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This granted, if we conceive that the arcs a and y are de- of domestic life, or that tend to its elevation and refinement. scribed from the points p and c 18 centres, with a ray equal This state of things cannot last. The time is not far distant to a unity, and it from the point p we describe the arc d e with when many social tendencies must at length necessitate a cheap, the ray PA, we have the proportions
efficient, and systematic education of the people. Till such is 1
based upon system, and that of an enlarged and unsectarian
character, no effectual power will be brought to bear upon Ad
much of the ignorance, and many of the social demoralisations, whence we inaw
which are justly complained of. For considered in its noblest
and most essential principles, in all that constitutes a foundaani ani y=
tion for what is enlarged and progressive in the individual, enlightened education will recognise no difference of sects or sociai position. It will give principles and afford enlightenment-iearing the individual to advance therefrom in such social direction of duty as shall best suit his position and
aparide. assum.n.v=. wir wing te ne, i by the
La the meanwhile young women, of the classes referred to,
-r şarkus enign: io muca for themselves. Presuming an ability to read, **
ra east the wish to learn, an incalculable power of self-immy yo
provement les open before them. They want, I think, but to
1 uerstand the immense amount of social good that depends ning I=3"
ripen their individual culture, of the refinement that is its consangent, of the enlightenment and morality they may be
prouucers of, of the lofty principles they may infuse into the
generation to come, to be at once a ware of their great indivi
! iuai inty, and to prepare for it by self-culture and discipline. 4.84** ***
'In sus spealcng. I do not refer to book-knowledge only, or to
ans speciai ciass amongst the great industrial masses, but to )=;
I woman generily, however poor and lowly, and to every act
and iury which can improve her in person, in manners, in be. T.C'S
jars'ur, and in the conduet of her home. These matters, * meriace TVLLI as they may seem, are amongst the greatest needs of the **** sunt * Deva netur, sge : and winist men are so immensely progressing as they are,
anu suuwing the sterling character of this progress by their irst for science, it will shame woman if she be behindhand in the improvement of her mind, the culture of her person, her
better knowledge of domestic duties, and the adornment of her R** t re n inisi. Wind For et it be recollected that refinement is but a thing
J Jegree, and all that is worthiest in it, and most essential, is in ***.*** 91 is n'sible for the poorest homes as the richest, and that there
men may be as much gentleromen in habits, manners, and quats, is in the proudest homes of the land. Granting that
IV 1.jve worš for daily bread—so much the better ; the svoneelchat adorns labour is the noblest of its kind.
This apring Trung women of the industrial classes in that S6'll del , mesatare ourse u duty which is and must be theirs, these papers
wili relee pure tu the culture of personal and domestic life, via dieta dan tu Wx-kaowledge actually as such, though, situated as
eyre is mostly from books alone that any true informa
$20 a these faints can be derived. Manuals and cheap books ile uge, and the un ceking, house, all-work, needlework, the moral manage
rept und education of infancy, and other relative subjects, exist in abundance ; but it is to these subjects as allied, and to their effects in educating woman, that I shall direct my attention,
as well as to what relates to the decoration and management **** re the same sigu, but of homes-the latter a somewhat novel feature, as refinement
in alliance with narrow means has been little understood, or even considered, by our most advanced thinkers.
So much has been done by Mr. Cassell for the self-education
of the masses, in his admirable series of the POPULAR EDUCATOR, de med by the same that it will be only necessary for me to refer to some few points
connected there with. The first important one is that of perseverance. Patient endeavour will win a victory over the hardest educational ditficulties; and let what is done, be done well.
Scholarship, even when relating to merely rudimentary matters,
admits of nothing which is slovenly. Another thing of import-
tints a taste for it, let what is low and trashy in periodical Torte od in het country hillerature or books be passed by, as unworthy the countenance
has been dy young woman who aspires towards some degree of selfWe of the lion and improvement. Tales relating to seductions, Hill, i arduisimprobable marriages, and profligate courses of life,
wid Go bare no charms for her. The eye, and ear, and mind
Web an, of whatever degree, cannot be kept too pure and Noorteve MIXED hallotti di and all publications which refer to these hi ALS Puht to be avoided as so much moral poison. Their
A B bus tura dar-once educate the great industrial masses,
pok..benoble training which geometry and mathematics, Dj Xammar kl geography, languages and history will afford,
and all these corrupt and sensual excrescences of a cheap press tion with current events, such as emigration, colonisation, or
Of history a word must be said. Of that of her own country,
Passing from these matters connected with rudimentary
or an acquaintance with the functions of the body, and how
nature lui fait payer cher le mépris qu'il fait de ses legons.-J.J.
in de l'adversité on trouve, en s'éloignant de la terre, des régions
Le malheur, loin de dégrader l'homme, l'élève, s'il n'est pas un
3. TOV Plur, 1. Mev
The subjunctive of the verbs in vfu departs not from the
formation in υω, as δεικνύω, υης, etc. LESSONS IN GREEK.--No. XLII.
The optative of the imperfect and aorist has the mood-vowel By John R. BEARD, D.D.
4, which immediately joins on to the characteristic vowel,
blending with it to form a diphthong, as THE VERBS IN hi.
Opt. impf. act. Aor, 2. act.
Impf. mid. The chief peculiarity of the conjugation in consists in this,
i-ota•l-nv=i-oral-nv σται-ην i-oral-jeny that the verbs which belong to it, in the present, the imperfect,
τι-θε-ι-ην=τι-θει-ην Θει-ην τι- θει-μην and several in the second aorist active and middle also, take
δι-δοι-μην special person-endings different from those of the conjugation in w, and in the indicative of the other tenses want the moodvowel. The formation of all the other tenses, with a few The optative formation of the verbs in € (rionue) is followed
by the optative of the two passive aorists of all verbs, as exceptions, coincides with the formation of the verbs in w. Several verbs in pe, which have a monosyllabic stem, take ora-Ost-nv, tvp.Del-nv, TUT-E1-ny.
The optative of the imperfect of the verbs in vp follows, as in the present and imperfect a reduplication, which consists in this, that when the
stem begins with a single consonant or a well as the subjunctive present, the formation in w, as duxvvolje, mute and a liquid, the first consonant of the stem is repeated ous, and so forth. with 1, or if the stem begins with ot, it, or an aspirated vowel, an aspirated e precedes the stem ; as
Person-er.dings. 40- Öl-ow-fli, I give. XPA- Kt-xpn-ju, I led. In the active, the following are the terminations which ΣΤΑ- ί-στη-μι, I place. 'E- i-n-ui, 1 send.
mark the persons.
1. Person-endings of the indicative present : Division of Verbs in jul.
Sing. 1. jue
ι-στη-μι The verbs in u are divided into two chief classes ;
i-ornos 1. Such as append the person-endings immediately to the
i-orn.ol stem-vowels. The stem of this class ends
Dual 2. Tov
, vou(v) » ln » El-fee, I shall go,
[i-στά-ντι, ί-στά-νσι (ν)] 2. Those to whose stem the syllable vvü or vű is appended, The termination of the third person plural, vou, was changed and which receive the person-endings at the end of this sylla- into ào, and then contracted with the foregoing stem-vowel of ble. The stem of the verbs of this class ends :
the verb. The Attic dialect, however, admits the contraction
only in the stems which end in a; thus : a. In one of the three vowels, a, e, o, and takes vvü; as
From i-ota-you was formed i-orãou
τι.θεϊσι Attic τι-θε-άσι 0- orpw-vvv-ul, 1 spread out (strew), ΣΤΡΟ. .
δι-δούσι δι-δο-άσι δεικ-νυ-νσι
δεικ-νύσι δεικ-νυ άσι b. In a consonant, and takes võ. In a mute, as deck-vū-u, I show, Stem AEIK.
The person-endings of the subjunctive present and second
aorist do not deviate from those of the conjugation in w. In a liquid, as ou-vū.je, I swear, OM. Of this second class only the verb oße-vvv-ju (EBE), I extinguish,
2. Person-endings of the forms the second aorist.
Indicative Imperfect and Second Aorist.
Sing. 1. v Impf. ί-στη-ν ε-τι-θην The indicative of the present, imperfect, and second aorist,
ε-τι-θης wants the mood-vowel, and the person-endings are added
E-71-01 immediately to the verbal stem, as
Dual 2. TOV
ε-θε-τον ί-στα-μεν. ε-τι-θε-μεν. ε-ο-μεν.
8-01-TYY ί στα-μεθα. ε-τι-θε-μεθα. ε-δο-μεθα.
έ-στη-μεν ε-θε-μεν έ-στη-τε
E-DE-TE The subjunctive, as in verbs in w, has the inood vowels w which, however, blend into one with the characteristic
ε. θε σαν model
, which causes contractional deviations from the conja. According to the second aorist corny is formed the indicata nopeus gation in w, as an and ar melt into ñ and (not into à andą, both norises passive of all verbs, t-Tupo-qv, e-run-qv, e-ota-onv, as in contracted verbs in a w); op melts into ý (not into oi, as in contracted verbs in ow).
ης, η, ητον, ηταν, ημεν, ητε, ησαν.
The person-endings of the optative in the imperfect and i-ora-w=i Otū i-ora.ps=i-otýs i-ora-n tai=i-orn-tal second aorists, except the first person singular, differ from στα-ω-στώ στα-ης Ξστής
those of the optative of the historical tenses in the conjugation T1-0€-w=72-Ow τι-θε-ης =τι-θώς τιθε-ω-μαι = τι θα μαι -σται-ην
in w only in this, that it is preceded by an : as
σται-ην τι-θει-ην Del-ny 81-801-ny dol-ny Öt-00-w=Öl-ow ôt-co-pc=ôt-ôục ct-co-g=ót- tp. In the dual and plural of the optative imperfect then is This formation of the subjunctive of iorque and -10nuu is fol. plural, noav, is usually shortened into ev, as
commonly dropped and the termination of the third person lowed by the subjunctive aorisi first and second paszire of all verbs, as
τιθει-ημενΞτιθείμεν Tuptw -vs-ū, etc.
σταθώ roιη ιστημι. τιθει-ησαν=τιθείεν
Plur. 1. MIEV
ισται-ητε=ισταιτε (διδοι-ησαν= διδοίον
3. TW D. 2. τον
3. των P. 2. TE
The same obtains in the optative of the passive aorists of all is lengthened, a into ng into y, and into & (in the perfect
other tenses of the middle and in all the tenses of the passive
The first aorist active and middle of τιθημι, ίημι and διδωμι
The forms of the first aorist active, εθηκα, ηκα, and εδωκα,
however, are used only in the indicative and especially in the
δι-δο-τε singular; in the other persons commonly, and always in the
τι-θε-τωσαν Öl-do-Twoav other moods and the participle, the forms of the second aorist
are employed. So instead of the forms of the first aorist
middle are used. On the contrary the indicative forms of the
The verb iornu forms the first aorist active and middle, like
the verbs in w, with the tense characteristic o, as €.0T9-0-a,
The second aorist middle cotajnu is never
used. Some other verbs, however, have the form, as Et Taunu,
In regard to the signification of iornji, observe that the pre-
pluperfect active, and the third future, on the contrary, have a
I shall stand away, that is, I shall leave or abandon, desert. The
middle signifies either to place for yourself, or to cause to be done,
or to staird in or consist of (Lat. consistere). The passive means
to be placed.
2. The Second Class of the Verbs in fel.
has no difficulty: After cutting off the termination vvūpe and
vūjul you add the tense-forms to the stem. The verbs in o i-ora.vis=isorās, i-otãoa, i-orav στας, στάσα, σταν which lengthen this o into w in the present, retain the w in all τι-θε-ντς=τι-θεις, τι-θείσα, τι θες θεις, θείσα, θεν the tenses, as στρω-γνύ-μι, ρω-ννυμι, έω-ννυμι, χω-ννύμι; δι-δο-ντς-δι-δους, ούσα, ον
δους, δούσα, δον future στρω-σω, ρω-σω, εω-σω, χω-σω, and so on. δεικ-νυ-ντς= δεικ-νυς, ύσα, ύν.
But the verbs whose stem ends in a liquid take for the for
mation of some tenses a theme ending in a vowel, as ou-vū-fl,
vv-ul, aor. 2. pass. Göyny, fut. 2. pass. Súyngojai.
Remarks on the Models.
In the dual and plural of the indicative, and in the other
μνύω, συμμιγνύω, together with ενδεικνυμι, ομνυμι, συμμιγνυμι. form the dual and the plural immediately from the stem, as
έ-στά-τον, έ-στά-την, έ- στά-μεν, έ-στά-τε, έ-στά-σαν; instead
of έστηκεναι, εστάναι is usually employed. The participle runs Formation of the Tenses.
έστως, ώσα, ως. g. ώτος, ωσης, as well as έστηκως, υία, ος, g.
With έστατον compare τετλαμεν (ΤΛΑ), and In the tense-formation of the entire active, as well as of the τεθναμεν, τεθνατε, τεθνάσι(ν), int. τεθνάναι froin τεθνηκα, middle future and first aorist, the short characteristic vowel Ovnokw (ONA).
tive and optative.
S. 1 ι-στημι
τι-θε-σαι,-θη δι-δο-σαι 3 | i-στη-σι(ν) τι-θη-σι(ν) δι-δω-σι(ν) δεικ-νύ-σι(ν) εστά-ται τι-θε-ται
ι-στά μεθον | τι-θε-μεθον | δι-δο-μεθον | δεις-μυ-μεθον ιστά-τον τι-θε-τον δι-δο-τον δεικ-νύ-τον -στα-σθον τι-θε-σθον δι-δο-σθον δεικ-νυ-σθον
-στα-τον τι-θε-τον δι-δο-τον δεικ-νύ-τον ί-στα-σθον τι-θε-σθον δι-το-σθον δεικ-νι-σθον Ρ. 1 ι-στά-μεν τι-θε-μεν δι-δο-μεν δεικ-γύ- μεν
ί-στά μεθα τι-θε-μεθα δι-δο-μεθα δεικ-ν-μεθα
τι-θε-τε δι-δο-τε δεικ-νύ-τε ί-στα-σθε τι-θε-σθε δι-δο-σθε δεις-γυ-σθε
-στη-ται τι-θή-ται δι-δώ-ται D, 1
etc. ί-στο-μεθον τι-θω-μεθον | δι-δω-μεθον etc.
-στη-σθον τι-θή-σθον δι-δω-σθον
ί-στη-σθον τι-θή-σθον δι-δώ-σθον Ρ. 1 στώμεν τι-θώ-μεν δι-δώ-μεν
ί-στω-μεθα τι-θω μεθα δι-δω-μεθα 2| -στη- τε τι θή-τε δι-δω-τε
ί-στη σθε τι θη σθε δι-δω-σθε 3 | i-στώ-σι(ν) τι θώ·σι(ν) δι-δώ-σιν
ιστώνται τι-θω-νται δι-δω-νται S. 2. ί. στη
δι-δου δεικ-νυ ι-στα-σο, or τι-θε-σο, or δι-δο-σο, Or δεικ-νι-σο
δι-δο-τω δεικ-νύ-τω -στα-σθω τι-θε-σθω δι-δο-σθω δεικ-νυ-σθω
3 -στα-των τι-θε-των δι-δο-των δεικ-νύ-των ι-στα-σθων τι-θε -σθων δι-δο-σθων δεικ-νυ-σθων Ρ. 2 ι-στά-τε τι-θε-τε διδο-τε δεικ-ν-τε ι-στα- σθε τι-θε-σθε δι-δο-σθε δεικ-νυ-σθε 3 ί-στά-τωσαν τι-θε-τωσαν | δι-δο-τωσαν δεικ-νύ-τωσανι-στα- σθωσαν τι-θε-σθασαν δι-δο-σθωσαν δεικ-νυ-σθωσαν or
ι-στας,άσα,άντι-θεις, είσα,ενδι-δους, ούσα, δεικ-νύς, ύσα. -στά-μενος, τι-θε-μενος, | δι-δο-μενος, | δεικ-νύμενος,
[η, ον [η, ον [η, ον
ί-στη-ν ε-τι-θουν ε-δι-δουν ε-δεικ-νυν ί-στά-μην ε-τι-θε- μην | ε-δι-δο-μην ε-δεικ-νύ-μην 2|ι-στη-ς ε-τι-θεις ε-δι-δους ε-δεικ-νυς ί-στα-σο, or ε-τι-θε-σο, or ε-δι-δο-σο, οι ε-εικ-νι συ
ε-τι-θου ε-δι-δου 3 | ι-στη
ε-τι-θει ε-δι-δου ε-δεικ- νυ ι-στά το ε-τι-θε-το ε-δι-δο-το ε-δεικ-νι-το
ί-στα-μεθον Ιε-τι-θε-μεθον ε-δι-δο-μεθον | ε-δεικ-νύ-μεθον
-σται-ην 2|ι-σται-ης 3
1-σται-η D. 1
3 ί-σται-την Ρ. 1 έ-σταϊ-μεν 2
τι θοι- μεθα δι-δοι-μεθα
τι θοί-σθε δι-δοι-σθε ί-σταϊ-ντο τι-θούντο
1 and δεικνύω, εις, and so on, especially δεικνύουσι (ν). So in the impf. : εδεικνύον, ύες, είν), and in the partic, commonly δεικνύ-ων, ουσα, ν.