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the size of the pupil varying inversely as the intensity of the ON PHYSICS, OR NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. light. The iris also serves to correct the spherical aberration

by preventing the marginal rays from crossing the edge of the No. LII.

crystalline. (Continued from page 379.)

The Aqueous Humour.–Between the posterior portion of

the cornea and the anterior of the crystalline, is a transparent THE EYE CONSIDERED AS AN OPTICAL

liquid called the aqueous humour. The space e, occupied by

this humour, is divided into two compartments by the iris ; INSTRUMENT.

the part b, between the cornea and the iris, is called the Structure of the Human Eye.—The eye is the organ of vision, anterior chamber; the part o, between the iris and the crystalthat is to say, of the phenomenon by virtue of which the line, is called the posterior chamber. light emitted or reflected by bodies, produces in us the sensa

The Crystalline is a transparent body, with the form and protion that reveals their presence to us. It is placed in a bony perties of a double convex lens, placed behind the iris and cavity or socket, and supported in its position by means of very near that membrane. It is enveloped in a transparent muscles, tendons, and nerves, which render it capable of a membrane called the capsule, which adheres at its edge to great variety and delicacy of movements, while the eyelids the annular band formed by the ciliary processes (or hair-like and eye brows protect it from external injury. Its size is projections), 9. ncarly the same in all individuals, the apparent differences of The anterior surface of the crystalline is less convex size being caused by the smaller or larger opening of the than the posterior surface. Its tissue is composed of a series lid.

of layers almost concentric, which are harder in the centre Fig. 338 represents a transverse section of the eye from the than at the circumference. The outermost coats have almost

a liquid softness. The refracting power of these coats decreases Fig. 338.

from the centre to the circumference.

The Vitreous Humour and Hyaloid Membrane. -The transparent mass, resembling the white of an egg, which occupies the whole of that portion h of the eyeball which is behind the crystalline, bears the name of the vitreous humour or vitreous body. It is enveloped in the hyaloid membrane, which

covers the posterior surface of the crystalline capsule, and all b

the internal surface of another membrane called the retina.

The Retina and Optic Nerve.-The retina m is a membrane intended to receive the impression of the light and transmit it to the brain, by means of a nerve n called the optic nerve, which, proceeding from the brain, enters the eye and spreads over the retina in the shape of a nervous net-work.

The retina and the optic nerve have no other special function than that of receiving and transmitting to the brain impressions of images. They are altogether insensible to injury from external objects. They have been cut and pricked with

out appearing to cause any pain to the animals upon which front to the back. As appears from that figure, the general

these experiments have been performed. form of the eye is that of a spheroid, the curvature of which

The Choroid Membrane k, is a membrane interposed between is greater in front than behind. The eye is composed of the the retina and the sclerotic. It is essentially vascular, and following membranes and media—the cornea,

the iris, the covered on its internal surface with a dark substance like the pupil, the aqueous humour, the crystalline, the hyaloid and pigment of the negro's skin. Its object is to absorb all the choroid membranes, the retina and the optic nerve.

rays that are not required to produce distinct vision. The The cornea, a, is a transparent membrane situated in choroid membrane is fringed with a series of hair-like projecfront of the ball of the eye.

It has the appearance of a small tions 9, called, as we have stated above, ciliary processes, spherical cup, with a base of nearly half an inch in diameter. between the iris and the crystalline capsule, to which they Its circumference is so closely attached to the sclerotic or adhere, forming round it a disk like that of a radiate flower. outermost tunic, that some anatomists consider them as one By its vascular tissue the choroid membrane serves to convey and the same membrane.

the blood to the interior of the eye, and especially to the The Sclerotic, i, is a membrane which, with the cornea,

ciliary processes. envelops all the constituent parts of the eye. In front it has Course of Rays in the Eye.-Considering the various parts of an opening, nearly circular, in which the cornea is encased; which the eye is composed, it may be conepared to a camera the posterior and internal portion is perforated to afford a obscura, of which the pupil is the aperture, the crystalline passage for the optic nerve.

the converging lens, and the retina the screen on which the The Iris, d, is an annular opaque diaphragm or partition, image is portrayed. The effect is therefore the same as that fastened at its outer circumference, and free at its central edge. produced at one conjugate focus of a bi-convex lens by an This membrane is placed between the cornea and the crystal object placed at the other focus. Let A B, fig. 339, be an line. It is this that forms the coloured part of the eye. object placed in front of the eye, and

let us consider the rays It is pierced by an opening called the pupil, which in man is emitted from any point a in the ojbect. Of all the rays procircular. In the lower animals it assumes various forms. In ceeding from it, only those which are directed towards the those of the feline tribe, it is narrow and elongated vertically, pupil penetrate the eye and contribute to vision. These rays, direction. It is by the pupil that the rays of light penetrate tion, which makes them approach the

axis A a, drawn through into the eye. Its diameter, which varies in the same indivi- the optical centre of the crystalline. When they meet the dual, is between one-tenth and

a quarter

of an inch, but these crystalline they are again refracted as by a bi-convex lens. At may occasionally be surpassed. The alternate enlarge- last, after having undergone further refraction in the vitreous ment and contraction of the pupil are very rapidly performed, humour, they meet in the point a, and there form the image they are constantly going on, and play an important part in of the point a. The rays which proceed from the point B go Hhenomenon of vision. The pupil contracts under the to form the image of this point at 0.

Similar remarks apply influence of strong light, and dilates in a feeble one. The to all the intermediate points between A and B, whence we movements of the iris appear to be involuntary;

see that a very small real but reversed image ab of the object From what has been stated, it will be seen that the iris is a A B is formed upon the retina when the eye is properly conscreen with an opening of variable magnitude, and its function stituted. is that of regulating the quantity of light which enters the eye, Reversing of Images.To prove that the images formed on VOL. V.




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the retina are really reversed, the eye of an Albino or white this angle increases or decreases in proportion to the size negro is employed, because in this singular race the choroid of the object, and for the same object it decreases in promembrane is without pigment, and consequently the light can portion as the distance increases, which is seen in the accompass completely through it. The eye is stripped of the cellular panying figure, 341. The consequence is, that the more disiissue which envelops it at the back, and placed at an aper- tant objects are, the smaller they appear, for the secondture in the window-shutter of a dark chamber, when by the ary axes AO BO crossing each other in the centre of the aid of a magnifying lens it may be clearly seen that the images crystalline, the size of the image projected on the retina on the retina are reversed.

depends on that of the visual angle A o B. The reversing of images in the eye has much occupied the Estimation of Distance and the Size of Objects.--The estimation attention of philosophers and physiologists, and numerous of distance and size depends on the concurrence of several theories have been put forward to explain how it is that we do circumstances; the visual angle, the optical angle, comparison not see objects reversed. Some consider that it is by custom | with objects whose size is familiar to us, and the diminution

Fig. 339.

and a sort of education of the eye that we see objects rectified, of the clearness of the image by the interposition of an atmo-
that is to say, in their true position with relation to us. sphere more or less charged with vapour.
Others think that we perceive the real position of objects in the When the size of an object is known, as the height of a man,
direction of the luminous rays which they send forth, and that a tree, or a house, the distance is estimated by the magnitude
as these rays cross each other in the crystalline, the eye sees of the visual angle under which it is seen. If the size of the
the points a and B in the directions a a and b b respectively, object is unknown, it is estimated by comparison with sur-
whence the objects appear upright. Such was the opinion rounding objects.
of d'Alembert. M. Muller, Volkmann, and others, maintain A colonnade, or an avenue of trees appears to diminish in
that as we see every thing upside down, and not one object to proportion as the distance increases, because the visual angle
the exclusion of others, nothing appears reversed, since we decreases ; but the habit of seeing columns and trees, and our
have no means of comparison. None of these theories can be knowing their usual height, correct the judgment. In the
considered altogether satisfactory.

same manner, although very distant mountains may be seen Optical Axis, Optical Angle, Visual Angle.The principal under a very small angle, and occupy only an insignificant optical axis of the eye is the axis of the whole ball, that is to space in the field of vision, yet, as we are accustomed to aerial say, the straight line with regard to which the figure is sym-/ perspective, we do not overlook or mistake their real great. metrical. In a well-formed eye, it is the straight line passing ness. The optical angle is also an essential element in estithrough the centre of the pupil and the crystalline, as oo, fig. mating distance. This angle, increasing or diminishing as 339. The lines A a, B b which are apparently but not really objects approach or recede, the motion that we give our eyes, straight, are secondary axes.

It is in the direction of the in order that their optical axes may converge towards the priucipal optical axis that objects are most clearly seen. object which we are looking at, suggests an idea of its distance.

The optical angle is the angle B A C, tig. 340, formed by the | However, it is only by long custom that we are enabled thus

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principal optical axes of two eyes directed towards the same to determine a relation between the distance of objects and the object. This angle is smaller in proportion to the distance corresponding motion of the eyes. It is well known that those of the object.

who have been born blind and afterwards obtained sight by The visual angle is the angle A o B, fig. 341, under which an the operation of cataract, at first think all objects equally object is seen, that is to say, the angle formed by the secondary | distant. axes drawn from the optical centre of the crystalline to the Distance of distinct vision. The distance at which objects opposite extremities of the object. For the same distance must be placed in order to be seen with the greatest clearness,

Fig. 311.



is called the distance of distinct vision. This distance varies Gassendi maintained, that at any one instant perception takes
for different individuals, and even for different eyes of the place by only one image or the other; which, however, is
same person. For small objects, like printing type, it ranges disproved by the experiments of Wheatstone.
from ten to twelve inches.

Taylor and Woollaston contend that two points symmetri.
Adaptation of the eye to all distances.The eye exhibits a cally situated on the right or left of each retina correspond to
remarkable property, not found in an equal degree in any the same cerebral nerve on the right or left. This opinion is
optical instrument, which consists in this, that though the supported by the fact that some persons are affected with a
images have a tendency to be formed at a distance in front of the temporary paralysis of half the retina, on the same side of
retina in proportion as the objects are more distant, they are each eye, in such a way that they only see the right or the
always formed exactly on this membrane, for the eye enables left half of objects. Woollaston and Arago both experienced
us to see clearly at very varied distances. However, if we can this in their own persons. Brewster attributes the unity of
bee clearly at different distances, we cannot do so at the same sight to our acquired habit of referring the impressions simul-
time, which proves that some modification takes place in the taneously produced upon each retina to one single object.
system of the eye, or at least shows the necessity of fixing our The following are the principal facts connected with vision
attention on the object we wish to see. And indeed if we by two eyes. We see more clearly with two eyes than with
look at two objects in a line, situated at distances of one and On looking at an object, first with one and then with
two yards, on directing the eye to the first, the second both eyes, the difference is very perceptible.
appears indistinct, while if we fix our eye upon the second, When the two eyes are each fixed upon a different object in
the first becomes indistinct. Whence we conclude that when such a manner that the two optical axes meet on this side or
the eye has been disposed in a way suitable for seeing at a beyond the two objects, remarkable optical illusions may be
certain distance, it is not suitably arranged for seeing at produced. For instance, if we look at two small objects a and
another distance, but it has the capability of adapting itself to b, by means of two tubes, which give the optical axes of the
one distance after the other.

two eyes directions a o and Bo (fig. 342), we see only one
Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain how it is object' in o, the intersection of these two lines. If this point
that the eye has the power of seeing clearly at various be on the other side of the objects (as in fig. 342), the object
distances. Some philosophers attribute the phenomenon to seen is also beyond them, and vice versa when the point is
the dilation and contraction of the pupil. It is unquestionably between the eyes and the objects (as in fig. 343).
true that the dilation and contraction of the pupil are in some If the objects a and b are two small discs, the one red and
way connected with the adaptation of the eye to various the other green, we see only a white disc, green and red
distances, but it is important to observe that they are also being complementary colours, or colours which when com-
connected with the intensity of the lights and that for the bined produce white. These various experiment prove that
same distance the opening of the pupil may vary very much. the impressions on the two eyes are simultaneous, and com-

Others are of opinion that the diameter of the eye, from the bine to produce a single sensation.
front to the back, varies under the influence of the action of We are indebted to Mr. Wheatstone for many experiments
the muscles, which move the organ in such a manner as to showing the essential difference between sight with two eyes
make the retina approach or recede from the crystalline, while and with one. The result of these experiments is, that it is
the image itself approaches or recedes, for we know that in only with two eyes that we can obtain a clear perception of the
consergent lenses the image approaches in proportion as the relief of bodies, that is to say, of their solidity as well as

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object recedes. Hunter and Young attributed a contracting | superficial extent. It is probable that the solidity of objects property to the crystalline, by virtue of which it assumes a could not be perceived with one eye, were it not otherwise more or less convex form, in such a manner as to make the known to us. In fact, when the object is at a small distance, rays always converge on the retina.

and we look at it with both eyes, as the two axes must conKepler, Camper, and many others , considered that by the verge towards it, the perspective'is altered for the two eyes

, getion of the ciliary processes, the crystalline is capable

of and the images are perceptibly unequal. This is easy to removing and approaching the retina more or less. Others prove by looking alternately at the same object with each eye. different distances, not to any movement of the retina or images that the perception of relief appears to result, as is er Yetalline so as to make them approach or recede from each proved by the following experiment. other

, but to the fact that the variations in the focal distance The Siercoscope.-Mr. Wheatstone has invented an ingenious of the crystalline humour caused by the increasing distance of apparatus, called the stereoscope, which

serves to show the of the image. This last theory is confirmed by the experi- solidity. This apparatus, as modified by Sir David

Brewster, ments of Magendie and De Haldat. Sturm has also pro- consists of a small wooden box, the upper compartment of pounded a theory not very dissimilar, according to which the which contains two tubes for directing the optical axes. and it will be sufficiently condensed to produce the sensation separately through a convergent lens placed in each tube. of clear vision. Consequently, when external objects approach These drawings represent the same object but with different of recede

, it is only necessary that the retina be always between perspectives which are precisely those that would correspond these two foci, or nearly coincide with one of them, in order to the optical axis of each eye, if it looked at the object at a that the image may be distinct.

short distance. Hence in looking down the tubes each eye Bingle sight with two eyes. When the two eyes are fixed receives the same impression as it it looked

at the object itselt, upon the same object, an image is formed upon each retina, and the result is so distinct and vivid a perception of reliet and yet we see only one object. To explain this phenomenon, that the illusion is complete and truly surprising.


Br the aid of the stereoscope, M. Foucault and Dr. piano, and an empty room is the oli? machnery required
Legzezit here shown that when the two retinas are simul- Failing this help from the teams other emplovers

. Jer she
Tajiepus. acted upon by two different colours, there is a per- young operative women who 1 aadrese be brave enough 73
ception of a suge tried colou. But they acknowledge that set about this matter for themselves. Thougt, of course 1:
tut aptitude in forming a composition of two colours into one would be much better manages under that care of an educated
Taries remarkably in different individuals, and may be gentlewoman,
EZTEIDET Seebie atd eren altogether absent in some.
On üunisasing two white discs at the bottom of the stereo- lesson. Two lessons a week, the lumber bemg forty, would

Say thirty or forty combine and arrange to give a pennt: sege with two parcis of complementary colours, and looking give the weekly sum of six stwings and eightpence

, and BET &: each ruloured dibe with each eye, we see only a single white that an employer, or alternately the friends oi the young people

, cibe wijck protes that the sensation of white light may arise wonld spare a room, and the cost of ligbi and small extra from two chrumetic complementary impressions made simul- was put at eightpence weekly, surely in any large town • tantulity upon the two tetinas,

dancing master might be ioni who for this fee would give the needful instruction in the steps, in the figure of the ordinary quadrille, in the minor a cour (a capital old dance in respect to teaching graceraness, the curtsey, the wall, and

the manner of entering and counting a room. No DOTS. DO FEMALE EDUCATION-X. IV. men, ought or should be admired into the room during these

| lessons; this should be made as strict s law as it was with By 6:LYELPEX.

the ancient priestesses of Greece whilst they performed the

religious rives of the sacred tetrples. Laexo ad esercise calculated to form and improve the

This method of teaching failing. let the Female Dancing 2-sboruc te m2. a branch of the education of all classes, School be managed thus. Wee the weekly conmibutions aze v. I in, I as crian, when education is better understood have reached a fair sum, let t=3 of the elder and most receta. in I: IL V, 14 22. prout. I dasay many good folks of the girls be selected from the rest, and sent to take lessons

E syte that young int and women, in mills, of some good dancing master or mistress for three or four w**, sure, za to www bow dance. walk, and months. In that time they ought to acquire suficient

M & r * quis my yar, genueman or lady knowledge to enable them, at its ciose, to become teachers to ** Vratnih mri, metih in my deliberate the rest; and the weekly sum paid by those they teach would Vista, x125", 7. syempre", *k2 this human serve to give them some slight remuneration, and to per ist 6. Anse * very writ. *** meet.ce; and piano or violin payer, and the bire of a roon it neediale

. * **** ****ys one of us Those thus taught could in their turn teach, and thus the W ? ', , ** . wpepe 2 * 7me. And Dancing School would be seif-supplying to its own needs W.70*.

**** *****! Wayak. saus tut be taken care, however, being taken that the teachers were gracefal vh. ******* MUL SUO 644** r muraire-honte and efficient. des, *WW** *4 wt, At;!-egymand, or w . -, * * you la...A .** :* mure than dances and fashionable steps may be left to those who have

This will be as far as it is needful to go. Fashionable ZI: VALI CORSA Unama ** *.17 4 *****, and is time to acquire them. I only ask as much practice and Home scene! It must be death, di it wil be done knowledge as will enable young women, if their empleyers A www.1 Ta era in the wrist bany of this ununtry is give a holiday dance to join in it with ease and gracefulness OMT? *** tis euexy/1, tunnetu waking, man; and to open to them an occasional source of innocent and rational Why tor is in the past having area, in the to teach them

to walk as women ought to walk, with grace and College and wher, its use mus he will govem partly in love, defect is almost a proverb; but this I am sure is more oning

ease. So few English women walk well, that our feminine party auxvereny--30Te Wikiy tian bugentore, do so with grace and in the dignity of mantum: Why shall his words and to a bad manner than to any physical deficiency. earnest thoruzni me ball their with through a coarse, To this amount of dancing I would add a careful and conprovincial, awkward, vulgur mann? Why shall not he, whó tinuous practice of what are called Calisthenic Exercises to morally has nothing w lear from any man,' say what he has to improve the figure. I need not enter here into the matter, as bay to statesman or w noble with respect for respect to it will have attention in the Popular Educator. In the mestothers is one of the best partuma of our own self-respect-yet while, however, great advance in these matters might be made, unabashed and fearlonely? And why shall not woman in het is, whilst practising a slow marching walk with the foot home sow the seeds of a toute for and an appreciation of beauty lifted up and the step made from toe to heel, a heary book, in the minds and habits of her little children, through comely or other proportionate weight were carried on the headmanners and acts which in due time shall show their fruit in the arms, in the meanwhile, hanging gracefully down. This new development of the plastic, txule, hctile, mechanical arts should be practised till the weight can be carried for a con: at which they labour Yet, thene things must and will be siderable time without falling of moring--the spise in such effected. What is spiritual and aristocratic in culture is case, in order to balance the weight, assuming a most erect destined to change the whole aspect of common life. And and graceful posture. It was party owing to their habit being so, let me point out what is first neediul amongst the of carrying jars of water on their heads, that the women of people—what are some of the first su.ps in the cultivation of ancient Greece were so renowned for extraordinary grace

fulness ; and at this day the women of many parts of the The little which has yet been done in this direction is rather to East, of the mountainous districts of Spain and Italy, and of be lamented than otherwise. The “Dancing Schools of the Connemara in Ireland, owe to this same custom much of their manufacturing towns, where both sexes herd together not an exquisite loveliness of figure and morement. I have myaelf much for rational amusement and improvement aus for more woon & rustic Welch woman carry a pail of milk up a mountain sensual purposes, cannot be but baneful, and in connexion with the grace of a goddess.

penny theatres," protested against as one of the main causes of juvenile delinquency and crime. What I mean in phynical culture of the body is, that it in a degree necessitates

What is, however, best amongst other noble effects of this In those departments of social education where the means conceive that any young woman who has thus learnt to domicilio of culture are so terribly deficient

, I have long wanted the who walką well, who practises the same simple means which some one of them take the initiatory step, and teach a "clanu

or race of sculptor the world

has ever known, can be otherwise these young women in her father or husband's

warehouse or thun modellerine demeanout and gentle in spect. I cannot wenty or thirty girls would be invaluable. A tiddle, or n / and hailed womo male companion from the opposite side of the

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