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14. Que dit-il aux courtisans en 16. Que se permit maintes fois

For thrice her age will surely make

The age of him she vowed to take
se tournant vers eux?
ce même monarque ?

As her own husband, and to strive
15. Quel est le plus sûr en pa- 17. Quels sont ces jeux de

And please him, though he's forty-fire,
reille circonstance ?
prince?

PUILOSOPIUS (Dorer): liis hint about the manipulation of glass will be

kept in view.-J. STOTT (Sowerby), in answer to A. Hawkins, says, "If he
NOTES AND REFERENCES.--. fit venir, sent for.--. L. S. 47, will saturate with spirits of turpentine that part of the leaves where they
R. 2.-c. à moi, mine ; L. 8. 46, R.5.-d. est, belongs ; L. S. 46, are greased, and placing a piece of porous paper next each page, closing
R. 5.--e, allons, come.-4. mande, summons.-9. from tenir ; L. the book and putling weights on it for a few days, he will then find a largo

quantity, if not all, of the grease taken out; and the process may be re-
part ii., p. 108. Tenez is often used in familiar discourse, to call peated until it be entirely gone." The process of pill-box making is, we
attention ; here it might be rendered hy now.mh. L. S. 38, R. 1. believe, protected by a patent.--DB:ta (Poole): It he consult the P. E.,
--i: from croire ; L. part ii., p. 84.--j. en, on.--k. L. S. 80, R. 1. 345, and 347 ; 'and vol. v. p. 100, he will find all the information he requires

relating to the University of London.-UN ANGLAIS (Lisle-street): We do
not undertake to decide questions between contending parties without a
handsome fee.-W. M. HALB (Birmingham): The Lessons in English are

finished.
CORRESPONDENCE.

A. C. (Macclesfield), T. BOCOCK (Great Warley), J. RUSSELL (Chisler hurst): Their answers to the Two Towers' Query are all right.-J. BAIX

(Hill-head): Unless we knew what his "aster labours" were to be, we IRISII CORRESPONDING SOCIETY.

could not advise ; he is asking us to make "bricks without straw."-LOVER

OF KNOWLEDOK (Long Crendon) informs H. H. Ulidia, and our readers,
Sir, -I and one of my friends, who have a liking for the Irish calculation, afterwards obtained the best instruction-first in the College of

that “ Zarah Colburo, after astonishing the world by his power of mental
language, would feel obliged by a "Lover of Irish” sending us Henry the Fourth at Paris; then in Westminster School, London, under
his address, so that we may form a Mutual Corresponding Society. the patronage of the Earl of Bristol. He afterwards became an extraordi-
I have no doubt that you, Mr. Editor, will forward the letter to me, nary Wesleyan preacher. His powers, it is said, being nearly worn out by
as you know my name and address. Yours obediently,

undue exercise, and his mind enfeebled rather than strengthened by the origiSAGSONACH,

nal predominance of one faculty, the memory, over the other faculties." See

Dunn's “ Normal School Manual," p. 123. - A YOUNG MECHANIC: We
AN ACROSTIC.

can't tell.-W. WILLESEE (Wisbeach): The algebraic problem is right.

S. HOLMES (Harden): Many thanks for his hints; they have been often
BY HENRY DRIVER, TENTERDEN.

pressed on us; but the scheme is Herculean,
The man who knowledge would obtain,
H as now the path thereto made plain;
E ach may the treasure find.

LITERARY NOTICES.
Pure fountains flow at trifling cost,
Our labour now cannot be lost;

Now Ready,
P ray cultivate the mind!
U. nceasing are the efforts made,

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CASsblt's LATIN DICTIONARY. In Two Parts:--1. Latin and English:

2. English and Latin. BY J. R. BBARD, D.D., and 0. BSARD, B.A. In
June 12th, 1854.

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CASSELL'S LESSONS IN FRENCI. Parts I. and 11. ---By Professor Fas•

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A COMPLETE MANUAL OF THE FRENCH LANGUAGE.-By Professor DB
LAW (Cameron): flis solution of the Two Tower Question is right.-MOSSLEY
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tions received.-B. P. 8. (Une embarassée), by consulting Cassell's French Reprinted in a revised form from “ The Working Man's Friend." Price 6d,
Dictionary, will find that " Croquemitaine means " old bogy, black bogy." | by post 70. Above 30,000 copies of this work have been sold.
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TAGE (Little Horton); All right.-ARTIZAN (Edinburgh), in reference to

A Key to the above Lessons is in the Press.
the Marriage Question, says-

Cassell's ECLECTIC German READER : containing choice Selections

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Cassell's LESSONS IN LATIN.-Price 2s, 6d. paper covers, or 3s, neat

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Greek, with copious Notes and a Lexicon, price 2s.6d, neat cloth.

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ton, and had communicated with Mr. Fulton on the subject. ON PHYSICS, OR NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, Thus at Helensburgh, in the firth of Clyde, nearly opposite to No, XLI.

Greenock--the birth-place of the illustrious Watt--and at a

distance only of six miles, originated the first practical appliTHE STEAM-ENGINE.

cation of the modern steam engine to the purpose of naviga(Continued from page 210.)

rion in Europe, and the invention, also, of his own country

man. Very soon after this period, steam-navigation by paddleIx the first year of the present century, Mr. Williain Syming- / wheels became general in Great Britain, and it thence extended ton, engineer, at the instance of Lord Dundas, made experi- over the Continent. ments on the application of steam to the propulsion of vessels The steam-engines most generally employed for the proon the Forth and Clyde Canal, which ended in the production of pulsion of steam-boats are the double-acting condensing the first practical steam-boat, named the Charlotte Dundas. In engines of Watt. The working-beam of these engines is this vessel there was an engine, with the steam acting on each inverted so as to be placed near the bottom of the frame, side of the piston (Watt's patent invention), working a con- because it would be both inconvenient and dangerous in a necting-od and crank (Pickard's patent invention), which steam-vessel to place it above as in land-engines. Fig. 209 was united to the axis of Miller's improved paddle-wheel represents the elevation of an engine of this construction, built (Symington's patent invention, 1801). Thus had Symington for a transatlantic packet, of 450 horse-power. the undoubted merit of having combined together, for the first In the figure, the shaded part of the eccentric shows one of time, those improvements which constitute the present system the ends of the horizontal shaft on which are fixed the paddleof steam-navigation. In 1807, Mr. Robert Fulton, an American wheels, which occupy the place of the fly-wheel in the fixed engineer, after having taken sketches and drawings of Mr. engines. The inversion of the working-beam of marine Symington's boat in Scotland, in 1801—as attested by the engines occasions the inversion and modification of all the engineer left in charge of it, went to America and built the rods attached to it; but the careful examination of the figure, steam-boat Clermont, which first plied between New York and or, what is better, the personal inspection of an engine of this Albany, and was reckoned the first steam-boat that was put kind on board of a steam-vessel, will convey a much more into actual practice in America or elsewhere; but it was only satisfactory idea of the arrangement of the parts than any a copy of the Charlotte Dundas.

laboured description ; and after all, the marine engine is The first steam-boat that was put in actual operation was essentially the same as that described under fig. 204, in our

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the Comet, built by Mr. Henry Bell, of Helensburgh, in Dum- last lesson. In fig. 210, is a representation of such a vessel, bartonshire, in the year 1812. It began to ply for passengers and on the sides of it are seen the paddle-boxes which cover upon the river Clyde, between Glasgow and Greenock, on the the paddle-wheels, and to which the horizontal or revolving bih of August of that year. It was a small vessel of thirty shaft is attached by this means the rotatory motion is ens, and had an engine estimated at three-horse

power. Mr. imparted to the wheels, and rectilinear motion to the vessel. Belló had obtained a knowledge of the plans of Mr. Syming The screw-propeller appears now to have taken the place of

the paddle-wheel in the case of steam navigation at sea. This it may be interesting to our readers to know that we had the pleasure occasions a variation in the form of the steam-engine, so that

its power may be brought into as direct action as possible, ons construction of an apparatus adapted for locomotion in a vessel on the

without the intervention of machinery. The marine engines be was modest and shy, and had nothing of the blustering boastfulness of Boulton and Watt), Soho, Birmingham, at the Great Exhibition pretenders. He was the real individual who brought steam navigation of 1851, had four cylinders, each fifty-two inches in diameter els like all real inventors and successful men in their own as partes and exhibited by the firm of Messrs. James Watt and Co. (lale

119

1.to actual practice.

TOL. T.

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tee per torce. Si versi

• Sabe storight by this force of steam only, by T! : : :

-Ort* $:12 to the open air after it has done its

W. J. P. Muirhead saw this model drive wae : the room in Mr. Murdoch's house at i. II. I.rs

ZZ = Dr. William Small to Mr. Watt, dated -24T. *. 22 suns: "Your very clerer friend, Mr. I.1. numpassed Friday evening with me, to my mat se-1:-1 them I hoped soon to travel in a fiery

milite"" The tribute afterwards borne by TASH tese visitors was fully merited: “It was in rr I learnt the other day the death of my vratna Professor Robison. He was a man of the Er I ** & the most science of any body I have known,

i 18 :p to me only ended with his life, after having "I! 2:1 1:0 durs half a century." Mr. Muirhead states that LLLL the persons who saw this "working model" at Mr. rant's Fas Mr. Richard Trevethick, who, in 1802, took na 3 pk'eat for an engine to be applied to the driving of CETT.ages, using the same principle with variations.

li is interesting to examine this model, in connexion with those comples, and in some instances, stupendous machines, of which the Exhibition supplied so many beautiful examples.

Franklin said of the first balloon :-"It is a "babe, but it At may become a giant." The balloon, however, is a “babe" still; *** 3 the while the locomotive presents to it a most striking contrast;

C.de if, in this model, we have " the babe," "the giant” is at hand si . irriting our contemplation. But it appears that the idea of a

working rail never entered the mind of Watt; all that he seems to have

3, the considered was, the movement of a carriage by steam on <!cas gas, ordinary roads. the ti of Messrs.

The second model exhibited by Messrs. J. Watt and Co. was Twees as repre: that of an "oscillating engine," constructed at that early 2015," showing the period, for the purpose of illustrating Mr. Watt's patent of

1784, for making the cylinder work on its axis. For the representation of this model, see fig. 212.

Fig. 212.

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IN #engine is derived from the cylinder being Babil *** m that the important purpose of saving

1. *. To understand this, let it be observed 2.6. 1.***.wit is dised, the piston-rod can only describe

squa & consequently, there must be some intermesites 3342's? Twen the piston-rod and the crank, as the

* But this mechanism requires space,

red when the cylinder is made to oscillate, sem be attached at once to the crank. This

anangement is peculiarly adapted to steain navigation,

and of in locomotive engines, may be judged from the representation, is use, the oscillating engines of Messrs. Penn, in the Exhibi- in fig. 214, of the leviathan • Lord of the Isles," exhibited in tion, furnished highly-interesting examples.

the Great Exhibition, This is a specimen of one of the From the exhibition of these two models, it appears very ordinary class of engines constructed by the Great Wester:k clearly that to the inventor of the steam-engine, James Watt, Company at their works at Swindon. The figure shows bath we are also indebted for the first ideas of locomotion by steam; the engine and the tender. It is capable of taking a passengerand that the adjuncts of rails and paddles, and afterwards of train of 120 tons at an average speed of sixty miles an hone screw-propellers, were added by other ingenious men who upon easy gradients. The evaporation of the boiler when in arose to put these ideas into practice. The idea obtained by full work is equal to 1000- huree power; the effective power, Mr. Trevethick was carried into practice by himself and a Mr. as measured by a dynamometer, being equal to 743-horse power Vivian, of Camborne near Redruth, in Cornwall, who jointly, The weighı of the engine in working order is 35 tons, which, in 1804, constructed and took out a patent for the first really does not include the tender, which, under similar circum useful locomotive.

stances, weighs 17 tons 13 cwis. The diameter of cylinder, Fig. 213, is a represen'ation of the side and end view of 18 inches; the length of stroke, 24 inches; the dianeter of Messrs. Trevethick and Vivian's first locomotive. It consisted the driving wheel, 8 feet; and the maximum pressure of of a cylindrical boiler containing a tube of the U shape, one end steam, 120 lbs. The consumption of fuel with an average of which formed the furnace, whilst to the other was connected load of 90 tons, i nd an average speed of 29 milts an hour, the chimney. The power of the steam is conveyed to the including stoppages, as an ordinary mail train, averaged wheels through the medium of the piston. This is made of 20.8 lbs. of coke per mile. The stately proportions of this metal, and slides in a cylinder, like the bucket of a pump in engine were seen to great advantage in ihe Crystal Palace; the barrel; and the steam being first let on to one side of it, and, contrasted with the light locomotives of Messrs. Adams forces it in one direction, and then on the other side, to force and England, seemed quite a giant of power and capability. it in the other direction, thus keeps up the motion. The To see this engine, however, in its full glory, the spectator piston has a rod in the centre, passing through the cover at, should be at its side when it stops, after a heavy run at ex. óne end of the cylinder, to the end of which is attached a con. press speed; when its furnace is too white with heat for the decting rod, which takes hold of a pin in one of the spokes of naked eye to look upon without pain, and the steam, blowing the wheel, and turns it just as a man's arm turns a coffee mill. off like thunder, shakes the very ground. One of these engines The engraving shows this primitive arrangement; and the was nick-named by one of the men the “Emperor of Russia," cylinder a is partially sunk into the boiler, and the power is on account of its extraordinary appetite for oil and tallow! transmitted through the rods bb to the wheels cc.

In order to distribute the weight more equally over the rails, An extraordinary misconception for a long period obstructed the engine alone has eighi wheels. The cylinders were laid the use of locomotives. It was gravely alleged that the wheels horizontally under the front end of the boiler, and could be would turn round without the engine advancing; and this very conveniently inspected, together with the rest of the

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notion having

to

once got abroad, people would hardly be per. working partu, by going down into the pit provided for that Exaded to the contrary, even when they saw it with their own purpose under the engine.

9. Much money and great ingenuity were expended in This system, as may be imagined, is best suited for main anking steam-walking machines, in which iron legs and feet lines, where the traffic is very heavy. It had, however, been

1914, constructed a locomotive for the Killingworth Col. engine would carry railway managers too far, and that when beat time we may date the introduction of the locomotive power was exerted in moving itself merely, and knocking the wym. When the Liverpool and Manchester Railway was rails and

sleepers to pieces, they were as anxious to get back perted in 1823, Mr. Stephe.son and others spent large sums their light engines as they had formerly

been to discaria the opening of that railway a very excellent performance was carriage” of Mr. Adams, and the light engine of Mr.

England. is the attained, and the benefics of the railway system began The specimens which

they exhibited,

whilst possessing all the en sppreciated. The great superiority of the engines used advantages which experience and skill have worked out in the

bine over that just described arose from the use of a heavy engines, are not more than one-third of the weight and onder containing a number of cubes or small flues, through half the cost. Mr. Adams' plan consists in combining and apidly than the former boiler with a single large tube through

it

. weight. The boiler is a cylinder full of tubes placed verti: Biles that date, the increase of power that has taken place callý; but this plan, in subsequent engines, has been given up

66

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in favour of the ordinary horizontal construction, as shown in the locomotive carriage in the Exhibition.

Mr. England, on the other hand, combines the engine and tender in one frame, thus adapting it to care riages of the ordinary description. Both these plans have been satisfactorily tested in practice, and bear out the views of the projectors, the engines carrying a moderate load at a high speed, with a small consumption of fuel, and less injury to the permanent way. In addition to these, specimens 'from

other eminent engineers were exhibited. Mr. Trevethick, of the London and North-Western Company, sent the express engine, the "Cornwall," in which the boiler is placed very low, and the driving wheels are obtained of large size, by allowing the shaft on which they are fixed to pass through the boiler. Mr. Crampton, the patent narrow-gauge engine “Liverpool," said to be the most powerful engine in the world, being cqual to 1140 horse power.

The peculiarity of this engine consists in the position of the axle of the driving wheels, which is placed behind the fire-box. Mr. Fairbairn, of Manchester; Messrs. Wilson, of Leeds; and Messrs. Kitson, Thompson, and Hewitson, of the same town, exhi. bited specimens of the combined engine and tender variety, or "tank engines," as they are technically termed. There was also a very beautiful specimen of the first-class engine by Messrs. Hawthorn and Co., of Newcastle, The British visitor might consider, in dwelling on this collection of fire-steeds, that in this respect at least his country had no competitor. A traveller tells us, with pardonable exultation, how comforted and how much at home he felt at an Italian railway station, by seeing on the name-plate of the engine the familiar words, “Sharp, Roberts, and Co., Atlas Works, Manchester," and hearing a genuine English “ All right!" given, before the train was allowed to move from the platform.

One of the greatest improvements in the application of the steam-engine, which was fully displayed in the Great Exhibition, is its employment in agriculture. Among others, Messrs. Ransome and May, of Ipswich, ex• hibited a portable steam-engine (fig. 215), adapted for thrashing and other agricultural purposes, which is of very simple construction, and, having but few working parts, there is little liability of its getting out of order; the cylinder and the machinery are placed on the top of the boiler, and are therefore constantly under the eye of the engine-man, and very easy of access. The engine is fitted up with a superior governor, and an effective

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regulator-valve for stopping and controlling the speed of the engine. There is a simple and efficient feed-pump, which ensures at all times a regular supply of water to the boiler. The crank-shaft and connecting rod are of wrought-iron, and the slide-valve

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