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combined with the metal, are not points for discussion at formed of them constitutes the main point of difference between
present. One object was to get a solution of manganese, and an expert and an inexpert chemical analyst.
we have got it: let us now study the properties of this solu For the present we will have done with manganese and
tion. Our proposition is to precipitate or throw down the zinc, my especial object being to fix on the reader's memory
dissolved manganese. How can this be effected? The student the nature of the changes effected on solutions of these metals
succeeded in throwing down zinc by means of hydrosulphuric by hydrosulphuric acid, and hydrosulphate of ammonia,
acid, either in the form of aqueous solution or gas. Will these The reader must not infer that the re-agents mentioned are
agents throw down manganese : On trying the experiment, the only ones for zinc and manganese; there exist several of
the reader will find that the manganese cannot be precipitated equal delicacy, but the fact especially to be remembered is
by this means. The solution will either remain absolutely this :-Hydrosulphuric acid, and hydrosulphate of ammonia, are
clear, or will only become slightly turbid; the manganese tests for all those substances which a beginner would consider to be
remaining dissolved. But if instead of hydrosulphuric acid metals.
gas, or solution of this gas in water, a solution of the same in “Which a beginner would consider metals," --what is the
ammonia (hartshorn) be employed; or, what amounts to the meaning of this expression? Why, the meaning is this : Lime,
same thing, if a little hartshorn be added to the manganese clay, and other earths, the beginner would not suspect to be
solution simultaneously with the hydrosulphuric acid, then all metallic compounds ;-they are nevertheless ; they are each
the manganese will be thrown down or precipitated. If the an oxide, or rust of a corresponding metal; and the metals
manganese solution be pure, the precipitate will be white, or which form earths are said to be terrigenous or earth-making
rather flesh-coloured (we will call it white by courtesy); if the metals. Again, the reader does not usually associate the
solution contain iron or some other metal —a very probable idea of a metal with the alkalis, potash, and soda: neverthe-
contingency--then the white or cream-colour will be pro- less, these also are oxides or rusts of corresponding metals
portionately disturbed.

which are said to be kaligenous or alkali-making metals.
What I desire especially to impress upon the student's con Well, then, let the student remember the following facts :-
sideration is this, Zinc is precipitated from its solution white 1. Neither the earth-making nor the alkali-making metals are
by hydrosulphuric acid alone, whereas manganese is precipi- precipitated from their solution by either hydrosulphuric acid
tated white (by courtesy) only when the hydrosulphuric acid or hydrosulphate of ammonia.
is combined with ammonia or hydrosulphate of ammonia. Hence 2. All the metals remaining, constituting by far the greater
we at once deduce a valuable power in analysis. Supposing number, and termed by chemists calcigenous metals, are
zinc and ammonia to exist together in one solution, they may precipitated by hydrosulphuric acid or hydrosulphate of
readily be separated by applying the principles already deduced. ammonia.
Passing a current of hydrosulphuric acid gas through the com-

(3.) Solutions of all calcigenous metals save uranium, iron, pound solution, without the presence of ammonia, all the zinc manganese, cobalt, and nickel, are precipitated by either will be thrown down ; repeating the operation with the hydrosulphuric acid or'hydrosulphate of ammonia. presence of ammonia, or still better, hydrosulphate of ammonia 4. The colour of the precipitate is black. already prepared, the manganese will fall. Both these preci 5. But solutions of zinc and manganese yield a precipitate pitates will be sulphurets; one of zinc, the other of manganese. which is white. The reader will now observe that although we just now 6. And solutions of arsenic, cadmium, antimony, and perdismissed the metal zinc, this was only for a time. Its con- salt of tin, yield a precipitate which is yellow. sideration is now reopened in connexion and by contrast with The preceding are amongst the most important of fundamanganese : chemical philosophy, in point of fact, is a structure mental chemical facts; the reader should master them, made up of this comparative knowledge of different bodies. thoroughly, not resting content with being able to think them

In addition to the fact that zinc is precipitated by hydro- out, but the facts should become part and parcel of the brain sulphuric acid alone, and manganese by hydrosulphuric acid itself, so that the student, if roused from his slumbers at night, in combination

with ammonia, let the reader remember that and asked any questions involved by the six generalisations a white precipitate by either of these agents is altogether which have been given, should be instantaneously able to exceptional. The usual colour of precipitates by hydrosul supply the required answers. phuric acid and hydrosulphate of ammonia is black. Two metals are alone precipitated white: these are zinc and manganese. The student will now recognise a means by which zinc and manganese, if existing together in one solution, admit

LESSONS IN GREEK.--No. IX.
of being separated; he will perhaps remark, however, that we

By John R. BEARD, D.D.
do not separate the metals--obtaining zinc bodily, and manganese
bodily-but obtain either a metal or a sulphuret. He will

THE THIRD DECLENSION (continued).
perhaps desire, like most beginners, to obtain this bodily
presence of the metals. To this extent I cannot gratify him in There is yet another class, of which the stem ends in v or
the present lesson. Suffice it to say, that the process of re Ας examples take ή ρις, ριν-ος, the nose και ο δελφις,
moving sulphuric acid may be accomplished--is accomplished de div-os, a dolphin; yıyas, yıyavr.os, a giant ; odovs,
in the reduction of metals from their ores—but would be odovt-os, a tooth (Lat. dens. Eng. dentist.)
difficult to accomplish in our present case; it is never ac- s, N.

ρις
δελφις
yuyas

οδους
Chemists arrive at
complished in the course of analysis,

G. pwv-oc

δελφίν-ος
γιγαντ-ος

οδοντ-ος some of their most correct results by collateral reasoning and

D.
δελφίνι γιγαντι !

οδοντ- -1 calculation : thus, knowing that the white sulphuret of man

A.
piv a δελφίνια γιγαντια

οδοντ-α ganese is made up of -parts sulphur, and---pits V.

piv
δελφις (ιν)! γιγαν

οδους manganese--that the white sulphuret of zinc is made up of

P. N. ρίν-ες δελφίνες

γιγαντ-ες οδοντες -parts sulphur-of course it is easy parts zinc, and

G. piv-ov δελφίνων to calculate the ainount of metal and of sulphur present, with

γιγαντ-ων οδοντ-ων

D. pi-ot δελφι-σι γιγά-σι οδου-σι out actually separating the sulphur and obtaining the metal

A. ρίν-ας

δελφίν ας
γιγαντ-ας

οδοντας bodily.

V. It is a very common error for chemical beginners to imagine D. N.A.V. piv-e δελφίν-ε γιγαντ·ε οδοντοε E that a certain result will always follow the addition of a cer G.D. ρίν-οιν δελφίν-οιν! γιγαντ-οιν 1 οδοντ -οιν tain substance to solution of the same body. Thus, for example, a beginner might imagine that zinc, in whatever To this class belong the adjectives in 1, as, aiva, av, as state of solution, will always be thrown down by hydro- uelas, melaiva, mehav, black, g. uelavos, pelaivns, uelavos, Bulphuric acid, and that manganese, in whatever solution, will and ralas, ralaiva, tahav, unhappy; 2, ras, masa, Tav, all, always be thrown down by hydrosulphate of ammonia. This every, 6., Tavtos, naong, Favtos, and its compound atas, is not so. The conditions necessary to ensure these, or any ataoa, à tayo 3, éxwv, kovoa, ikov, willing ; g. ŠKOVTOS, other chemical results, lie in a comparatively narrow space; ikovons, érovtos, and arwv, akovca, axov, unwilling (à privative they can only be learned by practice, and the appreciation makes irur into axwve) 4, the adjectives in Elç; c0OC, ev, 6.8.

VT.

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pivot

D, Ν. Α.V. χαριεντε

γραν γραν

D.

G.D.

pare with.

care.

χαριεις, χαριεσσα, χαριεν, Ιουcly which have in the dative remains at the end of the word and before consonants, but plural of the masculine and neuter under eo instead of slot, disappears in the middle between vowels, Nouns in evs have, as it is in λειφθεις, eft behind, for the participles in εις, εισα, εν, in the accusative singular α, and in the accusative plural ας; form the case regularly in Elot.

take in the genitive singular what called the Attic form in S. Ν. χαριεις χαριεσσα

ως, instead of oς; and in the dative singular as well as in the

χαριεν
G,
χαριεντος χαρίεσσης

nominative plural, admit contraction; which, however, is

χαριεντος
D.
χαριεντι χαριεσση

commonly not found in the accusative plural. If a vowel

χαριεντι
Α.
χαριεντα χαρίεσσας χαριεν

precedes Evs, the whole singular and plural is contracted, as in
Υ.
χαριεν χαρίεσσα

Xoevs. Nouns in aus and ous take the contraction only in the

χαριεν
Ρ. Ν.
χαριεντες χαριεσσαι

accusative plural. The words about to be declined are o

χαριεντα
G.
χαριεντων χαριεσσων χαριεντων

βασιλευς, α king; ο χοευς, α measure of liquid (about a gallon) ;
D.
χαριεσι χαρίεσσαις χαριεσι

ò, Bouc, a bull or cow, an ox (Latin bos, bovis); and ij ypaus

an old woman.
χαριεντας χαρίεσσας χαριεντα
Υ.
χαριεντες χαριεσσαι χαριεντα S.N. βασιλευς χοευς βούς

γρας χαριεσσα χαριεντε

G. βασιλε-ως | χο(εω)ώς* | βο-ος
G.D.

γρα-0ς χαριεντoιν χαρίεσσαιν χαριεντoιν

D. βασιλεί χοεί

βο-ι

γρα.

βασιλεα S. Ν. λειφθεις λειφθεισα λειφθεν

Xo(ea)ā βούν

Υ. βασιλεί
G. λεφθεντος λειφθεισης

χοευ

βού
λειφθεντος

P.Ν. βασιλείς
D. λειφθεντι λειφθεισυ λειφθεντι

χοείς βο-ες γρά-ες G.

βασιλε-ων χο(εωγών Α.

βο-ών λειφθεντα λειφθεισαν λειφθεν

γρα- ων

βασιλεύσι . λειφθεια:

βουσι λειφθεισα λειφθεν

χοείσι

γρανσι

Α. Ρ. Ν.

βασιλεας χο(εα ας λειφθεντες λειφθεισαι

(βο ας)βούς | γρά-ας) λειφθεντα G. λειφθεντων λειφθείσων λειφθεντων

γραύς

1'. βασιλείς D.

χοείς λειφθεισι λειφθεισαις λειφθεισι

βο-ες D.Ν.Α.Υ. Ιβασιλε-ε

γρά-ες λειφθεντας λειφθεισας λειφθεντα

χοε :ε
βο

γρά-ε

βασιλε-ουν ! χοε-ριν V. λειφθεντες λειφθεισαι λειφθεντα

βο-οιν

γρα-οίν D. N.A.V, λειφθεντε λειφθεισα λειφθεντε

VOCABULARY.
G.D. λειφθεντριν λειφθεισαιν λειφθεντoιν

Αχιλλευς, εως, ή, the hero | Εκτωρ, oρoς, o, Hector.
VOCABULARY.

Achilles.

1χαριστος, ον, unthankful.

Οδυσσευς, εως, ή, Ulyssis. Ακτις, ίνος, ή, a beam, ray. Ευπορος, ον (with gen.), easily Γονευς, εως, o, a parent.

Πολυλογος, οη, talkative. passed, abounding.

Apyw (g.), I govern. Ελεφας, αντoς, o, an elephant,

“Ιερευς, εως, ή, a priest. ivory. Κωτίλος, η, ον, loquacious.

Ατιμαζω,I honour not, disΦιλανθρωπος, man-loving, phi- Νομη, ης, ή, a pasture.

Νομευς, εως, o, a shepherd. honour, despise. Βρωμα, ατος, τo, food.

lanthropic. Μαχη, ης, ή, ight, battle.

Εικαζω (d.),I liken to, com

Επιμέλεια, ας, ή, attention to,
Χωρα ας, ή, country, district. Λεαινω, Irmake smooth, polish,
Λιβυη, ης, ή, Lybia, Africa.
masticate.

θυω, I sacrifice. 'Ηλιος, ου, ο, the sun. Οσφραινομαι (g), I smell some- οφθαλμος, ου, o, an eye. Ληρος, ου, ο, idle talk, chatter. | Φονεύω, I put to death, kill,

murder. Αυτος, he himself, (Lat. ipse); thing. .

Κυρος, ου, ο, Cyrus.

Βουλομαι, I wish, will. και αυτος, the game, (Lat. Ποτε, once (an enclitic).

"Ομηρος, ου, ο, Ηomer.

Τε (enclitic)- και, and-aleo, idem).

Πατροκλος, ου, ο, Patroclus. both. .
EXERCISES. -GREEK-ENGLIAH.

Τηλεμαχος, ου, ο, Telemachus.
Ου πασιν ανθρωπους και αυτος νούς εστιν. Τοις ούουσι τα

EXERCISES.--GREEK-ENGLISH. βρωματα λεαινομεν. Οι δελφίνες φιλανθρωποι εισιν. Εστινά

Οι βασιλείς επιμελειαν εχουσι των πολιτών. Η αγελη τω ανδρος αγαθου παντα κακα ανδρειως φερειν. Πολλαι Λιβυης νομεί έπεται. Εκτωρ υπ 'Αχιλλεως φονευεται. Οι ιερεις τους χωραι ευποροι εισιν ελεφαντος. Παντες κωτιλον ανθρωπον θεοίς βούς θυουσιν. Κυρος παίς ην αγαθων γονεων. Οι εχθαιρoυσιν. Τοις γιγάσι ποτε ην μαχη προς τους θεους. Ταις

αχαριστοι τους γονεας ατιμαζουσιν. Πειθου, ω παι, τοις του ήλιου ακτίσι χαιρομεν. Ρινων εργον εστιν οσφραινεσθαι.. γονεύσιν. Τηλεμαχος ην Οδυσσεως υιος. Βουλου τους γονεας ENGLISH-GREEK.

προ παντός εν τιμάις έχειν. Οι των γραών ληροι τα ωτα

τειρoυσιν. Καλως αρχεις, ω βασιλεύ. Αι γράες πολυλογοι We have ivory. Ivory is produced (γιγνομαι) in districts of

Οι νομείς την βοών αγελην εις νομήν αγoυσιν. Ομηρος Africa. The rays of the sun delight the shepherds. The bro. thers and the sisters are delighted by the rays of the sun. τους Ηρας οφθαλμους τοις των βοών εικαζει. Πατροκλος φιλος The sister is lovely. We admire fne ivory. Many elephanta ην Αχιλλεως. Κυρον, τον των Περσων βασιλεα, επι τη τε αρετη are in Africa. The business of the teeth is to meeticate the food, και τη σοφια θαυμαζομεν. It is the duty of every man to worship the divinity To the gods there once was (in idiomatic English, the gods once

ENGLISH-GREEK. carried on) a war against (apos) the giants.

The flocks follow the shepherd. The king has care of (for)

the citizen. Ears are tired by the idle talk of the old According to poovs, are formed words compounded with

An old woman is talkative. The shepherd leads the oðovs, as o, 1 uorodovs, having one tooth, 8: Hovodoprosi, accord: herd of oxen to the city. Oxen are sacrificed to the gods by ng το γιγας, adjectives in ας, 3. αντος, as o, ή ακαμας, «ησιο- (υπο with s.) the priests. O priests, sacrifice an os to the ded, unaccaried, g. αντος.

gods. Children love their (the) parents. Parents are loved

by their children. It is the business of a good shepherd to I pass on to the second great division of nouns, and proceed take (have) care of his herds. B. Nouns WHICE IN THE GENITIVE IIAVE A VOWEL BEFORE

Ir the second place I must ask your attention to nouns endThe TERMINATION OC.

ing in ης, ες ; ως (g. ωος) and ως andω (g. οος) in ας (g. αος), And here, first, I must take up substantives which end.in os 18. cos). The stem of these words ends in o; the o remains tvc, aīs, and oís. The stem of these ends in v. The v at the end and before a consonant, but čisappears in the

. That is, xoewc is contracted into yows, Xosa into roa, • The verb xori with a genitive, as here, signifies it is the

χοεων into χοών, and χοεας into χοάς.

Εισιν.

woman.

to speak of

dulty of, it is becoming in.

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V. σαφες

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Ν. τριηρης

I see

and

middle between two Towels. In the dative plural one σ dis- παρεχε. Επαμεινωνδας πατρος ην αφανούς. Ελεαιρε τον appears, e.g., ο θως, α jackal, τοις θω-σι.

ατυχή ανθρωπον. Ορεγεσθε, ω νεανια, αληθων λογων. Οι

Μη ομιλιαν εχε Of these words, let us consider, first, those which end in ακρατείς αισχραν δουλειαν δουλευουσιν. ης, ες. The termination8 ης (m. and f.), ες (n.), belong only

ακρατει ανθρωπω.
to adjectives, and to proper names terminating in adjective

ENGLISH-GREEK.
forms in νης, λης, γενης, κρατης, μηδης, πειθης, σθενης, and
(κλεης) κλής: The neuter presents the pure sterm.

Socrates had (in Greek, to Socrates was) wonderful wisdom.
The words of this class suffer contraction in all the cases, Pity unfortunate men. We pity unfortunate men. Many
except the nominative and vocative singular, and the dative youths were disciples of Socrates. Socrates had (in Greek,
plural, after dropping the o. The words ending in alens to Socrates was) much wisdom. They admire the wisdom of
being contracted into kañs, again undergo contraction in the Socrates. The immoderate (man) serves a shameful servitude.
dative singular. Learn both the 'contracted and the uncon- We admire the beautiful tragedies of Sophocles. True words
tracted forms I am about to give of o, , caons, clear, to sapes are believed. I pity the life of immoderate men. Have not
and ή τριηρης, a Trireme, or galley with three banks of rowers intercourse with immoderate men,
Singular.

Plural.
Ν. σαφης

σαφες (σαφε ες)σαφείς (σαφεα)σαφή
G. (σαφεος) σαφούς (σαφε-ων)σαφών

LESSONS IN ITALIAN GRAMMAR. No. III,
D. (σαφε-i) σαφεί
σαφέσι

BY CHARLES TAUSENAU, M.D.,
Α. (σαφε-α) σαφή σαφες (σαφε-ας)σαφείς (σαφε-α)σαφή

σαφες (σαφε-ες)σαφείς (σαφέ-α)σαφή of the University of Paria, Professor of the Italian and German Languages Dual. Ν.Α.Υ. σαφε-ε σαφη

at the Kensington Proprietary Grammar School. G.D. σαφε-ουν σαφούν

(Continued from page 21.)
(τριηρε-ες) τριηρεις

Italian,
Pronounced.

English, .
G. (τριηρε-ος) τριηρους τριηρε-ών and τριηρων

Veggo

veg-got
D. (τριηρε-1) τριηρει
τριηρεσι

Figgi
fid-jee

Fasten!
Α. (τριηρε-a) τριηρη (τριήρε-ας) τριηρεις

Oggi
ôd-jee

To-day
Τ.
τριηρες
(τριηρε-ες) τριηρεις

Fuggi
food-jee

Fly!
Dual, τριηρέ-

Pace
páh-tchai

Peace
τριηρη

Pece τριηρε-ουν and τριηροΐν.

pái-tchai

Pitch
Pino
pée.no

Pine
I subjoin the declension of the proper names Ewepatns, Poco

pô-ko

Little
Socrates, and Περικλεης, Pericles; as strictly proper names, they Pute

poo-tai

He has a bad smell are found only in the singular,

Riparo
ree-páh-ro

I repair
Impero

im-pê-ro
N.

Empire
Σωκρατης (Περικλεης) Περικλής

Tapino
tah-pée-no

Wretched
G.
Σωκράτους (Περικλεε-ος) Περικλεους

Sapone
sah-pó-nai

Soap
D. Σωκρατει Περικλεε-i) (Περικλεει)Πεκλεί

Impune
im-póo-nai

Unpunished
Α.
Σωκρατη (Περικλεε-α) Περικλεά

Ραφρα
pahp-pah

Pap for children
Υ. Σωκρατες (Περικλεες) Περικλεις

Peppe
pop-pai

Joseph, Joe
Mark the contraction in the dual of

Pippo
τριηρεε into τριηρο, and

Philip, Phil

pip-po
not into the usual form in a.

Copμα
kôp-pah

The occiput, goblet
In adjectives in ns, es, when these terminations are pre 'eded

Zuppα
tzoop-pah

Soup
1 abe

táh-bai
by a vowel, εα is commonly contracted into d, as Περικλεά,

Consumption
Teco

tai-ko
and not into η, as in σαφεα σαφή; for example, ακλεης,

With thee
renowned, makes ακλεεα into ακλεά, in the masculine and

Tipo
tée-po

Type (a model)
feminine accusative singular, and in the neuter nominative,

Topo
tô-po

Mouse
Tubo

tóo-bo
accusative and vocative; 8ο υγιης forms υγιά.

Tube
Altare

ahl-táh-rai
Proper names of this termination, as well as Apus, Mars, in

Altar
the accusative singular, follow the first as well as the third

Altero
ahl-tê.ro

Haughty
declension, and are therefore denominated Heteroclite (that Allire

ahl-tée-rai

To mount
is, of different declensions); accordingly, we have both Σωκρατη

Alloro
ahl-10-YO

Laurel
and Σωκρατην. But in those ending in κλης, the accusative in

Altura
ahl-tóo-rah

Height
nu is not Attic, and therefore not allowable.

Atto
áht-to

Act, action
Getto
jet-to

Cast, throw
VOCABULARY.

Fitto
fit-to

Rent
Cotto
kôt-to

Cooked
Ακρατης, ες,
immoderate. Σωτηρια, ας, ή, salvation. Tutto

toot-to

All, quite
Αληθης, ες, true.
Τραγωδια, ας, ή, tragedy.

Vano
váh-no

Vain
Ατυχης, ες, unfortunate. Αναξαγορας, ου, ο, Anaxagoras. | Vero

vai-ro

True
Αφανης, ες, unknown, unseen. | Επαμεινωνδας, ου, ο, Epami- vino

vée-no

Wine
Eλωδης, ες, marshy.

nondae.

Voto
vó-to

Vow
Ηρακλής, ονς, o, Hercules. Σοφιστης, ου, o, a sophist. Avuto

ah-v6o-to

Had
Σοφοκλής, ους, o, Sophocles. Καλαμος, ου, o, a reed.

Bavaro
báh-vah-ro

Bavarian
Δουλεια, ας, ή, slavery, servi- Ποταμος, ου, o, a river. Severo

sai-vê-ro

Severe
tude.
Τοπος, ου, o, a place.

Divino
dee-vée-no

Divine
Ινδικη, ή, India,
Αισχρος, α, ον, shameful.

Lavoro
lah-vb-ro

Labour
Ομιλια, ή, intercourse (dat.) Ελεαιρω, I pity.

Dovuto
do-voo-to

Debt, duty
Dayvi

dáhy-vee
EXERCISES.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

Evoi
év-vee

Is there
Αι Σοφοκλεους τραγωδιαι καλαι εισιν.

Udivvi
00-dív-vee

He heard you
Τον Σωκρατη επι τη

Dovvi
dôv-vee

I give you
σοφια θαυμαζομεν. Σωκρατει πολλοι μαθηται εισιν. “Η Ινδικη

Fuovi
fóov-vee

Was there
παρα τε τους ποταμους και τους ελωδεις τοπους φερει καλαμους
πολλους. Λεγε αει τα αληθη, ωπαϊ. Αναξαγορας, ο σοφιστης, When the gg's are followed by a, o, or 11, they are pronounced
διδασκαλος ην Περικλεους. Ο Ηρακλεις, τους ατυχεσι σωτηριαν | in each syllable like English g in

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He gives you

Acheté in the first example does not vary, because st, placed

Italian,
Pronounced.
English.

has two sounds--one like the English consonant l; the second
Zara
tzah-rah

Zara, a town is a peculiar sound, of which I shall have occasion to speak in
Zero
dzê-ro
Cypher

the pronouncing tables.
Zita
tzée-tah
Girl
3. M m, named in the alphabet emme (pronounced ém-mai)

,
Zona
dzô-nah

Zone, girdle To insure perfect accuracy in the pronunciation, I may remark
Zuyo
tz60-go
Omelet

that when m is preceded by a vowel with which it forms one Mazara

mah-tzáh-rah Mazzara in Sicily syllable, and a consonant being the next, it must be very Gazera gah-dzai-rah Magpie

softly sounded, and the voice must glide quickly to the next Azimo áh-dzee-mo

Unleavened consonant, almost as if it formed part of the same syllable;
Batoto
bah-dzó-to

Half-cooked
Azufa
ah-tzú-fah
He comes to blows

for example, ambizione, ahm-bee-tzee-6-nai, ambition; empio,
Pazzo
páh-tzot
Fool

em-peeo, impious ; onồra, ôm-brah, a shadow.
Pezzo
pê-tzo
Piece

4. Nn, named in the alphabet enne (pronounced en-nai).
Pizzo
pée-tzo

Moustache Generally speaking, this letter is pronounced just as in English;
Pozzo
pó-tzo
A well

but the observation made on the m is equally applicable to ,
Puzzo
pbo-tzo

A bad smell In similar circumstances, the voice must glide quickly from the
Pagato
pah-gah-to
Paid

os to the succeeding consonant; for example, andare, ahn-dah-
Ithaca
ée-tah-kah

Ithaca in Greece Agape ah-gah-pai Agape, or Christian rai, to go; entrare, en-tráh-rai, to enter; onda, on-dah, a wave.

love-feast

After g, n has a peculiar sound, which I shall have occasion
Ricamo
ree-kah-tno

Embroidery to explain in the pronouncing tables. Often " is pro-
Vegeto
vê-jai-to
Buxom

nounced like m before words commencing with the con-
Aceto
ah-tchái-to
Vinegar

sonants o, m, and p; as, gran bestia, pronounced grahm be. Gaeta gah-ai-tah

Town in Naples steeah, a boorish, insolent fellow, great blockhead, &c.; scolpire
Cedete
tchai-dai-tai

Yield!
Cadice
káh-dee-tchai Cadiz

in marmo, pronounced skol-pée-rai im mahrr-mo, to chisel in
Egida
ai-jée-dah
Aegis

marble; con poca fatica, pronounced kom pô. kah fah-tée-kah, Tacito táh-tchee-to Tacitus

with little effort. This is certainly the finest pronunciation, Vagito vah-jée-to Loud wailing

because it is the genius of the lialian language, as in the
Rigore
ree-go-rai

Rigour
Epocha

classical tongues, particularly Greek, to soften the transition
êpo-ka
Epoch

from one word to another, and often from one syllable to the
Pagode
pah-gô-dai
Pagoda

other, bychanges of consonants.
Jacopo
jáh-ko-po
Jacob

5. R r, named in the alphabet erre (pronounced ér-ra) B.
Aguto
ah-gbo-to
Nail

when it is followed by a consonant, must be vibrated with a Acuto ah-kóo-to

Acute, ingenious stronger emphasis than in English ; and it is on the other hand Cicuta

tchee-kóo-tah Water hemlock very soft before a vowel; as, carla, pronounced kahrr-ta, paper,
Ceduto
tchai-doo-to
Yielded

and soft in cara, pronounced káh-rah, dear.
Apogeo
ah-po-je-o

Apogee
Capacitato
kah-pah-tchee-táh-to Capacitated

(To be continued.)
Educato

ai-doo-káh-to Educated
Vocatito

vo-kah-tée-vo Vocative
Zebedeo
tzai-bai-de-o

Zebedee
Tucidide
too-tchée-dee-dai Thucidydes

LESSONS IN FRENCH.–No. LXXX.
Abituato

ah-bee-too-áh-to Habituated
Zodiaco
dzo-dée--ah-ko Zodiac

By Professor Louis FASQUELLE, LL.D.
Agarico
ah-gáh-ree-ko Fungus growing on
larches

§ 135.- REMARKS ON THE FOREGOING RULEs. Idiota

ee-dee-o-tah Ignorant
Abigeato
ah-bee-jai-ah-to

Stealing of cattle (1.) Although the compound tenses of the reflective or pro:
Vegetativo vai-jai-tah-tée-vo Growing

nominal verbs [$ 43, (6.), 46, (2.), 56) take étre as non Decapitato

dai-kah-pee-táh-to Decapitated auxiliary, the past participle of those verbs does not follow the Decaduto dai-kah-doo-to Decayed

rule (2.) of the preceding section ; but comes under the same Agitato ah-jee-táh-to Agitated

rules with those conjugated with aroir. It agrees with the Epicuro ai-pee-kóo-ro

direct regimen, when that regimen comes before it, and is

Epicurus
Pedayogia
pai-dah-go-jée-ah Education and go-

in variable when that regimen succeeds :-
vernment of chil Votre saur s'est acheté de belles

dren III.

Cette femme s'est rendue mal. heureuse.

unhappy. There are six semi-vowels in the Italian language, so called

placed before the in the case of the mutes, but require the utterance of two $y2o regimen 'or accusative, robes, is placed after the participle. lables, which syllables are substantially the same though in an Rendue in the second' example varies, because the word the inverse order. The semi. vowels are :

representing femme, is a direct regimen, and precedes the

participle.
1. F f, námed in the alphabet effe (pronounced éf-fai). We will add a few extracts as examples :-
2. L1, named in the alphabet elle" (pronounced el-lai). It

REFLECTIVE PRONOUNS.
In this and a few other cases, I am compelled, for the sake of Used as indirect Objects.

Used as direct Objects.
completeness of system, to make a slight departure from strict
orthography: This word being properly written Mazzara, as well exemple, que la constitution la modèles de douceur.

8€ font proposé, pour

Elles se sont proposées commedes as the following words gazzera, azzimo, bazzotto, azzuffa. + There is very little difference between the pronunciation of the

plus simple des anciens.

VOLTAIRE,
single z and #. The zz, as well as %, may have the sound of tz in
the word
switzer, or dz in the word adze. According to modern as an example, only the most simple patterns of gentleness.

They have proposed to themselves,
orthography, the z is generally doubled between two single vowels constitution of the ancients.
in the middle of a word, but not after a consonant and not before
diphthongs the first vowel of which is i; as, for examples, ia, ie,
No, where it must remain single, and has th“ hard sound.

• The er like the sound of the syllable er in the English word onmor.

robes.

Your sister hus bought (hersel!) handsome dresses, i. e., for hersell.

That woman has rendered hersel

Il ne

QUOTED BY BESCHEE. They have proposed themselves as

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ایم اے

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Il est vrai, qu'elle et moi nous La langue latine et la langue | (6.) The participle past of neuter verbs, conjugated with nous sommes parle des yeux. grecque se sont longtemps pariées. avoir, and those of unipersonal verbs, are always invariable: MOLIÈRE,

LEMARE.

Que de bien n'a-t-elle pas fait, How much good has she not done, it is true, that she and I have The Latin and Greek languages pendant le peu de jours qu'elle a during the few days that she reigned. spoken to each other with our eyes. were long spoken of.

régre!

FLÉCHIER.
Néanmoins, il s'était conservé La vie pastorale qui s'est conser Les chaleurs excessives qu'il a The excessive heat which we having
l'autorité principale. BOSSUET. vée dans l'Asia, n'est pas sans opu- fait, ont causé beaucoup de mala- had, has caused much sickness,

lence.
VOLTAIRE dies.

CONDILLAC.
Nevertheless, he had preserved to The pastoral life which has been
himself the principal authority. preserved in Asia, is not without

(7.) The past participle never agrees with en, because e opulence.

can have no other relation to the participle than that of an (2.) Whet onominal or reflective terbs, of which the vent the agreement of the participle with a direct regimen

indirect regimen.* The presence of en does not of course pre second pronoui is an indirect regimen, are accompanied by preceding the verb :another pronoun, or by a noun, used as a direct regimen, the

Avez-vous mangé des fruite ? Have you eaten of the fruits ? I participle agrees with this latter pronoun or noun when it

J'en ai mangé.

have eaten of them. is preceded by it, and remains invariable when the régime

Tout le monde m'a offert des Everybody' tenderal me services, diract follows. See Rules (4.) (5.) of the preceding sec-services, et personne ne m'en a and no person rendered me any. tion :

rendu, MME. DE MAINTENON.
Variable,

Invariable.
L'indiscrétion que nous nous Nous nous sommes reproché l'in-

En, preceded by the Direct Regimen of the Participle.
sommes reprochée.
diserétion.

Cassius naturellement fier et im Cassius, naturally proud and im. The indiscretion with which we We have reproached ourselves with périeux, ne cherchait dans le perte perious, sought in the death of have reproached ourselves. the indiscretion, de César que la vengeance de quel. Cæsar only revenge for some injuries

which he had received from him. 6. Or to render in English the relations the same as in ques injures qu'il en avait reçues.

VERTOT,
French:--

Rendez grâces au ciel qui nous Render thanks to Heaven, which

CORNEILLE.
We have reproached to ourselves en a vengés.
we have

has revenged us for it.
reproached to ourselves.
the indiscretion.

(8.) Le pen has in French two meanings: it signifies a smal}
(3.) The participle past conjugated with avoir, and preceded quantity, or the want of..
by a direct regimen, is sometimes followed by an infinitive.

When it signifies a small quantity, the participle agrees with In such cases, when the direct regimen is under the govern the noun which follows le peu :ment of the infinitive rather than of the participle, the latter

Le peu d'affection que vous lui The little affection which you have of course remains unchanged:

avez témoignée, lui a rendu le cou shown him, has restored his courage, La règle que j'ai commencé à ex. The rule which I coinmenced to rage. pliquer. explain.

When le pou is used in the sense of the want of, the participle (4.) The verb in the infinitive is sometimes understood ; yet remains unaltered :the participle must follow the same rule, as if it were

Le per d'affection que vous lui The want of affection which you expressed. The participle fait, followed by an infinitive, and avez temoigné, l'a découragé. have shown him, has discouraged laissé, followed by the infinitive of an active verb, are always

him.
invariable :-
Elle a obtenu toutes les faveurs She obtained all the favours which

s 136.— The ADVERB.--Rules.-PLACE OF THE ADVERB. qu'elle a voulu (obtenir).

she wished (to obtain).
La maison que j'ai fait bâtir. The house which I have had built. tense is generally placed after the verb :--

(1.) In French the adverb used to modify a verb in a simple
Ces hommes se sont laisse battre. These men hare suffered them-
selves to be beaten,

Que de gens prennent hardiment i How many people assume boldly

le (5.) In some cases, it may be difficult to ascertain whether

the mask of virtue! .
masque de la vertu !

SCUDéRI.
the regime direct is under the government of the participle or
of the infinitive.

(2.) Adverbs of place, and those used in interrogations, have
If the régime direct is to be represented as performing the the same place in French as in English :-
action expressed by the infinitive, the participle is made to

Où est votre frère ? Il est ici. Where is your brother! He is agree with that régime in gender and number :Je les ai vus secourir leurs enne I saw them relieving their enemies.

(3.) In compound tenses the adverb is placed between the mis.

auxiliary and the participle :In this example it will be seen that les (the régime direct) is

Vous avez mal fait.

Yars have done wrong. represented as actually doing, what is expressed by the

Il nous a bien reçus.

He received us well.
infinitive, and that the infinitive itself is translated by the
present participle.

(4.) Adverbs of manner ending in ment, may, in compound If, however, the régime direct is to be represented as suffer- tenses, be placed before the participle or after it, when they ing the action expressed by the infinitive, then the participle are not very long, or followed by other modifying words. will remain unchanged, and the infinitive will be translated as When, however, they are followed by such words they must a passive. Thus :

be placed after the participle :-
Je les ai vu secourir par leurs I saro them relieved by their Cela est heureusement exprimé,
ennemis,
enemies.

That is happily expressed.

Cela est exprimé heureusement.
Further examples :-

Il est venu heureusement a temps. 1 He came fortunately in time.
Variable.

Invariable.

(5.) The adverbs aujourd'hui, to-day; demain, to-morrow Je les ai vus repousser les enne Je les ai vu repousser par les hier, yesterday, may be placed before or after the verb, but mis. ennemis.

never between the auxiliary and the participle. The adverb I saw them repel (repelling) the I saw them repelled by the enemies. davantage, more, must always follow the participle : enemies. Je les ai mus prendre la fuite. Je les ai vu prendre sur le fait,

* Noël and Chapsal, page 165. Several grammarians call en at times a I saw them taking flight.

I saw them taken in the deed,

régimen direct. We think with Bescherelle (Dictionnaire national, paja Je les ai pus frapper.

Je les ai vu frapper.

1114), that en does not represent the entire direct regimen, but only a part I save them striking.

I saw them struck.
of it, or rather merely refers to it; the direct regimen being itself under

J'en ai. Have you books? I haw
Les personnes que j'ai entendues Les chansons que j'ai entendu stood. Ex. Avez-vous des livres ?
chanter.

In the latter sentence, the words quelques uns, the direct object, is chanter.

understood after the verb; J'en ai quelques uns, and en is rather a reference The persons whom I heard sing The songs which I heard sung. to it, than a substitute for it. The literal translation of the sentence will

show this: I have of them a few.

I nere.

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some.

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