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the surface of leaden vessels, and which is subject to become with any degree of safety? The question has been long solved; mixed with our food, thus operating as a poison, is this very we know exactly the conditions under which water may be substance, carbonate of lead.
conveyed through leaden pipes and stored in leaden vessels, Although we have developed our carbonate of lead by two and the reverse. processes, viz., bringing a solution of acetate of lead into contact The important practical deduction was arrived at by Dr. with atmospheric air, and still more copiously by urging Lambe, and it has since been amply confirmed, that the through it a stream of air from the lungs, yet a soluble carbo- presence of certain saline bodies, such as sulphates, chlorides, nate, say of potash or of soda, is the plan usually had recourse etc., prevent the solution of carbonate of lead by any carbonic to in the operation of testing. Perhaps, all things considered, a acid which may be there also. It should follow, then, that in portion of bottled soda-water will be the best for our immediate proportion as water is pure, in the ordinary sense of the term, purposes; nevertheless, a solution of sesquicarbonate of soda i. e. free from saline bodies, so its tendency of dissolving lead (the substance used for making soda-powders) will serve our turn. should increase, a deduction indeed perfectly accordant with
Having taken a portion of solution of acetate of lead, add to what we see in practice. Rain-water (almost free from saline
important discovery leads us to interdict entirely and absolutely
Repeat now the experiment with this variation. Let the distilled water destined to come in contact with the lead, flow over the hand or arm previously. Under these variations of condition far less lead will be dissolved, probably none. I need scarcely indicate that the act of flowing over the hand or arm (any portion of the cutaneous surface would answer) causes the water to become charged with minute portions of
common salt and other saline bodies, the results of cutaneous through the filter," the filtrate” as it is termed by chemists, exhalation; consequently our mode of conducting the experiwith some delicate test for lead in solution ; say, for example, ment demonstrates how powerful is the preservative action hydrosulphuric acid. Almost certainly a black colour will be exercised by certain saline bodies. developed ; a result which proves that, notwithstanding the
Discrimination between carbonate of lead and other white lead absoluie clearness of the filtrate, it nevertheless must have compounds.-Carbonate of lead may, like all other carbonates, be contained lead, whence it follows that the carbonate of lead known by the circumstance of its evolving, on the addition of under the conditions of our experiment was partially soluble. almost any acid, a gas, which does not smell like a burning Let the operator next prepare another portion of carbonate of brimstone match-such gas is carbonic acid. If the aciá lead exactly as before, and having
prepared it, expose it to the employed for the purpose indicated, be endowed with the pro. operation of boiling in a flat open vessel such as an evaporating perty of dissolving lead, if for example it be the nitric, acetic, dish. These directions having been followed, and the liquid or some other acids--then coexistent with the evolution of carallowed to cool, let it be filtered, and the filtrate tested as bonic acid is the production of a transparent colourless solubefore. Most probably under these circumstances there will tion. If, however, the, sulphuric acid be used, then it follows, be either no blackness resu’ting, or at any rate the degree of from a consideration of properties already explained, that a blackness will be considerably less than before. The expla- clear solution will not result, under any circumstances of heat nation of this diminution or total absence of blackness is as
or mixture; and if hydrochloric acid be used, it also follows follows. Carbonate of lead is partially soluble in excess of that a colourless solution will not result under many circumcarbonic acid gas; indeed the same remark applies to most, stances of heat and mixture
which have already been pointed perhaps all other, so-called insoluble carbonates. Now, out as effecting the solubility of the chloride of lead. bottled soda-water contains an excess of carbonic acid; so to a Returning now to the turbid solution devoloped on the large extent does sesquicarbonate of soda-hence our first addition of sugar of lead to non-distilled water, the student result
. The operation of prolonged ebullition in an open will soon discover the turbidity to be due to the combined vessel evolved this excess of carbonic acid, and hence our presence of carbonate, chloride, and sulphate of lead. For the second result. This reaction of free carbonic acid on carbonate purpose of isolating the carbonate, add acetic acid to per. of lead is much more important perhaps than the student ceplible sourness, and filter. By this treatment all the carbothinks. Suffice it, nowever, to say, that water holding carbonic nate of lead will have been decomposed by the acetic acid, conacid in solution, and free
or comparatively free from all other verted into acetate, and made to pass through the filter, where sabstances, converts metallic lead into carbonate of lead so in the filtrate it may be caused to reappear by adding carbonate rapidly, and dissolves that carbonate with such extreme facility of soda or of potash. when formed, that such water becomes dangerously poisonous If the remaining insoluble matter be removed from the filter if retained for only a short time in leaden vessels. Practically containing it and boiled with water in a little flask or disk, we are all well acquainted with the fact that leaden pipes for then filtered rapidly whilst hot, all the chloride of lead it conthe conveyance of water, and leaden cisterns for storing the tained
will pass through the filter, and will be deposited from same, are of the most frequent occurrence. Now all ordinary the bltrate on cooling the latter and adding alcohol. As for water holds carbonic acid in solution; how, therefore, can we the sulphate of lead, that will remain on the filter, being perconvey such water in leaden pipes, or retain it in leaden vessels, fectly insoluble in water,
the o may be considered as a connecting vowel, and pai the LESSONS IN GREEK.-No. XXVIII. person-ending. This connecting vowel is seen in other per.
Bons of the same tense; thus, λυ-ο-μαι, λυ-ε-ται, λυ-ο-μεθον, By John R. BEARD, D.D.
λυ-ε-σθον, λυ-ο-μεθα, λυ-ε-σθε, λυ-ο-νται, where and o are the
connecting vowels,---vowels, that is, that unite the stem with THE PERFECT, PLUPERFECT, AND OTHER Texses. the person-endings.
The Imperfect middle or passive is formed by prefixing the THE Perfect stem is formed from the stem of the Present by augment and changing μαι into μην; thus, λυομαι, ε-λυο-μην. adding κ and prefxing the augment, as λυ-, λυκ-, λελυκ- ; the It may also be formed from the Imperfect active by changing tense itself is formed by adding to the stem the person the active termination oy into the middle termination opnv. endings. We are now speaking exclusively of the active voice. Observe, that as o is in general the sign of the Future and the
VOCABULARY. first Aorist, 80 x is the sign of the Perfect and the Pluperfect. Qualifications of these statemɔnts will appear as we proceed.
Λανθανω (Latin, lated), Ilie | Πενομαι (πενης, poor; Latin, To form the stem of the Pluperfect, prefix & to the stem of the Perfect; thus, to λελυκ- I prefix ε, and produce ελελυκ», Πραττω, I do; πραττω καλως,
hid, am concealed.
penuria, English, penury), I
am poor: which, when the person-endings are suffixed, constitutes the I do well (that is, I am in a Ψευδομαι (from ψευδος, a falsePluperfect tense.
hood), I lie, VOCABULARY.
Στρατευω (from στρατια, an | Αδελφος, ου, o, a brother.
army), I make an expedi- Αυλος, ου, o, a Hute. Ενδυω, I enter, I put on, Μηδεια, ας, ή, Medea.
Εγχωριος, ον, domestic, beKaraóv · I go down, sink. Περσης, ου, ό, & Persian, Αποδεχομαι, I receive, am longing to
the country Επιδιω, ω, I pursue. Δαρειος, ου, ό, Darius.
favourable to, welcome. (χωρα). Κυριευω, I become master of, | Διοωρος, ου, ο, Diodorus. Εργαζομαι (from εργον, work), | Ειθε (with the optative), Ο gain, Πολεμιος, ου, o, an enemy. I work.
that! Μελλω, I purpose, I am on the | Σαρδαναπάλος, ου, ο, Sarda- Ερχομαι, I corne, go.
point of ; το μελλον, the napalos.
Mn aročexov, etc. I will arrange this sentence a little difΦυω, I beget, produce; in the Γυναικειος, α, ov, womanly, ferently, and you will thus be aided to see its meaning--un
Perfect, I am produced, I belonging to a woman. αποδεχoυ τoυς των φιλων (or των φιλων τους) χαριζομενους have become.
σοι προς τα φαυλα: in English, do not welcome those of your
friends who gratify you in bad things. Ilpos (Latin, ad), in REMARKS, .
regard to, in. In forming the tenses of verbs compounded with pre- signities to do, the latter to make; the former, therefore, may
Πραττειν is of a wider signification than ποιειν: the former positions, you will do well to drop the preposition while so be used with adverbs in a general sense, as κακως πραττειν, 10 doing, restoring it afterwards. For instance, in svềvw I drop do ill; that is, to be in bad circumstances. the ev, and form the stems according to rule; thus, ev- Övr. εδυσ- δεδυκ- εδεδυκ- ; εν-ε-δε-δυ-κ, that is, ενεδεδυκ. So with the conjunction εαν takes a subjunctive.
The conjunction e requires an indicative or optative mood, καταλυω; λυ- λυσ- ελυσ- λελυκ. ελελυκ; κατελελυκ; where
Mer' aviwy, with fules; that is, to the sound of flutes. observe that kara loses its final a before the vowel €. I have accented the proper names, as Diodórus, Sardanapalos, live, from eavvw, I drive: the n is the temporal augment, e
Hλαυνεσθην, the third person, dual number, Imperfect indicaetc., according to the Greek, the rule being that in proper being lengthened into 1). names, as well as generally, a long vowel in the Greck should receive the stress of the voice in English.
Ex ERCISES.-G H EEK-ENGLISH.
Δυο ανήρε μαχεσθον. Γενναιως μαχυμεθα περι της πατριδος. Οι στρατιωται των πολεμιων δισχιλιους διακοσιους εξηκοντα Αναγκαιον εστι τον υιον πειθεσθαι το πατρι. Πολλοι αγαθοι πεντε πεφονευκασιν. Φερεκύδης ελεγε, μηδενι θεα τεθυκεναι.
Νομοις τοις εγχωριοις έπεσθαι καλον εστιν. Μη Νεος πεφυκως πολλα χρηστα μανθανε. Ο μαντις τα μελλοντα Εκαστος ήσυχος μεσην την ολον ερχεσθω.
αποδεχου των φιλων τους προς τα φαυλα χαριζομενους.
Οι πολίται τους καλως πεπροφητευκεν. Τα τεκνα ευ πεπαιξευκας. Μηδεια τα τεκνα πεφονευκυία εχαιρεν. Οι Λακεδαιμ νιοι Πλαταιας
νομους πειθισθων. Τω ατελφω μοι έπεσθον. Ει βουλι καλως κατελελυκεσαν. Σαρδαναπάλος στολην γυναικειαν ενεξεδυκει. Ψευδομενος ουδεις λανθανει πολυν χρονον. Οι Λακεδαιμονίοι
πραττειν, εργαζου. Εαν βουλη καλως πραττειν, εργαζου. Οτε ήλιος κατεδελυκει, οι πολεμιοι επλησιαζον. Αλεξανδρος μετ' αυλων εστρατευοντο. Ειθε παντες ανευ οργης βουλευυιντο. επιδιωκων Δαρειον, τον Περσων βασιλέα, πολλων χρηματων Δυο καλω εππω εις την πολιν ηλαυνεσθην. Εαν πεν), ολιγος εκεκυριευκει.
φιλοι (sc. εισι σοι). ENGLISH-GREEK. I have slain; they have slain ; he had slain; they will
ENGLIS11-GREEK. slay; he slew (first Aorist); we will slay; we have slain; we That man is poor and has few friends; I am poor; he was had slain ; they will sacrifice; they have sacrificed; they had consulting; they two were consulting i I consult; he com: sacrificed; they sacrificed; the soothsayer sacrificed to the sults ; thou wishest to do well; work; if (sav) you wish to god; the soothsayer has sacrificed to the god one hundred do well, work; they work; he works well; he was working: Oxen; I educate my children ; I was educating my children; ye were working; ye two were working; we work; 1 sight; I will educate my children; I educated my children; I have I was fighting; they were fighting; they fight bravely; you educated my children; I had educated my children; fight; you were fighring; soldiers, tight bravely for your Alexander destroyed Babylon; Alexander had destroyed country; it is honourable to fight for one's country; I follow Babylon; the boy puts on a woman's garment; the boy has thee; he follows me ; they follow me ; we follow the general; put on a woman's garment; the boy had put on a woman's we were following the army; obey the laws, 0 boys. garment; the boy will put on a woman's garment.
The Perfect and Pluperfect Middle or Passite.
The Perfect middle or passive may be formed directly from The Present middle or passive is formed from the stem of the Perfect active by changing ka into par; as, Perfect active the Present active by adding oμαι, as λυ- λυομαι, of oμαι, λελυκα, Perfect middle λελυμαι.
The Pluperfect middle or passive may be formed from the l'evw, I let taste; in the IIoActela, as, » (from Tolig ; Perfect by changing uai into unv, and prefixing the augmenté ; middle, I
(with hence our police, policy, as, Perfect λελυμαι, Pluperfect ε-λελυ-μην.
politic, political, polity), a
Erityoevw, I attend to, I pro- state, constitution, govern-
door, Φονευω, φονευσω, πεφονευκα, Λεγομαι (Latin, dicor), I am ward; in the middle, I go, gate. πεφονευμαι, I kill, slay, said.
proceed, travel. murder.
Axşa, as, y, a summit, a fort
Αυτονομια, ας, ή (αυτος, self, “Ιδρυω, ίδρυσω, ίδρυμαι, I sit and vouos, law), self-govern
Ilopsvoolto, the optative, because it is preceded by an down, place, build. ment, freedom.
historical tense, and because the action depends on the words Κατακλείω, κλεισω, κεκλεισμαι Αυστης, ου, o, a thief, a robber, or declaration of the subject, πατηρ (οδίφια oratio). (from klett, a key), I shut a pirate,
Avanavoajevos, having rested; that is, when he has restel : up.
the force of the participle in Greek can often be given in
English only with the aid of a conjunction or an adverb.
TYS VUKTOS, by night, the genitive of time; see the Syntax.
EXERCISES.-GREEK-ENGLISH. thing like the literal rendering of the imperative Perfect passive, scarcely makes sense in English. The force of the Οι πολεμιοι επι την ημετεραν πολιν στρατευονται. Περι της Perfect lies in representing the active as already done, and so των πολιτων σωτηριας βουλευσομεθα. Ο πατηρ μοι ελεγεν ότι in denoting despatch, as in our vulgarism, have done, that is, Topevoolto. Οι Ελληνες επι τους 1Ιερσας εστρατευσαντο. teasc immediately, Εις την ακραν, into the citadel; εις with the accusative, instead Αναπαυσωμεθα, ω φιλοι. Προ του εργου ευ βουλευσαι. Παντες
τιμης γευσασθαι βουλoνται. . 'O
πάτης of ev with the dative, being used, because motion is implied ;
αναπαυσαμενος we, however, in English say in such a case, in the citadel.
πορευσεται. Αί πυλαι της νυκτος κεκλεισoνται. Εαν τοιουτος
ανηρ την πολιτειαν επιτηδευμ, αυτη ευ βεβουλευσεται. EXERCISES.--GreeK-ENGLISH.
ExGLISI-GREEK. Οι λησται πεφονευνται. Δυο αδελφω υπο του αυτου διδασκαλου πεπαιδευσθον. Η βασιλεία υπο του δημου λελυται. Τοις 1 we shall have been educated; they will have been planted ;
I shall have been educated; he will have been educated ; θεοις υπο των Αθηναιων πολλοι νεα ίδρυνται. Η θυρα κεκλεισθω. he will have been slain ; the general will march to the city; Προ του εργου ευ βεβουλευσο. Πασιν ανθρωποις εμπεφυτευμενη | the general marched to the city; the general may hare έστιν επιθυμία της αυτονομιας. Οι λησται πεφονευσθων. Οι | marched to the city; the general might have marched to the πολεμιοι εις την ακραν κατακεκλεισθαι λεγονται, Ξενοφωντος ( city; we shall have consulted respecting the safety of our
native land; he will consult respecting thy safety; he conυιω, Γρυλλος και Διοδωρος, επεπαιδευσθην εν Σπαρτη.
sulted respecting the safety of the citizens; they ceased ; they
will have ceased; he will cease; the two men ccased ; we will ExGLISH-GREEK.
cease, O friends; the friends travel; the friends will travel ; He has been murdered; the boys have been murdered ; the the friends travelled. soldiers had been slaughtered; he has been shut up; ye have
The First Lorist and the First Future Passive, been shut up; ye had been shut up; they have been shut up; the two men had been shut up; the oxen are said to have The first Aorist passive is formed from the stem of the Per. been shut up; I have been well educated; thou hadst been fect active by changing k into Onv, and by changing the rewell educated; they have been well educated ; I had been duplication into the syllablic augment, as leduk, elvonv. ill educated; thou hadst been ill educated; the trees have
The first Future passive is formed from the first Aorist been well planted; the trees had been ill planted.
passive by dropping the augment and changing v into couai,
as ελυθην, λυθησομαι.
VOCABULARY. The Future middle is formed from the Future active by Eripepw, I bring upon, I in- vention, agreement, treaty : changing the personal-ending of the active-that is, w-into the troduce ; Tolejov Tir" (Lat. in the text, used in the personal ending of the middle- that is, oμαι, as λυσ-ω, λυσ-ομαι. bellum infero), to make plural, the agreements; that The o here may be considered as a connecting vowel, and'the
is, the treaty considered as mood be divided thus-20-9.0-pai. Of each of these four parts Anuorparia, as, is, democracy, containing many heads. the Student should give an account.
the government of the onog Tupavvoc, où, ó, tyrant. The first Aorist middle is formed from the Future middle by
or people (that is, the IIolepilos, a, ov, hostile, the prefixing the augment and changing ouai into auny; thus, populace).
enemy's, Avo-quat, k dvo-aunv; or it may be formed from the first Evvenen(ouvand Tib nue),a con- | My, not, lest (Latin, ne). Aorist active by simply adding μην; thus, ελυσα, ελυσα-μην. The Perfect Future, or, as it is sometimes called, the third
REMARKS. Future (also the Paulo-post-futurum), is formed from the second person singular of the Perfect' middle or passive by Tupavvos does not exactly correspond with our word tyrant, changing αι into oμαι, as λελυσαι, λελυσ-ομαι; where, again, ο
though the latter comes from the former, but denotes some may be accounted a connecting vowel as well as the modal one who has seized the helm of government in a free state. vowel, or vowel marking the indicatire mood : for the optative, A tyrant, therefore, in the Greek sense of the term, is not o becomes o, as lekvoolunv; that is, e is added to o,
necessarily a despot, and the Greek may often be rendered by I give the parts of πανω: παυω, παυσω, πεπαυκα, πεπαυσμαι;
our usurper. the Future middle, navoojat; first Aorist middle, eravoaunvi and requires the subjunctive with a Present, a Perfect, or a
My after verbs expressive of fear may be rendered by lest,
Future tense; and the optative with any of the historical VOCABULARY.
Evvonkwv XvBelowy: this is what is called "the genitive Ilavw, I make to cease; in the Avanavw, I cause to rest; in absolute," and corresponds with the ablative absolute" in middle, I cease or stop.
Latin; the treaty being broken,
Perfect Future, πεπαυσομαι,