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LESSONS IN ENGLIS II --Xo. LXXI.

He beat you and me.
By Joux R. BEARD, D.D.

Aided by these observations, you will have no difficulty in

determining what form your words should assume when united by SYNTAX.-CONJUNCTIONS.

conjunctions. You will, for instance, see that of these two proposiJoining is the office of conjunctions. The joining may take place tiods the first is erroneous, and the second correct :between two words, between two clauses, and between two proposi

1. He is wiser than me. tions. Properly the conjunction, and, joins two things,--this with

2. He is wiser than I (am). that, and is in consequence required before every second noun,

So with
adjective, verb, &c. The practice of putting and before only the

b
last word of a series is of modern date. As an example of the
merely uniting functions of the conjunction, take this example:

You love him betier than I (me).

You love him better than me (I). 1st Clause.

1

These sentences are right or wrong according to the meaning you “Let there be no strife, I pray thee, between me and thee, and intend. If you mean that a loves b better than c loves b, the first

is correct ; in full, the sentence would then stand : 2nd Clause,

You love him better than I love him; between my herdmen and thy herdmen, for we are brethren."

but if you mean that a loves b better than a loves c, then the sen(Gen. xiii. 8.)

tence is incorrect, as may appear thus :-
The conjunction, and, number one, unites the pair of words, me,

You love him better than you love me.
thee; number two unites the first clause with the second ; the
third and unites “my berdmen” with “thy herdmen."

Similar remarks might be made on the second example. John
As an instance of and uniting propositions, take the fol- Wesley, who was a good scholar, says :-
lowing: -

" He hath died to redeem such a rebel as me;" 1. And Jesus arose out of the synagogue

and Lord Brougham, whose English is quite idiomatic, writes :2. And entered into Simon's house,

“That England can spare from her service such men as him.” 3. And Simon's wife's mother was taken with a fever

Are these high authorities correct? If me depends on reden, 4. And they besought him for her,

Wesley is correct; if him depends on spare, Brougham is correct. 5. And he stood over her

But Wesley does not say he hath died to redeem me, but to redeems 6. And buked the fever,

such as. And Broughain does not say England can spare him, but 7. And it left her;

Consequently, these eminent writers are wrong. They 8. And immmediately she aroso

should have said, " such a rebel as I (am);" " such men as 9. And ministered unto them

he (is)." Ilere are nine successive sentences introduced by and.

The conjunction, ax, carries with it the force of a relative proWhile performing the part of joining together, a conjunction serves for the subject; e.g.,

noua, that is to say, it introduces a second proposition to which it may also show the nature of the union which it effects, assigning, that is, the logical connexion as well as forming the grammatical

“But as many as received him."-(John i. 12.) connexion. The logical connexion may be of various kinds. As is sometimes used in a manner which involves a grammatical

The conjunction for, as it appears in the above example, gives doubt; for instance, should we write,
an instance of a causal conjunction, or a conjunction which assigns

The conditions are as follow ; (or)
the ground or reason of what precedes. In the ensuing you have
a specimen of a conditional conjunction in if, and of comparative The phrases are elliptical

, and the preference of the one to the

The conditions are as follows. conjunctions in as well and than:

other depends on the way in which the ellipsis should be filled " Ah! if she lends not almy as well as rules,

up; as,
What can she more than tell us we are fools." --Pope.

The conditions are as (they) follow.
The connecting force of the conjunction that may not appear at

The conditions are as (it) follows.
first sight, as in

I am disposed in favour of the last, thinking that the verb in such That mind is not matter, is certain.

cases is used as an impersonal or unipersonal verb. Yet analyse the words, and you will find two sentences, of which

The employment of the conjunction, that, as in
that is the link, thus :-

They affirmaed (th) he would not come,
Mind is not matter,

is required as indispensable by some grammatical critics with an This proposition is certain.

emphasis which may be somewhat undue. That the sense does not That mind is not matter, is certain.

require its insertion, is obvious from its nature and from the seh: Conjunctions unite words which bear to each other the same gram- of the sentence is separated from the first by several intervenie

tence just given as an example. If, however, the second member matical relation.

words, that may serve as a point on which the mind may rest, This rule is commonly stated thus : Conjunctions connect the until it takes up the clause to which it refers, and for which in some like tenses of verbs and the like cases of nouns. The readiest sort it is a substitute; e. g., syntactical guide in the use of conjunctions is the thought. I will take two instances, one of concord, the other of dependence :

Your brother stated that, as he and your cousin were passing

down High-street, they saw'a child fall from the roof of a house. Concord : You and I are ill.

Sound, also, has something to do in determining the use or the Dependence: He beat you and me,

non-use of that. In the first proposition, we have I after and, not so much because have eneas substantive and independent meaning, gives or encore

The ease with which conjunctions may be repeated, since they nou is in the nominative case

, as because the statement is that I pleonasms, that is, to forms of speech in which one words on am ill. This appears by analysis-

is found than is necessary.
You are ill.
I am ill.

hear a sentence introduced with but however, when only list of

however is necessary; the uneducated are especially given to In the second proposition, me occurs after and, because me, as pleonastic forms of this kind. But we find them in good authorh well as you, is dependent on beat; e. g.,

as may be seen by the italicised words in these examples –
He beat
you;

“When that the poor liave cried Cæsar hath wept."—Shakspeare. He beat me ;

“But and if that evil servant say." -(Malt. xxiv. 48.)

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as,

The exclama ion, O for ó siguifies 0) that I possessed! as,
COERESPONDIX CONJUNCTIONS.

"O for that warning voice !"-Cowper.
Certain conjunctions go in pairs ; that is, the precedence of the
one necessitates the use of the other ; e. g.,

but alas for! simply expresses grief towards; as, 1. To though corresponds yet; as, Though he die yet shall he

" Alas for Sicily !''- Milton. live.”-(John xi. 26.)

" Alas for the day!"-Joel i. 15.) 2. To whether corresponds or; as,

" Whether it be greater or less."-Bishop Butler,

Instead of O for, we sometimes use O that ; e. 8., 3. To either corresponds or ; as, " The indulgence of a declama "O that my people had hearkened unto me, and Israel had walked in tory manner is not favourable either to good composition or my ways!"-(Ps. ixxxi. 13.) good delivery."'-Blair,

4. To neither corresponds nor ; as, " John the Baptist came neither eating breaú rur drinking wine."-(Luke vii. 33.)

LESSONS IN ITALIAN GRAMMAR.—No. V. 5. To both corresponds and; as, “I am a debtor both to the Greeks and to the barbarians, both to the wise and unwise."(Rom. i. 14.)

By CHARLES TAUSENAU, M.D., 6. To such corresponds as ; as, "An assembiy such as earth never

Of the University of Paria, and Professor of the German and Italian saw.”-Cowper.

Languages at the Kensington Proprietary Grammar School, 7. To such corresponds that; as, “ The difference is such that all will perceive it."

(Continued from p. 54.) 8. To as corresponds as ; as, “ And he went out from his presence a leper as white as snow."-2 Kings v. 27.)

IV. 9. To as corresponds 80; as, "As two are to four, so are six to

I have now to speak of the diphthongs ; but before entering twelve." 10. Tu so corresponds as ; as, “ How can you descend to a thing from the English, inasmuch as the two vowels forming a

into details I may remark that these letters differ materially so base as falsehood.11. To so corresponds as ; as, "No lamb was e'er so mila diphthong donot entirely merge into one sound, but are in Italian

more or less distinctly heard, though only pronounced by one as he."-Langhorne.

opening of the mouth, and with one emission of the air or 12. To so corresponds as ; as, " We ought to read blank verse so

voice, which gives them the value of one sound. This broad

Blair. as lo make every line sensible to the ear.”

13. To so corresponds that ; as, “ No man was so poor that he and general characteristic, however, prevails among all Italian could not make restitution,"'-Milman,

diphthongs, that there must be a ruling sound, requiring a

greater stress of the voice and more distinctness of utterance, 14. To not only or not merely corresponds but, but also, but even ; “ In heroic times smuggling and piracy were deemed not only which ruling sound is at one time on the first, at another on

the second of the two vowels. In those diphthongs where the not infamous, but even absolutely honourable."--Maunuler's Grammar. "These are questions not of prudence merely, but of morals second of the two vowels is the ruling sound, the voice glides also,''--Dymond's Essays

inore rapidly from the first vowel to the second, and is, as it

were, absorbed by it. The second is on that account heard INTERJECTIONS.

with greater distinctness, and such diphthongs present more of

a united sound, while in those diphthongs where the first of Instead of speaking of a person, you may speak to a person, or the two vowels is the ruling sound, the second is somewhat call upon a person ; you may employ the style of direct address. more distinctly heard than the first vowel of those diphthongs, For such kinds of address our nouns in English have no specific which approach to a united sound, though shortly and quickly form; but exclamations or interjections supply the place of such trailed along, as it were, by the first. forms, and mark the existence of a direct address or appeal. That address or appeal may have various meanings, and even various

The second kind or class may be termed, on this account, sbades of meaning, corresponding with the state of the feelings at the separated diphthongs; the first class the united diphthongs, the moment; e. 9.,

though I must caution the reader not to understand these

words in their strictly literal sense; because, as I have stated A! Dennis! Gildon alt! what ill-starr'd rage

before, in all Italian diphthongs the two vowels are more or Divides a friendship long confrm'd by age."--Pope.

less distinctly heard. “Alas! poor Yorick."-Shakspeare.

United diphthongs are, for example, Sometimes interjections, for instance, O! oh! ah! lo! merely call attention, or indicate an appeal or an address; in such cases ia, as in fialo (fceán-to), breath; biada (beeáli-dah), corn; they are followed by the case of the subject or that of the piano (peekh-no), even, slow. object; as,

ie, as in lieto (lecê-to), cheerful; bieco (becê-ko), squinting ; Subject : O thou unknown, almighty Cause!" - Burns.

priego (precê-go), request, prayer.

io, as in fiore (feeó-rai), flower; piove (pecô-vai), it rains ; Object : “ Lo! the lilies of the field, How their leaves instruction yield !”-Heber.

brioso (bree-ó-so), lively; chioma (keeù-mah); head of

hair. When deep feeling is intended, the case of the object is used with

iu, as in piu (peeóo), more; fiume (feeóo-iai), a river ; a pronoun of the first person; as,

schiuma (skeeóo-mah), fuam, scum. Ah me! O unhappy me! woe is me!

ua, as in guasto (gwah-sto), destruction ; quu (k wàn), here, that is, ah! what will become of me! O what has befallen unhappy hither; quale (kwah-lai), who. me! woe is to me! or, woe is on me!

244, as in guerra (gwêrr-ralı), war; Guelfo (gwêl-fo), a Guelph ; Judas said, Hail, master! and kissed him."-(Jatt. xxvi. 49.)

questo (kwái-sto), this.

ui, as in guisa (gwée-zah), guise, manner; Guido (gwée-do), "Hail, Macbeth !"--Shakspeare.

Guy; qui (k wee), here.
That is, Hail be to thee, O master! Hail (health) be to Macbeth!

uo, as in cuore (kooô-rai), heart; suono (5000-no), sound;
In order to distinguish the subject and the object, when used uomo (ooô-mo), man.
with exclamations or interjections, from the subject and the object

Separated diphthongs are, for example,
when employed in the third person singular, the former may be
called the subject of direct address, and the latter the object of

ae, as in aere (áhai-rai), air, gas; aerimante (ahai-rce-mahndirect address.

tai), one who predicts the air, or by aeroinancy. The interjectiou, woe to ! requires the case of the object; the ai, as in laido (láhee-do), ugly; muisi (mahee-sét), yes object, in reality, is governed by the preposition to :

indeed, " Woe to them that join house to bouse."-(Is. V, 8.)

ao, as in Paolo (pálio-lo), l'aul.

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amman

as,

Smooth, sleek

Sofia

Sophia, a woman's

name

Firstlings of fruit or animals in sacrifice

au, as in aura (ahoo-rah), a soft breeze; lauro (lahoo-ro),

THIRD PRONOUNCING TABLE, laurel; fraude (fráhoo-dai), deceit; fauno (sáhoo-no),

SHOWING WORDS WITH VOWELS IN COALITION. faun; causa (kahoo-zah), a cause (at law), affair.

1. Words the same with regard to their letters, but different eo, as in Eolo (ĉo-lo), Eolus,

with regard to their syllables :-eu, as in Europa (aigo-10.pah), Europe ; feudo (fêoo-do), a Italian.

Pronounced. English,
feud or feoff ; Seleuco (sai-lêoo-ko), Seleucus.

Balia
bah-leeah

Nurse

Balia The vowel i before any other vowel, and the vowel u before

bah-lée-ah

Power, dominion

Balio 0, as they occur in the united diphthongs, make in the pro. Balio

bah-leeo

Husband of a nurse nunciation of Italian precisely the same impression as a grave

bah-lée-o

Bailiff, steward, or diatonic note in music, slightly but distinctly touched, to glide over to the second ruling vowel. They are very easy Bacio

Bacio
bah-tcho

A kiss, I kiss transitions, and carry with them a particular charm, giving

bah-ichée-o

A northern, sunless to the sound a certain roundness and fulness, thus con

aspect tributing greatly, by the frequency of the diphthongs in

Bugia
bóo-jah

He bores a hole, he which they occur, to the musical character of the Italian

lies tongue.

Bugia
boo-jee-ah

A lie
Empia
em-peeah

Impious
It must be noted that there are vowels which come together Empia (for empira) em-pée-ah

He filled in words, but are, nevertheless, not diphthongs ;

Liscia
lec-shee-ah

Lie, buck for example, coagulare (ko-ah-goo-láh-rai), to coagulate ; Liscia

lée-shah coerente (ko-ai-ren-tai), coherent; caos (káh - os), chaos ; Viola

vee0-lah

Violet coincidere (ko-in-tchée-dai-rai), coincide ; runnare (rah-00-náh- | Viola

vée-o-lah

He violates rai), to assemble ; aempiere (ah-êm-peeai-rai), fulfil ; reale (raiah-lai), royal, real, loyal; riunire (ree-00-née-rail, to reunite; with regard to syllables :-

2. Words nearly the same as respects letters, but different viola (vée-o-lah), he violates ; ciottolo (vee-ot-to-lo), narrow

Italian. passage or way, round-about way; Dione (dee-ó-nai), Dion;

Pronounced.

English.
Tiziano (tee-tsee-ah-no), Titian; Teodoro (tai-o-dô-ro), Theo

Sofia
sól-leeah

He blows ore ; riesco (rée-ê-sko), I succeed; reato (1ai-áh-to), guilt or

90-fée-ah

Sophia in Bulgaria. sin; paese (pah-ái-zai), country ; reina (rai-ée-nah), queen ; leone (lai-6-nai), lion; mansueto (mahn-800-ê.to), tame, gentle, mild.

Valragro
mahl.váh-jo

Wicked
Malvagia
mahl-vah-gée-ah

Malmsey wine The reader will have remarked that I have, in the above Primizia examples, separated the two vowels which come together into

prec-mée-iseeah syllables, thereby showing that they are not diphthongs, though Primazia

pree-mah-tsée-ah Primacy they may appear to be such. Indeed, if those sounds were Erbaria

er-bah-rée-ah

Vegetable market diphthongs, it is obvious that they could not be used as Erbario

er-báh-reeo

Herbal separate syllables, as they must in Italian spelling, though the poets, by their special licence, generally use them as one

3. General exercises in diphthongs :syllable.

Italian,

Pronounced. English.

Aere Some grammarians are of opinion that in cases of the

áhai-rai

Air, gas coalition of three and sometimes four vowels in the Italian

Paese
pah-ni-zai

Country

Laido language, those vowels form one syllable uttered with one and

láhee-do

Ugly

Caino the same emission of the voice ; and they term the coalition of

kah-ée-no

Cain

Traino three vowels a triphthong, and the coalition of four, a quad- Traino

trahee-no

The trot of horses riphthong, if I may so express it. They have been, perhaps, Linea

trah-ce-no

Sledge led into that belief by the example of the poets, who in the Idea

lée-nai-ah

A line middle of a verse use the triphthongs like one syllable. It is idee

ec-de-ah

Idea certainly allowable for Italian poets to count two or three syl. Linee

ee-de-ai

Ideas lables being mere vowels as one ; but it would be strange to Sei

lée-naiai

Lines found grammar on poetical licences, which are, strictly speak-Ourei

sê.ee

Six ing, exceptions to grammatical rule. The following examples, Eolo

0-mè.ee

Lamentation generally cited as triphthongs, are spelt like words of two syl Leone

to lo

Eolus lables, though, as I have already observed, the poets use them Euro

lai-6-nai

Lion in the middle of a verse like words of one syllable; and this

êou-ro

East wind is reason enough why they should not be considered triph

Creusa

krai-60-zah thongs, i.e., coalitions of three vowels forming one sound and

Biada one syllable; as, miei (meee-ee), my (pl.) ; tuoi (tooô-ee), thy Diana

beeáh-dah

Corn (pl.); suoi (s00ô-ee), his (pl.); quai (gwán.ee), wailings; Cielo

dee-kh-nah

Diana buoi (booo-ee), oxen ; vuoi (vooô-ee), thou wilt; puoi

tche.lo

Heaven, horizon, (pood-ee), thou canst; appiuolo (ahp-pee-ooô-lo), a kind of Lieto

the air apple-tree; cedriuolo (tchai-dree-oo-lo), a cucumber; mariuolo

lee-e-to

Cheerful

Paolo (mah-ree-000-lo), a sharper ; vetriuolo (vai-tree-opô-lo), vitriol, Caos

páho-lo

Paul vitrious.

káb-os

Chaos
Fauno
sáhoo.no

Faun
Examples of the so-called quadriphthongs shall be given Paura
and commented on as they occur.

pah-60-raht Fear For the sake of adhering to system, I am obliged here.com

anticipate the use of some combinations Thave not yet explained, • I have classed au as a separated diphthong where the first but which will be fully explained in the next lesson ; 'as, for vowel is the ruling sound. There are, however, words containing example, cio, gia, scia, &c. example, paura" (pahov-rah), fear; bule (bahós-lai), portmanteau; principally in those words where the accent of tone falis on the

+ I have stated that an is, strictly speaking, a diphthong, but must be distinctly heard ;. 4, as the first of the vowels, cannot be the impression as if it were no diphihong at all, because each of Saulle (sahool-la:), Saul. But even

in this class of words asand.: l'econd of the Howels that compose it, it mukes in its pronunciation Klided over rapidly and absorbed by the u, as would be the case the vowels is distinctly separated in pronunciation,

i those words, be classed among the separated diphthongs.

with rowels in coalition, that are not diphthongs.

Creusa, a woman's

name

with you.

.

est
78

Italian,
Pronounced.
English.

Si vous partez et que vous vou If you go and wish to tale me
Giove
jô.vai
Jove, Jupiter

liez me prendre avec vous,

BESCHERELLE.
Dio
dée-o

God
Giuda
jóo-dah
Judas

(5.) The other conjunctions generally govern the same tense Liuto lee-ou-to Lute

in French as in English :-
Oibo
Oee.bộ
Not at all

Fais du bien aujourd'hui puisque Do good to-day, since thou ye
Annoi
ahn-no-ee
Thou annoyest

tu vis encore.

Villerné. lirest.
Quasi
kwah-zee
Almost, as it were

Rien n'éblouit les grandes âmes, Nothing dazzles great minds, VC-
Duale
doo-ah-lai
Dual

parceque rien

n'est plus haut cause nothing is higher than they.

MASSILLON,

qu'elles.
Quele
kwê to

Quiet, calm
Duello
doo-el-lo
Duel, fray

(6.) With regard to the conjunction, si, see § 125, (3.)
Fluido
flboee-do
Fluid

§ 144.–COLLOCATION OF WORDS.
Luigi
loo-ee-jee

Lewis
Uomo
Ooo.mo
Man

(1.) The place of the different parts of speech has been menLuogo loo-o-go Space, spot, locality tioned in the Syntax under their several heads, and in various

other parts of the work. A résumé of the principal rules of

construction may, however, not be unacceptable here. LESSONS IN FRENCH.-No. LXXXII. (2.) The collocation of words is the order according to

which the several words which form a sentence should follow By Professor Louis FASQUELLE, LL.D.

one another. This order is fixed for the several forms of

sentences, affirmative, negative, and interrogative, by the § 143.—THE CONJUNCTION.-GOVERNMENT OF CONJUNCTIONS. genius of the language, and the practice of the best writers, See 127.]

(3.) The construction of the affirmative sentence is as simple

in French as it is in English. The following is the arrange(1.) Conjunctions govern the verbs following them in the ment of the words :infinitive, the indicative, and the subjunctive modes.

2. The J'erb.

1. The Subject. 1. The infinitive must be put after every conjunction which

3. The Adverb. Le marchani

est

ici. is followed by the preposition de, and after all those which

The merchant

here. differ from prepositions, only because they are followed by a verb instead of a noun :

(4.) When the subject is accompanied by an adjective, or Etudiez diligemment afin de sur Study diligently that you may (in another attribute, the order is as follows:-passer vos compagnons.

3. The Very. 4. The Adverb, Le marchand anglais

est We think with M. Bescherelle, that the words described in

ici. The merchant English

here. the preceding rule belong more properly to the prepositions

de votre ami Le Als

là than to the conjunctions.

The son
of your friend

there. (2.) The following conjunctions always require the subjunc

Le marteau
de fer

est tive after them in French, whatever mode they may take in

ici.

The hammer English. Those marked with an asterisk require ne before the

of iron

here. Le bateau

est

à vapeur verb (§ 138 (4.)

là. The boat

there. Afin que, in order that

Malgré que, although *A moins que, unless Nonobstant que, notwithstanding

(5.) When the attribute is placed in apposition with the Au cas que, if

Non
not that

subject, the construction is the same in the two languages :Avant que, before that

Non pas que, not that
Bien que, although
Posé que, supposing that

1. The Subject. 2. The Verb. 3. The Attribute, * De crainte que, for fear Pour que, that, in order that

Le marchand

est

anglais. *De peur que, lest Pourvu que, provided that

The merchant

is

English. En cas que, in case

Quoique, although, though Encore que, although

without that

(6.) When the verb is in a compound tense, many adverbs Jusqu'à ce que, lil, until that

Soit que,
whether

are placed between the auxiliary and the participle : Loin que, sur from, not that Supposé que, suppose that

1. The Subject. 2. The Auxiliary. 3. The Adverb. 4. The Participle. Quoiqu'à peine à mes maux je Although I can scarcely bear my

Nous

souvent

lu.
puisse résister,
misfortunes, I would rather suffer We

have
often

read. J'aime mieux les souffrir, que de tuer them, than deserve them.

(7.) Long adverbs of manner, ending in ment, other long les mériter.

RACINE.
En cas que vous persistiez, il fau. In case you persist, I must men.

adverbs, and the adverbs of time and place, aujourd'hui, demain, ura que j'allégue au prince et au tion your bad health to the prince hier, ici, , are not placed between the auxiliary and the parroi même votre mauvaise santé. and even to the king.

ticiple [$ 136, S. 40, 5.]:FénéLon.

Nous avons écrit aujourd'hui, l'e hare written to-day. (3.) The following conjunctions:- De manière que, de sorte (8.) When there is a direct regimen in the sentence, it is que, en sorte que, 80 that; tellement que, in such a manner placed after the verb:that; si ce n'est que, sinon que, unless that, but that ; govern 1, Subject. 2. Attribute. 3. Verb. 4. Adverb. 5. Régime Direct. the following verb in the indicative or conditional modes, when L'écolier attentif apprend toujours fa leçon. the preceding verb expresses & positive assertion ; but they The scholar attentire

learns always

Iris lesson. govern the subjunctive, when the preceding verb expresses a desire or a command :

(9.) When there are two regimens of equal length, or nearly Il se conduisit très mal, de sorte He behaved very ill, so that he so, the direct precedes the indirect :qu'il fut contraint de se retirer. icas obligel to withdravo.

1. Subject. 2. Verb. 3. Direct Regimen. 4, Indirect Regimen. Faites en sorte qu'on soil content Behare in such a manner that Jean

a dongé
le livre

à mon père. de vous, people may be pleased with you.

John
kus given
the books

to my father. (4.) Where there are in a sentence two or more verbs governed by a corjunction, que must be placed before the pronoun, or by attributes rendering it longer than the indirect

(10.) Should the direct regimen be followed by a relative second and the following verbs, or the conjunction itself way regimen, the latter is placed first: be repeated Puisqu'on plaide, qu'on meurt, et

Since we plead, we die, and ice be

• Some adjectives [ 83 (11.)) are generally placed before the noun, qu'on devient malade, come sick, we must have physicians, them, they follow the noun :-un petit homme, a litué man; un homme

when used alone with a noun; but when another adjective comes with Il faut des inédecins, il faut des we must have knyers. avocats. LA FONTAINE.

petit et gros, a skort, stout man; others liute a dillereut wieaning before the poun or after it [i 80).

steam

que,

Sans que,

avons

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to them

les,

vous

To us

nons

avez.

vous

to us

it

Vous

to you

nous

Vous

to us

nous. to us.

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to us

1. Subj. 2. Verb. 3. Ind. Regimen. 4. Direct Regimen.

1. The Sit'. 2. Terb, 3. Duplivale Sub. 4. Regimen. Jean a donné à mon père le livre qu'il lui avait promis.

Le marchand reçoit

il

son argent: John has given to my father the book which he had promised him.

The merchant ruceiros

he

his money? Mon frère écrite

des lettres ? (11.) The pronouns representing the direct regimen, and

My brother those representing the indirect regimen, preceded by to,

w.ites

he

letters? expressed or understood in English, are placed before the verb (21.) When the sentence commences with ou, where; que, in French :

what; quel, what, which ; combien, how much, low many; the
1. Subj. 2. Direct Reg. 3. Verb. | 1. Subj. 2. Ind. Reg. 3. Verb. noun may be placed after the verb :-
Nous

les
voyons. Nous leur

parlons.
Où est votre ami ?

Where is your friend !
We
them
Ile
speak. Que dit votre père ?

l'hat says your father?
(12.) In the imperative used affirmatively, those pronouns
follow the verb:

(22.) The construction of interrogative sentences, in which the subject of the verb is a pronoun, is very simple.

The pro1. Vorb. 2. Direct Reg.

1. J'erb. 2. Ind. Reg.

noun is placed after the verb in simple tenses, and after the Voyez

Parlez-
leur.

auxiliary in compound tenses :-
Sce
them.
Speak to them.

1. Regimen Ind. 2. Terb. 3. Subject. 4. Direct Reg. (13.) When two personal pronouns are used, as regimens in

Nous a sentence, the indirect, if in the first or second person, pre

envoyez

notre argent ?

send cedes the direct :-

YOil our money? 1. Subject.

1. Reg. Ind. 2. Aux, 3. Subj. 4. Part. 6. Direct Reg. 2. Ind. Reg. 3. Direct Rep. 4. Verb. Leur

donné cet argent? Paul

le
donne.

To them

hare Paul

giren that money?
gires.
Paul

le
donne.

(23.) The order of the words in a sentence at once negative Paul

Giles. and interrogative is as follows: (!4.) Should, however, the indirect reginen be in the third 1. 1st. Nig. 2. Reg. Prn. 3. Verb. 4. Subj. person, it is placed after the direct :

Ne

envoyez.
1. Subject. 2. Direct Reg. 3. Ind. Reg.

4. J'erb.
Not

send

you
Paul
le

lui
Jonne.

5. 2nd. Neg. 6. Direct Reg.
Paul

to him
gives.

pas

de l'argent ? (15.) In the imperative used affirmatively, the direct regi.

nut

money? men precedes always the indirect :

(24.) In a compound tense :1 Virb.

2. Dir. Reg. 3. Ind. Reg. Donnez

1. 1st Neg.
les

2. RI. Prn. 3. Terl. 4. Subj.
Gire
them

Ne
Donnez-
les
lui.
Not

huce

you
. Give

them
to him

5. 2nd Neg.

6. Part. 7. Dir. Reg. (16.) The pronoun representing a noun in the oblique cases,

pas

envoyé de l'argent ? generally preceded in English by a preposition other than to,

sent

money? is, in French, placed after the verb :

(25.) The first person singular of the present of the indica1. Su'j. 2. J'erb, 3. Ind. Rog.

tive of most verbs, which have in that person only one syllable, Je parle de lui.

and of a few others having more than one syllable, but en ting I

of him.

in 8, cannot admit of the construction mentioned in the 22nd Je parle avec lui.

ruic of this Section. To render the sentence interrogative, estI

rith him,

ce-que is prefixed to the affirmative form of the verb: (17.) To render a sentence negative, ne is placed immediately

Est-ce que vous parlez ?
before the verb, and pis, jamais, rien, &c., after it:

Is it that you speak?
1. Suhj. 2. Negat.
3. trỏ. 4. Vegat.

Do you speak?
Je

vois
pas.

Est-ce-que je prétends lui parler ?
not
not.

Is it that I pretend to speak to him?
Je

lis
jamais.

Do I pretend to speak to him?
I
not

(26.) Every person of a tense susceprille of being conjugated
(18.) When the verb is in a compound tense, the first nega interrogatively, may be rendered so by prefixing est-ce-que to
tive is placed before the auxiliary, and the second between the affirmative form :-
that auxiliary and the participle :

lisez ?

Do
1. Subj. 2. Negat. 3. Reg. 4. Aux. 5. Negat. 6. Part.

Is y ur brother arrived ?
Je,

l'
ni

pas
not
him
have

(27.) In puetry and elevated pruse, the subject of an affirma-
not
leur
jamais parlé.

tive sentence is sometimes placid after the verb :-
not
to them haie

spoken. Tout-à-coup au jour vif et bril. Suddenly to the virid and bril. leur

rien

donné. lant de la zone torride, suceide une liant day is the torril zone, succeeds 1

not
to them hare

nothing given. wuit universelle et profonde ; à la la unire sui and profound niyht; to (19.) The pronouns used as direct regimens und as indirect parure d'un printemps eternel, la the attire of an eternal spring, the

nudité des plus tristes hivers. regimens are placed before the imperative, used negatively.

nakedness of the saddest uinters.

RAXXAL. They are subject to the rules of precedence, (13.) and (14.) 1. Negat. 2. Reg. 3. Reg. 4. l'erb. 5. Negat. adjective are repeated before every word which they determine

(28.) The article, the demonstrative, and the possessive [Rule (13.)] Ne

le donnez раз. . [S. 85). Not

gite

129.) Pronouns, used as suhjects of verbs, may be repeated le

lui donnez [Rule (14.)] Ne

pag.
Not

to him
give

not.

before every verb [$ 99, S. 86]. (20.) The construction of an interrogative sentence, which has (30.) Pronouns, used as regimens of verbs, must be repeated a noun for its subject differs in the two languages. The fol- before every verb [/ 105, S. 16). lowing examples will show the order of the words in

(31.) Prepositions are generally repeated before every word French:

i which they govern [$ 141).

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