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your attention. Ask yourself, what comes, then, of all the vege

table masses, and of all the animal matter, that rot in forests By Thos. W. Jenkyx, D.D., F.R.G.S., F.G.S., &c. and woodlands, every year, over the extent of the globe ? The

answer of science is, that a portion of this vegetable and animal CHAPTER IV.

mass is volatilized into the air, and that the rest is carried away by ON THE INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC AGENTS UPON The running water, in which it either sinks into the earth, or tow

towards the sea. By this process, the same ingredierts enter EARTII'S CRUST.

again and again into the composition of a variety and a succesSECTION I.

sion of organic beings in vegetable and animal life.

It is well known that thousands of carcasses of terrestrial ON BOTANIC AGENTS.

animals, and immense forests of drift timber, are every cenIn the course of our lessons, the first three chapters have taught tury floated into the sea, where both are imbedded in subaqueous you the operations of fire, of water, and of the atmosphere, upon deposits. Nevertheless, the vegetable mould on the earth's surthe earth's crust. This fourth chapter, which is also the last, is face is kept in equilibrium. The principal elements tha intended to illustrate the effects of vitality, in the forms of vege- chemists have found in plants are the three gases, hydrogen, cartation and animal life, in the changes which have been produced bon, and oxygen. Vegetables and animals derive them from on the surface of the earth.

water and from the atmosphere. But whence do water and The business of this lesson is with the agency of plents, and the atmosphere derive them, in order to supply plants with them? with the effects which their growth and decay produce on the They derive them from the putrefaction of vegetable substances earth's cruet. In this inquiry, we are not to limit our observa- and animal matter, from the decay of rocks as the result of tion to the surface of the dry land, but to extend our survey to the weathering and abrasion, and also from the agency of mineral

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targer portions of the globe which are under water, and which springs, which bring constant supplies from the interior of the are extensively covered by aquatic plants.


In our chapter on Aqueous Agency, we considered the tendency I, PLANTS AND TREES.

of running water to scoop out gullies in the soil, and to carry tho The quantity of plants, shrubs, bushes, and timber that grows detritus towards the sea. This operation of streams and rivulets on most lands, and especially in tropical forests, in the course of is counteracted by the power of vegetation. Vegetation counterone century, must be enormous. Were these masses of vegeta- acts the operations of running water in two ways. 1. It is in tion deposited in a sea, they would pile up into a bill of consider some degree antagonistic to the transporting power of rivers, and able size; but though timber grows and decays for thousands of may be considered as reconstructive. The agency of vegetable years, yet no such wood mountains are found to pile on the sites of life, by absorbing various gases from the atmosphere, causes a forests, even within the tropics. It might have been expected large mass of solid matter to accumulate on the surface of the that the masses of solid matter which are every day derived from land. Such a mass must, alone, constitute a great counterpoise the decay of terrestrial plants and animals would contribute to to all the earthy detritus transported by the aqueous agents of augment the amount of soil on the earth's surface. It must, decay. 2. The influence of vegetation is conservative, and tend. therefore, awaken your surprise, when you learn that the vege- ing to retard the waste of land. You constantly witness in a table mould which clothes the globe does not grow in thickness. field, where a rivulet flows from a well, that the green sward

This statement ought to awaken not only your surprise, but through which the water runs prevents the coil foom being


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carried away. Upon sloping ground, also, it is seen that a cover-
ing of herbage protects the mould from being transported by rains,
or being washed away by running water. As a further illustra-

The “unfathomed caves of ocean" bear not only "full many a tion of the conservative influence of vegetable life, it may be gem,” but also full many a plant. Beneath the surface of the remarked :hat it also prevents loose sand from being blown away latitudes and longitudes, whirever a ray of light can penetrate


mighty sea, a magnificent vegetable world extends through all by the wind. In this case, the roots bind the separate particles of This world of vegetation is more wide-spread than the verdant the soil together into a firm mass, and the leaves intercept the rain-water so as to make it dry up gradually, instead of rushing covering of the dry land. in a mass, and with velocity, upon the soil below.

Marine plants are exceedingly numerous, but they are divided That vegetation tends to preserve the mould that covers the into two great classes, or groups. First, the jointed kind, which earth, is evident from the observations which antiquarians and embrace the species called Confervx, very small plants which travellers have made on the increased removal of land that always the disjointed

group, consisting of such sea-weeds as dulse, laver


consist of simple tubes--some of them even microscopic. Secondly, takes place, after the clearing away of the woods that covered them. This is especially the case on the removal of woods that wrack, and all the gigantic species which either luxuriate in clothed the steep declivities of a mountain. In every such

submarine forests, or tioat like green meadows or boundless instance, the quantity of sand and soil washed down into the prairies, in the ocean. Dearest river has increased enormously. The reason is, that as The sea-weeds that grow in comparatively small depths near the soon as the bushes and the trees are removed, the rain-water rushes shore, are both the most limited in number, and the least extensive with unbroken force upon the ground, flows off more rapidly, and in distribution. The fuci that grow at the greatest depth of the sweeps away the soil and gravel.

ocean are both the greater in number, and the wider in extent of range. This circumstance suggests a correspondence of latitude,

in the amount of vegetation, between height on land and depth Peat has not only a conservative influence to protect the under- in the ocean. On land, the lower the height or the latitude is, lying soil, but it has a reconstructive power, by which it augments the more luxuriant is the growth of trees. And, in the ocean, the the mass of vegetation on the earth.

greater the depth, the more abundant is the growth of marine Peat is not the product of any one species of plant, but consists plants. of any herb or moss that is capable of growing in moist and cold The seeds of marine plants are produced in their native elemeat; situations, and that has also the property of throwing up new they can therefore remain immersed in it for an indefinite period shoots at its upper part, while its lower portions are decaying without any injury to their power of fructification. This fact Peat, as the remains of dead plants, is a product intermediate enables us to account easily for their wide-spread diffusion in every between vegetable matter and lignite. It is first a plant, and it zone where uncongenial climates or contrary currents do not interfere is turned into a lignite by a gradual and prolonged action of the with their distribution. Bea-weeds have well.contrived facilities water that covers it.

for sowing themselves over the body of the ocean. First, they Beds of peat are seldom, perhaps never, found within the generally have hollow ped-like receptacles in which their needs are tropics. Even in Spain and in the south of France they very lodged. These pods give them buoyancy for floating. O her seed rarely occur. In proportion as you advance from the tropics to- veesels have this power of floating in consequence of filaments wards the north, beds of peat become more frequent, and its sub- which are attached to them. Secondly, a very large number of stance becomes more inflammable. This is also true in latitudes species are enveloped with mucous or adhesive matter, like that between the tropics and the south pole.

which surrounds the eggs of fish. This mucus not only presenta The depth of peat soil and the number of peat bogs depend on them from injury, but serves to attach them to rucks or to floating the physical condition of the district. On the declivities of moun bodies. These sea-wet ds fix their roots to anything and every. tains,

the depth of a peat bed rarely exceeds four feet. But in low thing, to stones, to wood, or to other sea-weeds. This circumand hollow grounds, into which peaty matter is constantly carried stance shows that they must derive all their nutriment from the down by running water, the depth of a peat bog becomes forty water of the sea, and from the air contained in the water. feet and more. The extent of some of these bogs in the north of Thirdly, naturalists have shown that these thalassophytes, or sedEurope is enormous. On the Shannon in Ireland there is a bog, plants, are

what is technically called proliferous ; that is, they

are or moes, that is fifty miles long and two or three miles wide. In so full of power to propagate their kind, that the smallest traga France, between the city of Nantes and the sea, there is, about ment of a branch of them can develop itself into a perfect plant, the mouth of the Loire, a bog that is one hundred and fifty miles

Some of the gigantic gea-weeds grow up to the surface of the in circumference. Many of the peat mosses are known to occupy the sites of These occur on each side of the equator in the Atlactic, Pacific,

ocean, and appear like green meadows of immeasurable extent. ancient forests of pines and oaks, some of which have disappeared and Indian Oceans. The most extensive bank in the Atlantic is even within periods of history. Such bogs are formed by the fall a little to the west of the meridian of Fayal, one of the Axores, of trees, and by the stagnation of water. Had these trees fallen between 360 and 36° of north latitude. When COLUMBUS came in warm climates, the woody matter would be removed either by to it, he compared it to a vast inundated field of grass

, and he insects or by putrefaction ; but, in Europe, having fallen in low states that the weeds were so thick as to retard the progress of or moist situations, they are preserved by water.

the vessel. This part of the Atlantic is called Nur de Sargasso, The agency of peat mosses is not always conservative of the or the Gulph-weed sea. It includes two banks ol Fucus connected surface soil. In some districts where the climate is cold and by a transverse band of Fucus natans, or floating sea-weed, and moist

, bogs occasionally grow to be agents of destruction. A peat occupies a space larger than the whole surface of France. From bog acts like a sponge. It absorbs water in large quantities, and the time of Columbus till now, that is, for three centuries, the swells to the height of many yards above the surrounding soil. situation of this great accumulation of sea-weed, whether resultThe capillary action of the turf fibres enables it to retain the fluid ing from the local character

of the sea bottom, or from the direcfor some length of time, but not for ever. It frequently bursts, tion of the gulph stream, has remained precisely the same. and then a violent inundation follows, and the muddy torrent, as Of this sea-weed, called Sargassum bacciferum, two new species instanced more than once in Ireland, scoops out ravines in the have been lately discovered by navigators in the southern seas. slopes of hille, bears away blocks and timber, and scatters them One, called Macrocystis pyrifera, is of gigantic size and covers over the plains, or deposits them in the nearest lake or sea. vast extent. The other is called Laminaria radiata, and forms

If such a moss bursts near an arm of the sea, that part of the vast meadows off the Cape of Good Hipe, and in the Atlantis sea becomes the receptacle of drift peat. On many coasts in the Ocean. Specimens of both of these weeds have been taken up, Baltic Sea and the German Ocean, we constantly meet with sec- measuring 300 and 400 feet long. Some of them have been report tions in which alternations of clay and sand with different layers of ported to be 1,000 and even 1,500 feet long. They are found in peat are of frequent occurrence. At the bottom of many of the the open sea, hundreds of miles from land. Around Kerguelen morses in Holland, the remains of ships, of oars, &c., have been Island, the two weeds form a great part of a band so thick that a found; and in the valley of the Somme in France, there was boat can scarcely be pulled through them. Near California there found, in the lowest tier of the bog, a boat loaded with bricks. are fields of them so dense and so impenetrable, as to have saved These two facts prove that, at one period and that very late, many vessels from shipwreck when driven by heavy swells towards these mosses were navigable lakes or arms of the sea.

that coast.

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These immense fields of marine plants must, like land vegeta- , present themselves as arborescent plants with branched trunks, tion, suffer decay—and their decayed remains, as they subside and sixty or seventy feet high. The third kind of vegetation is that of sink to the sea bottom, must, in the course of centuries, produce horse-tails, or the Equisetaceæ, distinguished in the engraving by considerable beds of vegetable matter. In Holland, a submarine having jointed and furrowed trunks and branches. With us, the peat was dug up that was formed by the decay of sea-weeds. largest plants of this kind attain but a very few feet in height, but

You have now been introduced to the agency which vegetation in the coal measures they are found with arborescent or tree-like exerts in the formation and in the conservation of the soil that trunks, ten feet high and five or six inches in diameter. These forms the green surface of the earth. The principles and the facts three families of plants form about three-fourths of the vegetawhich have been thus briefly intimated, you must now apply not tion of the coal period. The remainder consists of cone-bearing only to the superficial covering of the globe, but also to the struc- trees, and of vast quantities of a kind, apparently, like the caotus. ture of the crust of the earth, as formed at different geological of the entire number of species discovered in the carboniferous periods. As you walk or ride over plains or mountains, an rocks, two-thirds belong to a vegetation like the Fern. entire vegetable world may be lying in ruins under your feet. In these coal forests, there were no plants bearing flowers, no

Geology has demonstrated that, at different periods or epochs in trees bearing fleshy, juicy fruits, no kind of grass, and no birds. our world's history, vegetation has played a distinguished part, It used to be thought that it was a forest without a single living both in rank, luxuriance, and in extensive distribution. Differ- thing to move in it; but lately the skeleton of a reptile has been ent geologists have their respective systems for dividing the epochs discovered in rocks much older than the coal series. of ancient vegetation. M. ADOLPHE BRONGNIART divides them One remarkable characteristic of the vegetation of the coal into four. The first begins with the earliest traces of vegetable period is the uniformity or monotony of its plants. In our age life, and terminates with the coal formation. The second con we find that different countries, in different climates, produce cludes with the .triassic. The third comprises the oolite and different plants; but, in the carboniferous era, the same plants grew chalk. The fourth ends with the tertiary period. Count STERN- ; in Germany, Belgium, France, England, North America, and

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Fig. 98.--Ideal Landscape of the Tertiary Period.

BERG, by uniting the second and third of therc epochs, reduces Australia. This fact proves a veuiarkable uniformity of climat the periods of ancient vegetation to three. His divisions are at that period. When North America was discovered, there were 1. the vegetation of islands ; 2. that of sea coasts; and 3. that of found in it only two wild plants that agreed with the vegetation continents.

of Europe. But of 53 kinds of plants found in the North AmeThe earliest vegetation of the globe, and that which terminated rican coal beds, 35 are common in the European coal fields. in the carboniferous period, was simple but very magnificent. Ao However luxuriant this vegetation of the carboniferous era was, ideal landscape of the earth during the carboniferous age is repre- all the species of its plants, and almost all their genera, passed sented in fig. 97. Look at the forest represented in this away before the second period of vegetation set in. A few ferns engraving. The plants and trees are different from all entered into the second era, but all the palms and calamites disvegetable products that you now see. There is nothing like appeared. The first flora, therefore, which was universally difit in the temperate zones, nor within the tropics. The fused over all the dry land of the ancient globe, was especially yegetation consists of ferns — but ferns not herbaceous as distinguished from the second, which is regarded as the flora of in dur cold climate, but ferns which grow in the form of the triassic, the oolite, and the wealden, group of plants. This trees of considerable height with palm-like, unbranched second family passed imperceptibly into the third, which comprises trunks. The next kind of vegetation is that of club mosses, or 'the plants of the tertiary formations. In the trias the characters the Lycopodiaceæ. With us, these club mosses are dwarf plants, of vegetation are altered by the complete disappearance of the amall in size and few in number, but in the coal formations they cactus tribe, by a diminution of the proportion of ferns, and by

the appearance of a few new species. Of this triassic vegetation very is of immense interest to the geologist, as it often encloses specilittle is known, and what is known is generally classed with that mens of insects, spiders, flies, small crustaceans, leaves of trees

, of the tertiary. A few coniferous plants grew in the eras of the į &c., which are monuments of the flora and the fauna of that lias and the colites, but they were not of the species that existed period. Upwards of 800 species of insects have been preserved at the coal period.

in fossil amber. Amber is chiefly obtained from the brown coals Immediately after the chalk period, decided change took place of northern Germany, or the submarine beds of lignite found in in the features of the vegetation. The ftmn tribe still continued Russia, and along the coast of the Baltio. These furests of amber to diminish, but the cone-bearing, wood increased in quantity. pines grew in the south-eastern part of what is now the bed of the With the palms and other tropical trees, there grew willovs, Baltic. As the amber found in the lignite and brown coal conelms, poplars, chesnuts, and other similar trees, which increased tains several fragments of vegetable matter, it has been ascer in number and variety, till the flora of the more recent tertiary tained that this tertiary forest contained four other species of period had little to distinguish it from the vegetation of the present pines, and several kinds of cypress, yew, juniper, oak, poplar, and day. The contrast between it and the carboniferous flora, and the beech. similarity between it and the present vegetation, are presented in fig. The brief hints that have been given to you in this lesson upon 98. In this landscape the woodland does not appear so strange and submarine vegetation, and upon the formation of peat and drik foreign to you as the coal forest did. This is very little different wood, will prepare you for understanding the fucoid fossils which from the forest scenes of the present day. Among the trees we are found in ancient rocks, and for the vegetable remains found find the palm tree lifting up its feathered top, and a beautiful in the coal series. You have only to imagine layers of peat and brush wood grows in all directions. The landscape is now varied; deposits of dritt wood to become bituminised, and the different its outline is more uneven; and its aspect is more sunny. The seams of sand and mud between them to become consolidated by forest is enlivened with quadrupeds that live on plants. Among pressure from above and heat from below, to be able to account these woods grew that remarkable pine tree, called Pinus succi- for their carbonisation, and for the structure of a genuine coal nifer, which produced the fossil resin called amber. This amber formation,


Irregular Verbs, continued from p. 19.





ich starb

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Sprießen r), to sprout, ich spriebe, x,

ich frros ist irreve frriest gerrossen. r) This must not be con@pringen, to spring, ich springe, xc. id sprang id spränge springe geiprungen. founded (in the imperfect

) Stechen, to sting, to prick, ich freche, du fichst, er flicht |ict inach

ic stiche itic gestochen. with the regular verb frrosjen. Stroen 8), to stick, to be ich stede, x,

ich stedteorfatich fredte or ftede geniedt. $) This verb is commonly refastened,


gular; when active it is Stehen, to stand, ich stere, a.

ich stant, sunt ich fare stebe gestanten. always so.

(stünte) Steblen, to steal, icthy ftehle, du stiehlít, er stiehlt ich stahl (stobl) ich lohle fliebt gestohlen.

(itoble) Steigen, to ascend, id ftcige, u.

ist fties ict stiege steige gestiegert. Sterben, to die, ich sterbe, tu stirbt, er stirbt

ich stärbe stirb gestorben.

(iturbe) Stieben t), to fly, (as dust) ich stiebe, 26.

ict ftos

ich ftite Riebe gestoben. 1) So Zerstieben, to be scattered Stinten, to stink, ich stinte, x.

fante stinfe geitunten.

as dust. Stoßen, to push, ich stoße, tu ftorest, er stegt ich stick id flieve

fone geitoßen Streider, to stroke, ict ftreiche, sc.

is strict ich Midie streiche geitusten. Streiten, to contend, ich streite, ac.

ich stritt id ftritte itreite gestritten. Thun, to do,

lidh thue, tu thust, er thut id that ich th.3te thue yethan Tragen, to bear, ich trage, tu trägst, er trägt

ich trige trage getragen. Treffen, to hit, id treffe, tu trimit, er trifft td tra

ich tråte

getroffen. Irriben, to drive, ich treibe, ac.

id trieb ich triebe treibe getrieben. Treten, 10 trcad,

id trete, tu trittst, er tritt id trat ich trite tritt getreten, Tricien, to drop, to trickle, ich triefe, a.

ich troff ich trofe tricf, triefe getroffen. Irinten, to drink, ich trinfe, x.

id trant id tränte trinte gerunten Trügen, to deceive, ich trüge, du trügst, er trügt ich trog

trüge getrogent Verbergen, to conceal, ich verberge, bu verbirgst, er rer. ich verbarg ich rerbürge verbirg w.rbergen.

birgt Berbieten, to forbid, ich verbiete, 2.

id verbot id verbote verlicte verboten. Perbleiben, to remain, ich verbleibe, x.

ich verblieb id verbliche verbleibe verblieben, Verbleiðen, to grow pale, ich verbleiche, x.

ich verblicy ich werbliche rerbleide verblicben. Verderben u), to perish, ich vertorbe, ru berdirbst, er ich vetarb

ist verrarte verrirb rertorten. u) Verderben, to destroy (acvertirbt


tive) is regular. Vertrießen, to offend, 68 vertrient

e8 vertros ich vortriffe vertriebe vertrosien.

v) Vertreußt, x. nearly obso Vergessen, to forget, ich vergesse, du vergisiest, er rer. ich vergaß ich verzise vergif vergessen.

lete. gißt Verheleri, to conceal, ich verheble, a.

ich verbehlte ich verhelete verhehle verhelt or

verboblen Berlieren, to loose, ich verliere, ac.

ich verlor ich verlore verliere verloren. Berlöschen, to extinguish, ich verlösche, tu verlöshest or id, verlosch ich verloiche verlösche or verlosen, verlisest, er verlöscht or wr.

rerlisch lischt Versdallen w), to die away ich verschille, :c.

id verstoll ich versớölle verschalle verschollen. w But little used, except in in sound,

the imperfect and participle

. Verschwinden, to disappear, ich verschwinte, 26.

ich verschwant ich verschwände verschwinde verschwun. Perwirten, to perplex, ich verwirre, uc.

ich verwirrte ich verwirrte verwirre verwirrt or

verworren. Bergeihen, to pardon, ich verzeihe, ac.

licy verzieh Jilly verziche verzeihe verzichen.

ich trije

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Wenden b) to turn, idy wende, x.

ich wendete or ich wentete ivente gewendet or b) Regular when active. wantte

gcivandt. Werben, to sue for, ich werbe, du wirbit, er wirbt ich warb ich würbe


geworben. Werten, to become, ich werte, du wirst, er wird ich ward or ich würde werte geworden; &

wurde, du

as an aux juurtest, er

iliary) worwart

den. wurde, rrir

werten, uc. Werfen, to throw, ich werfe, tu wirfst, er wirft ich warf

ich wärfc

wiri geworfen.

Winden, to wind, ich winte, ac.

id wand jih vänte wintc gewunden.
Wissen, to know, ich weiß, du weißt, cr weiß ich wußte ich wüfte wisse gewußt.
Wollen, to will,
ich will, ou willst, er will ich wollte ich wollte

Zeihen, to accuse of, lich zeihe, 2.

ich zich
ich ziehe


geziehen. Ziehen e), to draw, ich ziehe, sc.

ich zöge V ziehe gezogen. c) Zcuchst . antiquated, and Zwingen, to force, ich zwinge, ac.

ich zwange zwinge gezwungen. only in poetical usage. $ 79. VERBS OF THE New Conjugation.

thereto et or t, we get lobet or lobt; to which add the personal (Commonly called "Regular Verbs.")

endings and we have lotete (lob tette) or lobte, I praised ; lobeteft

or lobest, thou didst praise, &c. (1) In verbs of the New, or simpler form, the Imperfect Tense (2) The verbs of the New form differ again from those of the and the Perfect Participle are not produced, as in the Old con. Old, in the former having in the Perfect Participle the termi. jugation, by a change of the radical vowels; but by means of nation et or t, instead of en: as, gelobet or gelobt, praised. See the the suffix et or t, which serves as a tense characteristic: thus, table of terminations $ 75. taking the radical part (lob) of loben, to praise, and affixing

id) 308
ich zwang


the past participle made; the preposition of; finally, the conjunc.

tion and. The articles have been already handled. The nouns, By John R. BEARD, D.D.

the verb, and the preposition range themselves under the general SYNTAX OF THE PREDICATE; THE VERB,—THE

head of government; the past participle offers an instance of agreeOBJECT.

ment; the conjunction acts merely in the way of combination. I must now conduct you to the predicate of a simple proposition.

GovernmentThe Object after a Verb.
In order to effect my purpose, I must modify our model sentence
a little, as thus :

Every transitive verb has an object, expressed or understood, and


the same verb may sometimes be used transitively or intransitively.

If po specific object is given, the verb may be considered intransi.
The sick man drinks a beverage made of wine and water. tive; e. g.,
The sentence thus altered brings under our notice two additional Intransitive: Man drinks ; the horse trots;

parts of speech, namely, the preposition (of) and the conjunction

Man drinks water; the horse trots ten miles an hour;
(and). It also directs our attention specifically to government, A verb which is strictly intransitive may be made transitive by a
namely, in the relation borne by the verb drinks to the noun bere prepositional or adverbial suffix. To fly is intransitive, and to Ay-
rage, and in the relation borne by the preposition of to the noun over is transitive; e. g.,
wine and the noun water,

The eagle flew-orer the summit of the mountain.
If, now, we look at our predicate, we find that it may be divided

Consider drink as intransitive, and append of, then you have nto two parts, namely, the verb and the object; as,

The sick man drinks of pure water.

Drinks of is here a compound verb, and might be best written with

the hyphen, thus, drinks-of. In this form, as being transitive, it
The man
diiks a beverage made of wine and water.

has for its object pure water. But to drink, and to drink of, have

not precisely the same import. We drink a glass of water, and Viewed in relation to its several components, the predicate contains we drink of a river. In fact, of has a partitive force, that is, it the verb drinks ; ihe article e; the nouns beverage, wine, uuter; denotes a portion of; e. g.,

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