same sound whether with a straight or a curly tail.

C. C. (Halifax): D’Aubuisson, Traite Hyurauhque, 93.-A KRICKLAYER

(Manchester): Nicholson's work : Principles of Architecture; Archi, BLANDUS: Evauxia means good fortune, prosperity; and ought to have tectural Dictionary, Student's lastractor in the Five Orders; Practical boen given in the vocabulary. iNews is a misprint for iley Wo are Builder, &e. obliged to discontinue the etymological vocabularies for want of ioom. Any VIVA L'ITALIA: Huttons Course of Mathematics improved by Davies, or good Greek lexicon will supply nearly the same information.

Christie's Course for the Cadets at Woolwieb.-W. A. (Aberdeen should A CRIPPLE will find the pronunciation of the German word man, and the study Writing, Arithmetic, and Bookkeeping, in order to dit himself for å others he mentions, fully explained in the interlinear pronunciation

of the clerkship.-A SUBSCRIBER* Bradford) and his friends had belter not meet lesson and the preceding directions. He has only to notice the figure placed on Sunday morning to the studies they propose ; any other morning will do over the a, and look in the directions to see what sound it indicates. He better. God and this word, religion and a future state, are surely WORTEL One welll also And it stated that an apostrophe after a vowel has the effect

of day's consideration out of the secen. -A LABOURER IN THE VINEYARD lengthening it. The accent at the end of a syllable merely denotes that the should not trouble himself with what might have happened

had not thing stress is to be laid upon that sillable.

been as they are. Sin has come into the world, and God has appointed as A POWER-LOOM WBAVER's parcel is forwarded to the Royal Society,-) easy way of escape from it; this is enough. Greek and latin may aselst A GOVBENES» (Camden-town): The P. E. is published in New York.-W.

each other, but study" Latin Brat.-E, BLURTON (stourbridge): We regret Lewis (Manchester): Chemistry in full vigour in vol. iv. Music is posl

that we cannot give the required information.
poned for the present.--T.H. (Cork): The best way to learn to express your
ideas is to join a Debating Society.-FAPER LIONABIUS (Turriff): Mr. Cas.
sell's Classical Library, together with Dr. Beard's Latin Dictionary, will con.

LITERARY NOTICES.
tain the books best adapted for making progress in the Latin toague.--Sucius:
In learning Bookkeeping there is no need to go u the expense of separate

FRENCH.
books; separate portious of one book njay be carefully and neatly adapted to
the purpose, by the student himself.-J. S. CHAPMAN (Manchester): The Now ready, price 49. in stix Wrapper, or 53, strongly bound in cloth,
Lessons in Latin in the P. E. are the best we know.-J. T. BODNIS (Green the First Part complete, consisting of the French and English, of CASSELL'S
as to the IMPRESSION; a change will be made for the better.-A WBAVER | Three penny Numbers, and will form one handsome Volume of eight hundred
(Clackmannan): Ones in the plural form, referring to a plural noun in a pre- and thirty-iwo pages.' Price 8s, 6d, bound in cloth, or the Two Divisions
ceding sentence, is an adjective pronoun; see p. 211, vol. ill. P. E.Opticus may be had separate.
(London): The subject of Optics is announced for next voluine.

A COMPLETE MANUAL OF THE FRENCH LANGUAGE, by Professor Do MRS. 81.1 PSLOPPerthshire) must put on her spectacles, and she will then Lolme, just published, price 3s. neatly bound. This forme one of the find Nauor in a line with ABRALIAN, p. 3, vol. I. P. E., Genesis xi. 26. It most simple, practical, and complete Guides to a thorough knowledge of the is not a mistake with Luke, for Moses has been misrepresented ; see the French Language which has hitherto been published. The plan upon which Septuagint.-8. J. R. (London): All right; the maps will be continued. it is conducted is admirally calculated to accomplish the proposed object. J. E. D. (Edinburgh): It will be done.-W. RODENts: The memory is in the first place, the Grammatical Principles of the Lausuage are cleats da proved by exercising it. Say Chobham like Chatham, not like Kobham. laid down, and, secondly, these Principles are copiously illustrated by suitable MARK MATHETES (Farnworth) and Q. E. D.: See vol. ii. P. E. p. 215, Exercises of English to be turned into French. col. 2, line 31, for the Classical Subjects; the rest are never announced, the CASSELL's Lessons in FRENCA, in a neat volume, price 2s. in stiff covers, student being required to prepare hinself to answer any questions that may or 2.. 60. really bound in cloth. be propos.d on the other subj cts; see page 137, vol. ii. P. E.-T, JENKINS Cardiff) : see Literary Notices.-HOOKKEEPINO'STUDENT will have his dir. the Exercises, with numerous reterences to ihe Grammatical kulcs, price

A KEY TO CABSELL's Lessons IN FRENCH, containing Translation of all Aculties solved in the couree of the lessons.-GBORGE TER YOUNGER 18. paper covers, or Is. 60. cloth. (Pimlico): Buy the large edition of Webster.-A. Z. : Foyer de désordres, inean: a focus or centre of disorders. A. Scots (Liverpool): Thanks for

GERMAN.

CASSELL'S GERMAN DICTIONARY is now issuing in Numbers, at 3d, eack;
CARRICK (Ayr): We cannot tell ourselves.-W. HYMERS (Barnard Monthly Paris, 14. each.
Castle): The Boy's Own Book, Tezg, London.-R. V. GIBYON (Glasgow): Cassell's LESSONS IN GERMAN, price 21. in stif covers, or %s, 6d
If going into the water does you harm, the best precaution is to give it up.- cloth.
W.F. STONEHENGB (Whitehaven) should get the " Aonales de Chimie."

LATIN.
ARMACHANUS: Very well; go on and prosper.--. T. M. (Brighton):
Fremh..-D.T. L. (Carmarthen): You are right.

CASSELL'S LESSONS IN LATIX, price 2s. in stiff covers, or , 6l. cloth.
(Belherbel): 1. We think not. 2. We can't tell. 3. Yes. 4, Read CASSELL'S KEY TO THE LATIN EXERCISES, now ready, price ls.
Saronly written books, such as "Gulliver's Travels," " Pilgrim's Progress,"
And Rowland Hill's · Village Dialogues."-AXULAIS (Preston): Yes.-

GREEK.
HEADBAND (Darlington): English. Aos (London): 'Write to Henry The Third Volume of CASSELL S CLASSICAL LIBRARY will contain the
Moore, Esq., Secretary of the University of London.-ÉCOLIER FRANÇAIS Acts of the Apostles in the orlginal Greek, according to the text of Augustes
students the French New Testament, published by the Bible society at 6d., Lexicon, explaining the meaning of every word the whole carefully
in roan gilt. good type ; and a French Weekly Newspaper,

called Chronique revised and corrected. This work is well adapted for the use of Schools de Jersey, published at 14d. The Key to the French Lessons is published Colleges, and Theological Seminaries, and will supply our Greek students separately, see our Literary Notices.-T. C. (Barking): Your suggestions with excellent materials for practice in translation.

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