« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
combined with the metal, are not points for discussion at formed of them constitutes the main point of difference between
which are said to be kaligenous or alkali-making metals.
(3.) Solutions of all calcigenous metals save uranium, iron, pound solution, without the presence of ammonia, all the zinc manganese, cobalt, and nickel, are precipitated by either will be thrown down ; repeating the operation with the hydrosulphuric acid or'hydrosulphate of ammonia. presence of ammonia, or still better, hydrosulphate of ammonia 4. The colour of the precipitate is black. already prepared, the manganese will fall. Both these preci 5. But solutions of zinc and manganese yield a precipitate pitates will be sulphurets; one of zinc, the other of manganese. which is white. The reader will now observe that although we just now 6. And solutions of arsenic, cadmium, antimony, and perdismissed the metal zinc, this was only for a time. Its con- salt of tin, yield a precipitate which is yellow. sideration is now reopened in connexion and by contrast with The preceding are amongst the most important of fundamanganese : chemical philosophy, in point of fact, is a structure mental chemical facts; the reader should master them, made up of this comparative knowledge of different bodies. thoroughly, not resting content with being able to think them
In addition to the fact that zinc is precipitated by hydro- out, but the facts should become part and parcel of the brain sulphuric acid alone, and manganese by hydrosulphuric acid itself, so that the student, if roused from his slumbers at night, in combination
with ammonia, let the reader remember that and asked any questions involved by the six generalisations a white precipitate by either of these agents is altogether which have been given, should be instantaneously able to exceptional. The usual colour of precipitates by hydrosul supply the required answers. phuric acid and hydrosulphate of ammonia is black. Two metals are alone precipitated white: these are zinc and manganese. The student will now recognise a means by which zinc and manganese, if existing together in one solution, admit
LESSONS IN GREEK.--No. IX.
By John R. BEARD, D.D.
THE THIRD DECLENSION (continued).
οδοντ-ος some of their most correct results by collateral reasoning and
οδοντ- -1 calculation : thus, knowing that the white sulphuret of man
οδοντ-α ganese is made up of -parts sulphur, and---pits V.
οδους manganese--that the white sulphuret of zinc is made up of
P. N. ρίν-ες δελφίνες
γιγαντ-ες οδοντες -parts sulphur-of course it is easy parts zinc, and
G. piv-ov δελφίνων to calculate the ainount of metal and of sulphur present, with
D. pi-ot δελφι-σι γιγά-σι οδου-σι out actually separating the sulphur and obtaining the metal
V. It is a very common error for chemical beginners to imagine D. N.A.V. piv-e δελφίν-ε € γιγαντ·ε οδοντοε E that a certain result will always follow the addition of a cer G.D. ρίν-οιν δελφίν-οιν! γιγαντ-οιν 1 οδοντ -οιν tain substance to solution of the same body. Thus, for example, a beginner might imagine that zinc, in whatever To this class belong the adjectives in 1, as, aiva, av, as state of solution, will always be thrown down by hydro- uelas, melaiva, mehav, black, g. uelavos, pelaivns, uelavos, Bulphuric acid, and that manganese, in whatever solution, will and ralas, ralaiva, tahav, unhappy; 2, ras, masa, Tav, all, always be thrown down by hydrosulphate of ammonia. This every, 6., Tavtos, naong, Favtos, and its compound atas, is not so. The conditions necessary to ensure these, or any ataoa, à tayo 3, éxwv, kovoa, ikov, willing ; g. ŠKOVTOS, other chemical results, lie in a comparatively narrow space; ikovons, érovtos, and arwv, akovca, axov, unwilling (à privative they can only be learned by practice, and the appreciation makes irur into axwve) 4, the adjectives in Elç; c0OC, ev, 6.8.
D, Ν. Α.V. χαριεντε
χαριεις, χαριεσσα, χαριεν, Ιουcly which have in the dative remains at the end of the word and before consonants, but plural of the masculine and neuter under eo instead of slot, disappears in the middle between vowels, Nouns in evs have, as it is in λειφθεις, eft behind, for the participles in εις, εισα, εν, in the accusative singular α, and in the accusative plural ας; form the case regularly in Elot.
take in the genitive singular what called the Attic form in S. Ν. χαριεις χαριεσσα
ως, instead of oς; and in the dative singular as well as in the
nominative plural, admit contraction; which, however, is
commonly not found in the accusative plural. If a vowel
precedes Evs, the whole singular and plural is contracted, as in
Xoevs. Nouns in aus and ous take the contraction only in the
accusative plural. The words about to be declined are o
βασιλευς, α king; ο χοευς, α measure of liquid (about a gallon) ;
ò, Bouc, a bull or cow, an ox (Latin bos, bovis); and ij ypaus
an old woman.
γρας χαριεσσα χαριεντε
G. βασιλε-ως | χο(εω)ώς* | βο-ος
γρα-0ς χαριεντoιν χαρίεσσαιν χαριεντoιν
D. βασιλεί χοεί
βασιλεα S. Ν. λειφθεις λειφθεισα λειφθεν
χοείς βο-ες γρά-ες G.
βασιλε-ων χο(εωγών Α.
βο-ών λειφθεντα λειφθεισαν λειφθεν
βασιλεύσι . λειφθεια:
βουσι λειφθεισα λειφθεν
Α. Ρ. Ν.
βασιλεας χο(εα ας λειφθεντες λειφθεισαι
(βο ας)βούς | γρά-ας) λειφθεντα G. λειφθεντων λειφθείσων λειφθεντων
1'. βασιλείς D.
χοείς λειφθεισι λειφθεισαις λειφθεισι
βο-ες D.Ν.Α.Υ. Ιβασιλε-ε
γρά-ες λειφθεντας λειφθεισας λειφθεντα
βασιλε-ουν ! χοε-ριν V. λειφθεντες λειφθεισαι λειφθεντα
γρα-οίν D. N.A.V, λειφθεντε λειφθεισα λειφθεντε
Αχιλλευς, εως, ή, the hero | Εκτωρ, oρoς, o, Hector.
1χαριστος, ον, unthankful.
Οδυσσευς, εως, ή, Ulyssis. Ακτις, ίνος, ή, a beam, ray. Ευπορος, ον (with gen.), easily Γονευς, εως, o, a parent.
Πολυλογος, οη, talkative. passed, abounding.
Apyw (g.), I govern. Ελεφας, αντoς, o, an elephant,
“Ιερευς, εως, ή, a priest. ivory. Κωτίλος, η, ον, loquacious.
Ατιμαζω,I honour not, disΦιλανθρωπος, man-loving, phi- Νομη, ης, ή, a pasture.
Νομευς, εως, o, a shepherd. honour, despise. Βρωμα, ατος, τo, food.
lanthropic. Μαχη, ης, ή, ight, battle.
Εικαζω (d.),I liken to, com
Επιμέλεια, ας, ή, attention to,
θυω, I sacrifice. 'Ηλιος, ου, ο, the sun. Οσφραινομαι (g), I smell some- οφθαλμος, ου, o, an eye. Ληρος, ου, ο, idle talk, chatter. | Φονεύω, I put to death, kill,
murder. Αυτος, he himself, (Lat. ipse); thing. .
Κυρος, ου, ο, Cyrus.
Βουλομαι, I wish, will. και αυτος, the game, (Lat. Ποτε, once (an enclitic).
"Ομηρος, ου, ο, Ηomer.
Τε (enclitic)- και, and-aleo, idem).
Πατροκλος, ου, ο, Patroclus. both. .
Τηλεμαχος, ου, ο, Telemachus.
EXERCISES.--GREEK-ENGLISH. βρωματα λεαινομεν. Οι δελφίνες φιλανθρωποι εισιν. Εστινά
Οι βασιλείς επιμελειαν εχουσι των πολιτών. Η αγελη τω ανδρος αγαθου παντα κακα ανδρειως φερειν. Πολλαι Λιβυης νομεί έπεται. Εκτωρ υπ 'Αχιλλεως φονευεται. Οι ιερεις τους χωραι ευποροι εισιν ελεφαντος. Παντες κωτιλον ανθρωπον θεοίς βούς θυουσιν. Κυρος παίς ην αγαθων γονεων. Οι εχθαιρoυσιν. Τοις γιγάσι ποτε ην μαχη προς τους θεους. Ταις
αχαριστοι τους γονεας ατιμαζουσιν. Πειθου, ω παι, τοις του ήλιου ακτίσι χαιρομεν. Ρινων εργον εστιν οσφραινεσθαι.. γονεύσιν. Τηλεμαχος ην Οδυσσεως υιος. Βουλου τους γονεας ENGLISH-GREEK.
προ παντός εν τιμάις έχειν. Οι των γραών ληροι τα ωτα
τειρoυσιν. Καλως αρχεις, ω βασιλεύ. Αι γράες πολυλογοι We have ivory. Ivory is produced (γιγνομαι) in districts of
Οι νομείς την βοών αγελην εις νομήν αγoυσιν. Ομηρος Africa. The rays of the sun delight the shepherds. The bro. thers and the sisters are delighted by the rays of the sun. τους Ηρας οφθαλμους τοις των βοών εικαζει. Πατροκλος φιλος The sister is lovely. We admire fne ivory. Many elephanta ην Αχιλλεως. Κυρον, τον των Περσων βασιλεα, επι τη τε αρετη are in Africa. The business of the teeth is to meeticate the food, και τη σοφια θαυμαζομεν. It is the duty of every man to worship the divinity To the gods there once was (in idiomatic English, the gods once
ENGLISH-GREEK. carried on) a war against (apos) the giants.
The flocks follow the shepherd. The king has care of (for)
the citizen. Ears are tired by the idle talk of the old According to poovs, are formed words compounded with
An old woman is talkative. The shepherd leads the oðovs, as o, 1 uorodovs, having one tooth, 8: Hovodoprosi, accord: herd of oxen to the city. Oxen are sacrificed to the gods by ng το γιγας, adjectives in ας, 3. αντος, as o, ή ακαμας, «ησιο- (υπο with s.) the priests. O priests, sacrifice an os to the ded, unaccaried, g. αντος.
gods. Children love their (the) parents. Parents are loved
by their children. It is the business of a good shepherd to I pass on to the second great division of nouns, and proceed take (have) care of his herds. B. Nouns WHICE IN THE GENITIVE IIAVE A VOWEL BEFORE
Ir the second place I must ask your attention to nouns endThe TERMINATION OC.
ing in ης, ες ; ως (g. ωος) and ως andω (g. οος) in ας (g. αος), And here, first, I must take up substantives which end.in os 18. cos). The stem of these words ends in o; the o remains tvc, aīs, and oís. The stem of these ends in v. The v at the end and before a consonant, but čisappears in the
. That is, xoewc is contracted into yows, Xosa into roa, • The verb xori with a genitive, as here, signifies it is the
χοεων into χοών, and χοεας into χοάς.
to speak of
dulty of, it is becoming in.
middle between two Towels. In the dative plural one σ dis- παρεχε. Επαμεινωνδας πατρος ην αφανούς. Ελεαιρε τον appears, e.g., ο θως, α jackal, τοις θω-σι.
ατυχή ανθρωπον. Ορεγεσθε, ω νεανια, αληθων λογων. Οι
Μη ομιλιαν εχε Of these words, let us consider, first, those which end in ακρατείς αισχραν δουλειαν δουλευουσιν. ης, ες. The termination8 ης (m. and f.), ες (n.), belong only
Socrates had (in Greek, to Socrates was) wonderful wisdom.
σαφες (σαφε ες)σαφείς (σαφεα)σαφή
LESSONS IN ITALIAN GRAMMAR. No. III,
BY CHARLES TAUSENAU, M.D.,
σαφες (σαφε-ες)σαφείς (σαφέ-α)σαφή of the University of Paria, Professor of the Italian and German Languages Dual. Ν.Α.Υ. σαφε-ε σαφη
at the Kensington Proprietary Grammar School. G.D. σαφε-ουν σαφούν
(Continued from page 21.)
Pece τριηρε-ουν and τριηροΐν.
He has a bad smell are found only in the singular,
Pap for children
The occiput, goblet
Type (a model)
He heard you
I give you
He gives you
Acheté in the first example does not vary, because st, placed
has two sounds--one like the English consonant l; the second
Zara, a town is a peculiar sound, of which I shall have occasion to speak in
the pronouncing tables.
Zone, girdle To insure perfect accuracy in the pronunciation, I may remark
that when m is preceded by a vowel with which it forms one Mazara
mah-tzáh-rah Mazzara in Sicily syllable, and a consonant being the next, it must be very Gazera gah-dzai-rah Magpie
softly sounded, and the voice must glide quickly to the next Azimo áh-dzee-mo
Unleavened consonant, almost as if it formed part of the same syllable;
for example, ambizione, ahm-bee-tzee-6-nai, ambition; empio,
em-peeo, impious ; onồra, ôm-brah, a shadow.
4. Nn, named in the alphabet enne (pronounced en-nai).
Moustache Generally speaking, this letter is pronounced just as in English;
but the observation made on the m is equally applicable to ,
A bad smell In similar circumstances, the voice must glide quickly from the
os to the succeeding consonant; for example, andare, ahn-dah-
Ithaca in Greece Agape ah-gah-pai Agape, or Christian rai, to go; entrare, en-tráh-rai, to enter; onda, on-dah, a wave.
After g, n has a peculiar sound, which I shall have occasion
Embroidery to explain in the pronouncing tables. Often " is pro-
nounced like m before words commencing with the con-
sonants o, m, and p; as, gran bestia, pronounced grahm be. Gaeta gah-ai-tah
Town in Naples steeah, a boorish, insolent fellow, great blockhead, &c.; scolpire
in marmo, pronounced skol-pée-rai im mahrr-mo, to chisel in
marble; con poca fatica, pronounced kom pô. kah fah-tée-kah, Tacito táh-tchee-to Tacitus
with little effort. This is certainly the finest pronunciation, Vagito vah-jée-to Loud wailing
because it is the genius of the lialian language, as in the
classical tongues, particularly Greek, to soften the transition
from one word to another, and often from one syllable to the
other, bychanges of consonants.
5. R r, named in the alphabet erre (pronounced ér-ra) B.
when it is followed by a consonant, must be vibrated with a Acuto ah-kóo-to
Acute, ingenious stronger emphasis than in English ; and it is on the other hand Cicuta
tchee-kóo-tah Water hemlock very soft before a vowel; as, carla, pronounced kahrr-ta, paper,
and soft in cara, pronounced káh-rah, dear.
(To be continued.)
LESSONS IN FRENCH.–No. LXXX.
By Professor Louis FASQUELLE, LL.D.
§ 135.- REMARKS ON THE FOREGOING RULEs. Idiota
Stealing of cattle (1.) Although the compound tenses of the reflective or pro:
nominal verbs [$ 43, (6.), 46, (2.), 56) take étre as non Decapitato
dai-kah-pee-táh-to Decapitated auxiliary, the past participle of those verbs does not follow the Decaduto dai-kah-doo-to Decayed
rule (2.) of the preceding section ; but comes under the same Agitato ah-jee-táh-to Agitated
rules with those conjugated with aroir. It agrees with the Epicuro ai-pee-kóo-ro
direct regimen, when that regimen comes before it, and is
in variable when that regimen succeeds :-
Cette femme s'est rendue mal. heureuse.
unhappy. There are six semi-vowels in the Italian language, so called
placed before the in the case of the mutes, but require the utterance of two $y2o regimen 'or accusative, robes, is placed after the participle. lables, which syllables are substantially the same though in an Rendue in the second' example varies, because the word the inverse order. The semi. vowels are :
representing femme, is a direct regimen, and precedes the
Used as direct Objects.
8€ font proposé, pour
Elles se sont proposées commedes as the following words gazzera, azzimo, bazzotto, azzuffa. + There is very little difference between the pronunciation of the
plus simple des anciens.
They have proposed to themselves,
• The er like the sound of the syllable er in the English word onmor.
Your sister hus bought (hersel!) handsome dresses, i. e., for hersell.
That woman has rendered hersel
QUOTED BY BESCHEE. They have proposed themselves as
Il est vrai, qu'elle et moi nous La langue latine et la langue | (6.) The participle past of neuter verbs, conjugated with nous sommes parle des yeux. grecque se sont longtemps pariées. avoir, and those of unipersonal verbs, are always invariable: MOLIÈRE,
Que de bien n'a-t-elle pas fait, How much good has she not done, it is true, that she and I have The Latin and Greek languages pendant le peu de jours qu'elle a during the few days that she reigned. spoken to each other with our eyes. were long spoken of.
(7.) The past participle never agrees with en, because e opulence.
can have no other relation to the participle than that of an (2.) Whet onominal or reflective terbs, of which the vent the agreement of the participle with a direct regimen
indirect regimen.* The presence of en does not of course pre second pronoui is an indirect regimen, are accompanied by preceding the verb :another pronoun, or by a noun, used as a direct regimen, the
Avez-vous mangé des fruite ? Have you eaten of the fruits ? I participle agrees with this latter pronoun or noun when it
J'en ai mangé.
have eaten of them. is preceded by it, and remains invariable when the régime
Tout le monde m'a offert des Everybody' tenderal me services, diract follows. See Rules (4.) (5.) of the preceding sec-services, et personne ne m'en a and no person rendered me any. tion :
rendu, MME. DE MAINTENON.
En, preceded by the Direct Regimen of the Participle.
Cassius naturellement fier et im Cassius, naturally proud and im. The indiscretion with which we We have reproached ourselves with périeux, ne cherchait dans le perte perious, sought in the death of have reproached ourselves. the indiscretion, de César que la vengeance de quel. Cæsar only revenge for some injuries
which he had received from him. 6. Or to render in English the relations the same as in ques injures qu'il en avait reçues.
Rendez grâces au ciel qui nous Render thanks to Heaven, which
has revenged us for it.
(8.) Le pen has in French two meanings: it signifies a smal}
When it signifies a small quantity, the participle agrees with In such cases, when the direct regimen is under the govern the noun which follows le peu :ment of the infinitive rather than of the participle, the latter
Le peu d'affection que vous lui The little affection which you have of course remains unchanged:
avez témoignée, lui a rendu le cou shown him, has restored his courage, La règle que j'ai commencé à ex. The rule which I coinmenced to rage. pliquer. explain.
When le pou is used in the sense of the want of, the participle (4.) The verb in the infinitive is sometimes understood ; yet remains unaltered :the participle must follow the same rule, as if it were
Le per d'affection que vous lui The want of affection which you expressed. The participle fait, followed by an infinitive, and avez temoigné, l'a découragé. have shown him, has discouraged laissé, followed by the infinitive of an active verb, are always
s 136.— The ADVERB.--Rules.-PLACE OF THE ADVERB. qu'elle a voulu (obtenir).
she wished (to obtain).
(1.) In French the adverb used to modify a verb in a simple
Que de gens prennent hardiment i How many people assume boldly
le (5.) In some cases, it may be difficult to ascertain whether
the mask of virtue! .
(2.) Adverbs of place, and those used in interrogations, have
Où est votre frère ? Il est ici. Where is your brother! He is agree with that régime in gender and number :Je les ai vus secourir leurs enne I saw them relieving their enemies.
(3.) In compound tenses the adverb is placed between the mis.
auxiliary and the participle :In this example it will be seen that les (the régime direct) is
Vous avez mal fait.
Yars have done wrong. represented as actually doing, what is expressed by the
Il nous a bien reçus.
He received us well.
(4.) Adverbs of manner ending in ment, may, in compound If, however, the régime direct is to be represented as suffer- tenses, be placed before the participle or after it, when they ing the action expressed by the infinitive, then the participle are not very long, or followed by other modifying words. will remain unchanged, and the infinitive will be translated as When, however, they are followed by such words they must a passive. Thus :
be placed after the participle :-
That is happily expressed.
Cela est exprimé heureusement.
Il est venu heureusement a temps. 1 He came fortunately in time.
(5.) The adverbs aujourd'hui, to-day; demain, to-morrow Je les ai vus repousser les enne Je les ai vu repousser par les hier, yesterday, may be placed before or after the verb, but mis. ennemis.
never between the auxiliary and the participle. The adverb I saw them repel (repelling) the I saw them repelled by the enemies. davantage, more, must always follow the participle : enemies. Je les ai mus prendre la fuite. Je les ai vu prendre sur le fait,
* Noël and Chapsal, page 165. Several grammarians call en at times a I saw them taking flight.
I saw them taken in the deed,
régimen direct. We think with Bescherelle (Dictionnaire national, paja Je les ai pus frapper.
Je les ai vu frapper.
1114), that en does not represent the entire direct regimen, but only a part I save them striking.
I saw them struck.
J'en ai. Have you books? I haw
In the latter sentence, the words quelques uns, the direct object, is chanter.
understood after the verb; J'en ai quelques uns, and en is rather a reference The persons whom I heard sing The songs which I heard sung. to it, than a substitute for it. The literal translation of the sentence will
show this: I have of them a few.