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LESSONS IN ITALIAN.

357
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Κλωθοί συνεπιδιδου, παρεχων συννήσαι, οίςτισι ποτε πραγ-1 the reciprocal pronouns, and of the relative words to, him or
pave Bovlerai. Ouows aloxpov akovoavra xenoipov Loyov yen it; la, her or it; li, them (m.), and le, them (f.) with a verb.
μανθάνειν, και διδομενον τι αγαθον παρα των φιλων μη λαμβα-
νειν. Οι πολίται φοβούνται μη η πολις προδιδώται. Μηποτε

INFINITIVE MOOD (MODO INDEFINITO).
υπο των φιλων προδιδοίο. Ο στρατος υπ' αυτού του στρατηγού
προυδιδοτο. Αποδου το κυπελλον.

Present Tense (Tempo pre- Present Gerund (Gerundio
sente).

presente).
ENGLISH-GREEK.

To procure it.

Procuring it.
Return a favour for (to) a favour. They return the favour.

Pro.cu-rár-se-lo.

Pro-cu-ron-do-se-lo.
A favour is returned for a favour. They returned the fa-
vour which had been given them. Our country is betrayed. Past Tense (Tempo passato).

Past Gerund (Gerundio pas-
Athens was betrayed by its own general. Even the citizens

sato).

To have procured it. betray the city. He has betrayed his own father. Willingly Es-ser-se-lo pro-cu-rd-to.

Having procured it.
no good man betrays his friend. I fear our city will (may) be

Es-sen-do-de-lo provc-ra-to.
betrayed. They give back the cup. The cup is given back.
I will give back the cup. He has given back the cup.

INDICATIVE Mood (Modo AFFERMATIVO).
REMARKS, ETC.

Present Tense
Explain the contraction in πρoυδοθησαν. .

Repeat from

(Tempo pre- | Future Tense (Tempo futuro). memory the chief contractional equivalents. Go through,

sente).

I shall procure it. from memory, the contracted verb ayaraw.

I procure it.

Me lo pro-cu-re-rò,
Oιςτισι, etc., by contraction, for πραγμασιν άτινα βουλεται.

He lo pro-cu-ro
What part of the verb is each of these forms- TOLOŪVTI,

te lo pro--ri
δεδoται, απεδοτο, επιδιδου, ακουσαντα, αποδου ?

se lo pro-cu-ra

Future Perfect (Tempo passato
Decline Κλωθω, κερδος, πολίτης, κυπελλον, πραγμα.

ce lo pro.cu-rid-mo

di futuro).
In what case is κερδος, and why? also πατριδες, and λογον ? ve lo pro-cu-ru-te

I shall have procured it.
What are the component parts of zpovờidoro? What is the sẽ lo pro--ra-no

Me lo sa.ro
augment? the theme? the person-ending?

pro-cu-rd-to, In un' avrov, what change has the preposition undergone, Imperfect (Tempo presente di

passato).
and why? and what is the case of avtoő, and why?

Conditional Present (Tempo
I procured it.

condizionale presente).
VOCABULARY.

Me lo pro-cit--va, etc.

I should procure it.
Auduvrij, I put on; middle, | EtiòEIKVŪy, I show off; mid., Indeterminate Preterite (Tem-

Me lo pro-cu-re-rê-i,
I am clad in, I wear.
I show myself off.
po passato remoto).

etc.
Απολλύμι (hence our Apol- | Σβεννύμι, I put out, I extin-

I procured it. lyon), I destroy ; mid., I guish.

Me lo pro-Cu-rd-i, etc.

Conditional Past (Tempo condi.
perish, I am destroyed. Παρρησια, ας, ή, free speech.

cionale passato).
Συναπολλύμι, I also Eotins, jros, (only in the Determinate Preterite (Tempo
down, destroy ; mid., I singular, like vestis), a gar- passato prossimo).

Me lo sa--i pro-cu- rd-to,
perish with

I have procured it.
Evdekvāju, I show, I display; IIoAvredns, , costly, pre- Me lo só- no
mid., I show myself.
cious,

te lo -i
Kepavvūjul, I mix, mingle. Alnows, truly.

ce lo sia-mo

pro-cu-rd-to EXERCISES. -GREEK-ENGLISH.

ve lo sié-te

se lo -no
Φιλοι φιλοις συναπολλυνται δυστυχούσιν. Ουδεποτε κλεος
εσθλον απολλυται. Ανδρος δικαιου καρπος ουκ απoλλυται. Λί Indeterminate pluperfect
γυναίκες χαιρoυσιν αμφιεννυμεναι καλας εσθήτας. Οι αληθως (Tempo trapassato prossino).
σοφοι ου σπευδουσιν επιδεικνυσθαι την αυτων σοφιαν. .

I had procured it.
ευθυς σβεννυοιτο. .

Αει εν τω βιω αρετης και σωφροσυνην Me lo e-ra pro-cu-rd-to, etc. ενδεικνυσο. Οι Περσαι πολυτελείς στολας αμφιεννυντο. Ο

Determinate Pluperfect (Tempo ρητωρ την γνωμην μετα παρρησιας απεδειξατο. Αλκιβιαδης

trapassato remoto). υπο των Αθηναιων στρατηγος απεδειχθη. .

I had procured it.

Me lo -i pro-cu-rd-to.
ENGLISH-GREEK,
I perish with my friends. He perishes with his father and

IMPERATIVE Mood (Modo IMPERATIVO)
mother. · Virtue never perishes. Wisdom and excellence
perish not. Learning cannot perish. He destroys the city.

Do thou procure it.
Alexander destroyed Thebes. Put out the fire. "The women
are clad (in) beautiful garments. The Persians wear costly

Pro--ra-te-lo (tu)
garments. Mix thy wine with water. It is better not to

I do not thou procure it drink wine, even if mixed with water. The wise man showed

I non te lo pro-cu-ra-res
forth his mind. Wise men do not show off their garments.

se lo pro-ci-ri (egli)
pro-cu-rid-mo-ce-lo (101)
pro-cu-rd-te-ve-lo (voi)

se lo pro.cú-ri-no (essi)
LESSONS IN ITALIAN GRAMMAR.-No. XXX.
By CHARLES TAUSENAU, M.D.,

* The literal meaning of procurarselo is--to procure it to one's self. The
Of the University of Pavia, and Professor of the Italian and German reciprocal pronouns mi, ti, si, etc., consequently are in the dative case,
Languages at the Kensington Proprietary Grammar School.

meaning (I procure it) to myself, to thyself,'etc.; for this reason, as stated

above, it is allowable to conjugate this verb with essere or avere, and to say Procurarselo, to procure it (i.e. to get, send for, buy it, etc.) -me lo sono or me l'ho procurato, ce lo siamo or ce l'abbiamo procurato,

me lo era or me l' aveva procurato, ce lo eravamo or ce l' avecamo procurato, This verb is an example of the principal combinations of ante.

cast

ment.

ete,

se lo è

“ 'H oprn

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* **thout a preposition, or che i was be said ; 6-só-gna fare

na che ciò si-a pe-ro, this so be true, and in all cases ::.* bominative of must is in

Darbogna che io me ne vá-da, 76 0 come; bi-so-gna che noi

999-pio-te, you must know, etc.

3. bctive pronouns mi, ti, etc., per dy agreeing in number with the *** Tule to me, I want money; si bi-80-gne. mart, me te reguire money; mi bi-si-gna-soda

20-scén-to fio-ri-mi, I want a bundred - *. iri, thou wantest a few books, ete.

98%

O*g-gi fa un fré-sco, it is a little cool to-day.

be maintained, etc. Si of course may be incorporated at the Fa mol-to fán-go, it is very dirty in the streets.

end of them, e. g. di-ce-si, cré-de-si, dis cor--va-si, pre-ten-deFa rén-to, gran vên-to, it is windy, very windy.

rus-si (see introduction to the reflective verbs), etc. Fa bél, cat-ti-vo têm-po, it is fine, bad weather.

When the object of these verbs is expressed they must Fa á-na bil-la mat-ti-na, it is a fine morning.

agree with it in number and gender, e. g. si di-co-no mól-te Fa -le, the sun shines (i. e, it is sunshine).

bu-gi-e, people tell many lies; si sên-to-no gran nuo-ve, one Che têm-po fa ôg-gi? what kind or sort of weather is it? hears important news; si ve-do-no mól-ti fo-re-stiê-ri, one sees The impersonal verbs of this class have only the third per have been told; si so-no ve-di-ti mól-ti sol-dd-ti, so many

many foreigners; si -no dét-te tuin-te bu-gi-e, so many lies son singular. It must, however, not be forgotten that every impersonal verb retains its characteristic only as long as its soldiers have been seen.

The active form of this class of impersonal verbs has a subject is either really unknown or left indeterminate on purpose. It becomes personal as soon as its subject is determined. passive meaning, which will at once be seen by expressly Consequently, whenever the sense of the impersonal verbs of stating their subjects and (just as in the passive voice) placing this class admits of nouns or pronouns becoming their subjects the prepositions da or per before them, e. g. da mól-si lêg-ge they must agree with them in number and person, e. g. gli la bib-bia, many people read the bible.' By changing the active óc-chi suðri lam-peg.gia-va-no, his eyes sparkled ; le -gri-me and impersonal verb si legge into passive, this sentence will run pio-vo-no da-gli 6e chi, tears flow from his eyes ; -la-no i fiú-mi, | -- è lêt-ta da mól-ti la bib-bia; and by changing si legge into an the rivers are freezing; i-o tuô-no su gli em-pj, 1 (Jupiter) active and personal verb, it will run-mól-ti lég-go-no la bib-bia. thunder down on the impious; tu pió-vi fe-con-di-tà su i no-stri The meaning of these three sentences is identical, and proves cúm-pi, thou rainest fecundity on our fields.

that this class of impersonal verbs serves the purpose of making The impersonal or indeterminate form of the third person

a passive use of an active form. Only intransitive verbs adoptsingular goes through all moods and tenses, and pió-ve-re, to ing the impersonal form, e.g: si va, one goes; si viê-ne, one rain, may be taken as a model of the conjugation of the verbs comes, may perhaps be considered an exception. of this class.

The irregular verb dire, to say, may serve as an example of

the conjugation of the second class of impersonal verbs.
INFINITIVE MOOD (MODO INDEFINITO).

INDICATIVE Mood (Modo AFFERMATIVO).
Present (Tempo presente) : pió-ve-re, to rain,
Past
passato) : a-vér pio--to, to have rained.

Present

(Tempo presente): si di-ce; si di-coPast Participle (Participio passato): pio--to, rained.

[no, it is said. Present Gerund (Gerundio presente) : pio-vên-do, raining,

Imperfect

(

di passato) : si di-ce

[va ; si di--va-no, it was said. INDICATIVE MOOD (Modo AFFERMATIVO).

Indeterminate Preterite ( passato remoto): si dis-se; si

[dis-se-ro, it was said. Present

(Tempo presente) : pió-ve, it rains. Determinate Preterite ( Imperfect

prossimo) : si è dél-to, ( di passato): pio-ve-va,

(-a'; si son dét-ti,—e, it has Indeterminate Preterite ( [it rained.

[been said, passato remoto): pióv-ve (irr.) | Indeterminate Pluperfect ( trapassato prossimo): s'ê-ra Determinate Preterite

(or pio-vè, * it rained. (

[dét-to,—a; s'é.ran dét-ti, -e, prossimo): ha pio-vú

[it has been said. [to, † it has rained. Determinate Pluperfect (

remoto): si fu dét-to,trapassato prossimo): a-ve-va [pio--to, it had rained.

[a; si fu-ron dét-ti,—e, it had remoto): éb-be pio-vú- Future

[been said. [to, it had rained.

futuro) : si di-rd ; si di-run-no, futuro): pio-ve-, it will rain. Future Perfect

[it will be said. passato di futuro); a-vrà pio

( » passato di futuro) : si sa-rd dét[vú-to, it will have rained.

[to,-a; si sa-rán-no dét-ti,( condizionale presente): pio-ve- Conditional Present

[e, it will have been said, [reb-be, it would rain.

(, condizionale presente): si di( passato): avreb-be

(réb-be; si di-réb-be-ro, it [ pio-vú.to, it would have rained. Conditional Past

(would be said. SUBJUNCTIVE Mood (Modo CONGIUNTIVO).

passato) :

si 80

[reb.be dét-to,-a; si sa-réó-be-ro dét. (Tempo presente): piô-va, it may rain.

[ti,--, it would have been said. di passato): pio-vés-se, it might rain. » passato): db-bia pio--to, it may have rained.

SUBJUNCTIVE Mood (Modo CONGIUNTIVO). trapassato): a-vés-se pio-vu-to, it might have

Present (Tempo presente) : si di-ca; si di-ca-no, it may be [rained.

di passato) : si di-cés-se; si di-cés-se

said. [ro, it might be said.

Indeterminate Pluperfect (
Determinate Pluperfect (

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Future
Future Perfect

Conditional Present

Conditional Past

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Present Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect

Imperfect ( The second class are impersonal verbs, not in the proper sense,

( passato) : si si-a dél-to,-; si si-an dél-ti, for, being in themselves personal and active, the pronoun si| Perfect

[-e, it may have been said. makes them (as it were) impersonal, by expressing their sub.

trapassato): si fós-se dit-to, -a; si fós-8e-ro ject as an indeterminale person. In English si is equivalent pluperfect (

(dét-li, -e, it might have been said, to one, people, they, etc.; or also to the passive voice, e.g. si di-ce, one says, people say, they say, it is said; si 'cré-de, they believe, it is believed ; si spe-ra, they hope, it is hoped; si té me, they fear, it is feared si sup--ne, they suppose, it is supposedo; si dis-cor-ré-va, they talked or argued, it was

FRENCH READING S.-No. XXIII. talked or argued; si pre-ten-de-ra, they will maintain, it will

JEANNE D'ARC. • Pio-vét-le is another form for this tense, which though regular is much more trequeut in conversation than in books.

SECTION 1. 1. Impersonal verbs relating to the weather may take either avere or essere in their compound tenses, and it is therefore allowable to say, è piovuto, or

Au moment où l'Anglais devenu maître de la France, here to be the rained era piovuto or avera piovuto, it nad ranea, etc.; par le traité de Troyes, gouvernait en maître absolu l'Aquiin ticated that nevicato it has showed . e grandinato or ha grandinato, ittaine, le Poitou et toutes les villes du nord de la Loire, et tians the di tè tuo-ná to or ha tuo-ná to, it has thuidered. Some gramma: où le dauphin fils du roi Charles VI. trouvait à peine urrians, however, use essere

| ville qui pûta lui servir d'asile, un événement inespéi

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Compound tenses of all impersonal verbs.

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CF

OF

In the celestial telescope we take for the measure of magnifyON PHYSICS, OR NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. ing power the ratio of the angle a o'b, under which we see the

image, to the angle a CB, under which we see the object. We
No, L.

demonstrate, by the Calculus, that this ratio equals Fbeing
(Continued from page 350.)
OPTICS.

the focus of the object-glass M, and being supposed to coincide
approximately with the focus of the eye-piece n,

whence we
OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS.

conclude that the eye-piece is more considerable as the object

glass is less and the eye-piece more convergent. In a good The Telescope.—The telescope (from the Greek words, onde, glass the magnifying power does not exceed 1000 to 1200. at a distance, and OKOTTEW, I see) is an optical instrument

Fig. 317 represents a telescope mounted on a stand, and by which distant objects are brought within the range of above it is a small telescope called a searcher. Glasses of distinct vision. The astronomical or celestial telescope is great magnifying power, having but a narrow field, are not composed of a convergent object-glass and a convergent eye convenient for seeking a star. "For this reason we examine piece. The object m, fig. 316, gives an inverted image of the the heavens first with the searcher, which commands a large

field ; and having discovered the object, we then examine it
Fig. 316.

with the telescope.
Terrestrial Telescope.-

The terrestrial telescope differs from
the celestial only in this, that the images are rectified. This
rectification is obtained by means of two convergent glasses,
P and Q (fig. 318), placed between the object-glass m, and the
eye-piece r. The object being supposed at AB, at a much
greater distance than can be represented in the diagram, its

image is formed, inverted and very small, at ba, on the other body which we look at a b, situated between the eye-piece n, side of the object-glass. Now the second lens P is at such a and its principal focus ; and this eye-piece, which has the distance that its principal focus coincides with the image ab; effect of a magnifying lens, gives a virtual image, a' b', erect and whence it follows that the luminous rays that pass through b, for greatly magnified, of the image a b. The astronomical tele- example, take, after having traversed the lens P, a direction scope has, as we see, considerable analogy with the microscope; parallel to the secondary axis b o. In like manner the rays but these instruments present this difference, that, in the which pass through a take a direction parallel to the axis a o.

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microscope, the object being very near the object-glass, the | After crossing at , these different rays traverse a third lens, a, image is formed far beyond the principal focus, and is whose principal focus coincides with the point H. The pencil object-glass and the eye-piece, while in the celestial tele- parallel to its direction. The pencil a au, proceeding in like prident rays are parallel, and the image is formed at the produced

at a'l'. It is this image which we behold with a

manner to converge at a', a rectified image of the object A B is principal focus of the object-glass, much smaller than the convergent eye-piece, R, so placed that it acts as a magni, ton veye-piece, and for that reason this glass should be very is less than the principal focal distance; whence it results

that it gives at a" j" a virtual, erect, and magnified image of a' b'.

Fig. 318.

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