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street, with a “Well, Bill, my lad, how be’st 'ee?” But waiting and vegetables, or whatever else the dinner may consist of, for, or crossing to him, if he must be addressed, has a kind taking salt with the salt-spoon, not with her knife, as I have word and a kind look, and the plain name of "Bill” or "Jack, seen people do; laying bread, if bread she eat, on the right if need be, for, as I have before said, I want nothing affected, hand side of her plate, which is broken and lifted to the ridiculous, or out of place with every-day life—but only to rid mouth by the hand and not bitten, she proceeds with her it of its coarseness and vulgarity—and then she passes dinner, carving it with her knife and fork, but conveying it modestly on; the only difference between the old recognition to her mouth with her fork only—as no one with the remotest and the new being the absence of the vulgar voice, the vulgar pretension to good breeding ever lifts the knife to the mouth, step, the vulgar slap on the shoulder, the leer and its appro--its office is to cut and separate the food, not to serve as a priate jest. And think what a difference between the two! spoon. If more meat or vegetables be wanting, the knife and

Then if she meet her employer, Mr. Ashford, of the mill, or fork are laid side by side on the plate, which is then handed Mr. Hayworth of the warehouse, and either are good men and to those who serve the dish or dishes, as no one should be notice those they employ, instead of being ashamed and permitted, children especially, to help themselves, thrusting awkward and ready to sink'into the ground, or to run into the here and there their fork or spoon, but those only who at the nearest court to hide herself, she makes her pretty graceful beginning of dinner have taken upon themselves the office of curtsey of respect and passes on. And the good gentleman carver or helper. I mention this latter point particularly, as probably thinks of the matter after she has passed, and is in some humble homes where I have incidentally been present quite proud of the visible improvements in the manners of his during the dinner hour, I have seen all helping themselves, young people. What is likely, too, Commissioners who are just as inclination or need prompted, sometimes three or four sent by parliament or newspapers to look into the condition knives or spoons in a dish at once, to the utter destruction of of the operative classes, write and say, "We observe an extra- all order, and to those kindly habits of self-denial which thus ordinary improvement in the habits of the young people of learnt and practised in the small things of daily life, are likely .this class. Formerly when they came out of the mill or to shine out in the larger and diviner ones of human action. warehouse, what a different scene it was! What running, A young woman, if mother and mistress of her little household, what shouting, what vulgar familiarity and coarse jesting can casily bring these small yet important habits, these need took place between the two sexes. Now the young women ful manners, into daily use; whilst if only a daughter or a pass on like well-bred gentlewomen-modest in speech and lodger in the household where these coarse, selfish manners manner. We asked the cause of so marked a change. Many prevail

, she may through gentleness and firmness, and through were stated; but as regarded the nice walk, the graceful the constant example of her own refinement, cause, though manner, and the modest demeanour, our attention was directed by slow degrees, an obvious change in the apathetic coarseness to the Female Dancing Schools, which those young women of those who surround her. When she has finished her carry on and support through their own laudable efforts." dinner, say of meat and potatoes, she lays her knife and fork

How to walk with ease and grace, how to curtsey, how to close together, obliquely across the plate; if pudding succeed it enter and quit a room, being thus acquired by lessons in is eaten with fork or spoon, sometimes with both, but never dancing, and the other means of self-help I have advocated, it with the knife ; and if the dinner be one of fish, it is eaten becomes necessary not only to make the practice of these with the fork and a piece of bread held in the left hand. habitual, but also to carry out this physical refinement in Like pudding, it is never touched with the knife. Before many other ways.

To walk with a graceful modest step drinking, the mouth (should be wiped; and though she may through the streets, and then

to be found at home, ten minutes herself have dined, the young woman, if there be time, will afterwards, in some outrageously vulgar attitude, to have courteously remain at table till the rest have finished. There made respectful return to the employer's kindly recognition, are many other small duties connected with the dinner table, or womanly acknowledgment of the young friends' familiar which will become apparent and be brought into action if greeting, and then to be gross and bad-mannered at the thought be exercised, and a kindly deference to the feelings humble dinner-table, are inconsistences which can never run

of others be paid; for much which is of worth in the graceful side by side in any true advance of moral life. For one

manners of daily life may be said to be rather the result of improvement presupposes and leads to another, in all which heart, than of formal teaching. concerns what a fine old writer calls the sweet holiness of our At the breakfast table, at the tea table, the same courtesy behaviour ;' and this behaviour, this modest, quiet, self- of manners should prevail; one, and one alone, should preside possessed manner of performing the ordinary acts of daily life, at it; "Joe and Jane, and Fan and Bill ” should not help is so lovely, so to be desired in the life of all women, especially themselves just how and when they like, to the discomfort the women bound up with the interests of the present earnest, of everybody else. If the young woman, as mother or elder intelligent artisan Class of this country, that I cannot con- daughter preside, let her neatly arrange the cups and saucers, ceive any pains too great for its acquirement.

the tea-pot, milk-jug, and slop-basin before her--if at breakfast A graceful habit in sitting is worthy of care.

A gentle on the table cloth without a tea-tray, if at tea on a tray—and woman, when she sits, does not spread her hands separated then proceed to pour out the tea without slop or disorder, upon the knees, nor lean forward and place the arms upon the helping husband, or father and mother first, then her little thighs, nor crosses them so as to place the elbows in the ones, or her brothers and sisters according to seniority, opposite hands, or throws them back too much. All such replenishing each cup when needful, and seeing that the actions are vulgar. But when she sits she generally keeps the bread and butter is kindly helped and cut by those who have feet but little apart, or even crossed one over the other, the undertaken the duty. Of course there will be no throwing right perhaps over the left reclining on the toe and side ; 'she, the slops from the tea-cups into the fire-place or on the also, in general lowers the gown and covers the heel so as to floor—no "shoving” the cups across the table instead of show little more than half the foot. It is unfeminine to sit nicely handing them-no turning the cups upside down with the knees crossed,

the gown half up the leg, the elbows in the saucers when tea is done. No, no barbarities of this on the table, or the arms akimbo. These last' actions are sort ! intensely low, intensely underbred. They hint at the pot- Such manners constantly practised will soon form themhouse, and the brawl, and the low evil tongue.

selves into habits. For it is a great mistake to suppose, that At table a young woman, whether married or single, should good manners like our best clothes are only for wear on strive to be the goddess of her home. Of the table-cloth, holidays. The more they are worn, the more is their worth clean, if coarse and old, of the pretty shaped saltcellar (re- increased ; and it is this mistake which lies at the root of the membering my maxim that beauty is as cheap as ugliness), of awkwardness, the mauvaise honte, the stiff uneasy manners of Britannia metal forks instead of the old-fashioned two or even those who.count themselves well-bred; whereas if in three pronged steel ones, and of the near arrangement of the the pride of reverence to our own bodies and souls we always plates and dishes, I shall speak in a future paper ; but it is to honoured both by nice manners and behaviour, we should her neatness whilst dining or tea drinking that I would have a be easy and graceful

, let us go into whose presence we might. young woman direct her care. Taking her place quietly at This constant practice of good manners, till at last they become the dinner-table, she should, if not mistress of it, wait patiently unconscious habits, is the secret, almost the only secret, of till her turn comes to be served; then being helped to meat the vast difference between the manners of the upper and

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lower classes ; but let good manners be made habitual—and In intellectual power, in depth, and grasp, and versatility this, as I before said, on the noble plea of the self-reverence of mind, as well as in all the splendid and brilliant parts which and the self-dignity of the human being, and let what is captivate and adorn, Hamilton was greatly, not to say immeamerely personal be forgotten, and the manners will be surably, Jay's superior. In the calm and deeper wisdom of perfectly easy, natural, and well-bred, let us enter into what practical duty,–in the government of others, and still more soever society we may,

in the government of himself,--in seeing clearly the right, and Another thing should be remembered in regard to manners. following it whithersoever it led, firmly, patiently, selfNever be too familiar. It stands good as a golden rule in deniedly, Jay was again greatly, if not immeasurably, Hamil. respect to many other things, but especially in this of manners. ton's superior. In statesmanlike talent, Hamilton's mind had in It is one of the tremendous barriers between caste and caste; it more of “constructive” power, Jay's of "executive."-Hamil. but whether at home in domestic relation, in the mill, in the ton had GENIUS, Jay had wisdom. We would have taken shop or the street, "a hail fellow, well met," sort of manner Hamilton to plan a government, and Jay to carry it into execuis intensely, grossly vulgar, Nothing so repulses educated tion; and, in a court of law, we would have Hamilton for our persons as an address of this character; however desirous of advocate, if our cause were generous, and Jay for judge, if our being kind, they are at once necessitated to act upon the cause were just. defensive by assuming an outwardly cold manner they do not The fame of Hamilton, like his parts, we deem to shine feel. Never have this manner; be as loveable and kind with brighter and further than Jay's, but we are not sure that it your young female friends as you please, as courteous at the should be so, or rather we are quite sure that it should not, mill, at the shop, at the school as you may, as thoughtful and For, when we come to examine and compare their relative as good a wife or daughter as you can be, but never let those course, and its bearing on the country and its fortunes, the relations descend into gross familiarity; it takes away from reputation of Hanilton we find to go as far beyond his practi. our own self-respect as well as that of others, and is sure cal share in it, as Jay's falls short of his. Hamilton's civil in the end, like over confidences and over intimacies with official life was a brief and single, though brilliant one. Jay's persons we know little of, to lead to evil.

numbered the years of a generation, and exhausted every Equally as we should avoid this one great sign of low department of diplomatic, civil, and judicial trust. In idelity breeding, should we that of thrusting ourselves into people's to their country, both were pure to their heart's core ; yet was houses or rooms unannounced. It is barbarous. People who Hamilton loved, perhaps, more than trusted, and Jay trusted, live from day to day in the intimate relation of labour or of perhaps, more than loved. friendship, do not require to use the formalities of a more Such were they, we deem, in differing, if not contrasted, artificial class of society; still to knock gently at either points of character. Their lives, too, when viewed from a house or room door, and to wait a few seconds before opening distance, stand out in equally striking, but much more painful, it, unless told to walk in, is a courtesy we should never lay contrast. Jay's, viewed as a whole, has in it a completeness aside.

of parts, such as a nicer critic demands for the perfection of And then as to gentle womanly manners, they are the finest an epic poem, with its beginning of promise, its heroic middle, part of holiday costume. A great improvement has taken and its peaceful end, and partaking, ton, somewhat of the same place within the past few years; and will make still further cold stateliness,--noble, however, still and glorious, and ever progress with the advance of education, for that and refine- pointing, as such poem does, to the stars, -** Sic ita ad astra." ment go ever hand in hand; and it is my belief that with The life of Hamilton, on the other hand, broken and fragmentthe growth of appreciation in men, women will not lessen ary, begun in the darkness of romantie interest, running on their efforts to win sweet, modest, and gentle manners. These into the sympathy of all high passion, and at length breaking with the low sweet voice, which poets love, must be no longer off in the midst, like some half-told tale of sorrow, amid cars the prerogative of one class of women, but of all, as far as and blood, even as does the theme of the tragic poet. The circumstances will give permission, for they are theirs, if name of Hamilton, therefore, was a name to conjure with, nature and nature's intuition be done justice to.

that of Jay's to swear by. Hamilton had his frailties, arising out of passion, as tragic heroes have. Jay's name was fault. | less, and his course passionless, as becomes the epic leader, and, in point of fact was, while living, a name at which frailty

blushed, and corruption trembled. LESSONS IN READING AND ELOCUTION. If we ask whence, humanly speaking, came such disparity

of the fate between equals, the stricter morals, the happier No. XXII.

life, the more peaceful death, to what can we trace it, but to

the healthful power of religion over the heart and conduct? HAMILTON AND JAY.

Was not this, we ask, the ruling secret? Hamilton was a
It were, indeed, a bold task (to venture to draw into com- Christian in his youth, and a penitent Christian, we doubt not,
parison the relative merits of Jay and Hamilton, on the fame on his dying bed; but Jay was a Christian, so far as man may
and fortunes of their country,-a bold task,--and yet, bold as judge, every day and hour of his life. He had but one rule,
it is, we feel impelled, before closing, at least to venture on the gospel of Christ; in that he was nurtured, -ruled by that,
opening it. They were undoubtedly, " par nobile fratrrun," and through grace he lived, --resting on that, in prayer he died.
yet not twin brothers,—"pares sed impares,"--like, but unlike. Admitting, then, as we do, both names to be objects of our
În patriotic attachment equal, for who would venture therein highest sympathetic admiration, yet, with the name of Hamil.
to assign to either the superiority; yet was that attachment, ton, as the master says of tragedy, the lesson is given, - with
though equal in degree, yet far different in kind: with Hamil- | pity and in fear." Not so with that of Jay; with him we walk
ton it was a sentiment, with Jay a principle, - with Hamilton fearless, as in the steps of one who was a CHRISTIAN, as well
enthusiastic passion, with Jay duty as well as love,- with as a PATRIOT.DrHauks.
Hamilton patriotism was the paramount law, with Jay a law
"sub graviori lege."'* Either would have gone through fire

and water to do his country service, and laid down freely his
life for her safety,-H miiton with the roused courage of a
lion,Jay with the calm fearlessness of a man; or rather,

[What the heart of the young man said to the Psalmist.) Hamilton's courage wouli have been that of the soldier,--Jay's

Tell me not in mournful numbers, that of the Christian. Of the latter it might be truly said,

“Lite is but an empty dream!"
“ Couscience made him firm,

For the soul is dead that slumbers,
That boon companion, who her strong breastplate

And things are not what they seem,
Buckles on him that fears no guilt witlin,
Aud bids lin on, and fear not.”

Life is real! Life is earnest !

And the grave is not its goal ;

* Dust thou art, to dust returnest," • Un'or a windier law.

Was not spoken of the soul,

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Not enjoyment, and not sorrow,

has sent them to the very centre ; no storm, not of force to Is our destined end or way;

burst the orb, can overturn it ; its branches spread wide ; they But to act, that each to-morrow

stretch their protecting arms broader and broader, and its top Find us farther than to-day.

is destined to reach the heavens.

We are not deceived. There is no delusion here. No age
Art is long, and Time is fleeting ;

will come, in which the American revolution will appear less
And our hearts, though stout and brave,

than it is, one of the greatest events in human history. No Still, like muffled drums, are beating

age will come, in 'which it will cease to be seen and felt, on Funeral marches to the grave,

either continent, that a mighty step, a great advance, not only In the world's broad field of battle,

in American affairs, but in human affairs, was made on the 4th In the bivouac of Life,

of July, 1776. And no age will come, we trust, so ignorant, Be not like dumb, driven cattle!

or so unjust, as not to see and acknowledge the efficient Be a hero in the strife!

agency of those we now honour, in producing that momentous

event.--- Daniel Webster.
Trust no Future, howe'er pleasant !
Let the dead Past bury its dead !

Act--act in the living Present!

The relations between man and man cease not with life.
Heart within, and God o'erhead!

The dead leave behind them their memory, their example, and
Lives of great men all remind us

the effects of their actions. Their influence still abides with
We can make our lives sublime,

us. Their names and characters dwell in our thoughts and And, departing, leave behind us

hearts. We live and commune with them in their writings. Footsteps on the sands of time;

We enjoy the benefit of their labours. Our institutions have

been founded by them. We are surrounded by the works of Footprints, that perhaps another,

the dead. Our knowledge and our arts are the fruit of their Sailing o'er life's solemn main,

toil, Our minds have been formed by their instructions.
A forlorn and shipwrecked brother,

We are most intimately connected with them by a thousand
Seeing, shall take heart again,

dependencies. Those whom we have loved, in life, are still
Let us, then, be up and doing,

objects of our deepest and holiest affections. With a heart for any fate;

over us remains. They are with us in our solitary walks ; Still achieving, still pursuing,

and their voices speak to our hearts, in the silence of midnight. Learn to labour and to wait.-H. W. Longfellow.

Their image is impressed upon our dearest recollections and

our most sacred hopes. They form an essential part of our ADAMS AND JEFFERSON.

treasure laid up in heaven, For above all, we are separated

from them but for a little time. We are soon to be united Adams and Jefferson, I have said, are no more. As human with them. If we follow in the path of those we have loved, beings, indeed they are no more. They are no more, as in we too shall soon join the innumerable company of the spirits 1776, bold and fearless advocates of independence ; no more, of just men made perfect. Our affections and our hopes are as on subsequent periods, the head of ihe government; no not buried in the dust, to which we commit the poor remains more, as we have recently seen them, aged and venerable of mortality. The blessed retain their remembrance and their objects of admiration and regard. They are no more. They love for us in heaven: and we will cherish our remembrance are dead.

and our love for them while on earth.
But how little is there of the great and good, which can die!

Creatures of imitation and sympathy as we are, we look
To their country they get live, and live for ever. They live, around us for support

and countenance, even in our virtues.
in all that perpetuates the remembrance of men on earth; in We recur for them, most securely, to the examples of the
the recorded proofs of their own great actions, in the offspring dead. There is a degree

of insecurity and uncertainty about
of their intellect, in the deep engraved lines of public gratitude, living worth. The stamp has not yet been put upon it, which
and in the respect and homage of mankind. They live in precludes all change, and seals it up, as a just object of admi-
their example; and they live, emphatically, and will live, in ration for future times. There is no service which a man of
the influence which their lives and efforts, their principles and commanding intellect can render his fellow-creatures,

opinions, now exercise, and will continue to exercise, on the than that of leaving behind him an unspotted example. If he
affairs of men, not only in their own country, but throughout dark with vices in the sight of God, but dazzling with shining
the civilised world.
man, when Heaven vouchsafes so rare a gift, is not a tempo inactive and unnoticed through life. It is a dictate of wis-
A superior and commanding human intellect, a truly great qualities in the view of men; it may be that all his other

services had better have been forborne, and he had passed,
rary flame, burning bright for a while, and then expiring,
giving place to returning darkness. It is rather a spark of dom, therefore, as well as feeling, when a man eminent for his
fervent heat, as well as radiant light, with power to enkindle virtues and talents has been taken away, to collect the riches
the common mass of human mind; so that, when it glimmers, of his goodness, and add them to the treasury of human
in its own decay, and finally goes out in death, no night fol- improvement. The true Christian liveth not for himself, and
lowe; but it leaves the world all light, all on fire, from the dicth not for himself, and it is thus, in one respect that he
potent contact of its own spirit.

dieth not for himself.- Andrews Norton.
Bacon died; but the human understanding, roused, by the
touch of his miraculous wand, to a perception of the true

philosophy, and the just mode of inquiring after truth, has kept
on its course, successfully and gloriously. Newton died; yet

Hark! to the sounding gale! how through the soul
the courses of the spheres are still known, and they yet move

It vibrates, and in thunder seems to roll on, in the orbits which he saw, and described for them, in the

Along the mountains! Loud the forest moans,

And, naked to the blast, the o'ermastering spirit owns.
No two men now live,--perhaps it may be doubted whether

Rustling, the leaves are rudely hurried by,
any two men have ever lived, in one age,-who, more than Or in derk eddies whirled; while from on high
those we now commemorate, have impressed their own senti-

The ruflian Winds, as if in giant mirth,
ments, in regard to politics and government, on mankind, Unseat the mountain pine, and headlong dash to earth!
infused their own opinions more deeply into the opinions of
others, or given a more lasting direction to the current of human

With crest of foam, the uplifted flood no more
thought. Their work doth not perish with them. The tree Flows placidly along the sylvan shore;
which they assisted to plant, will flourish, although they water

But, vexed to madness, heaves its turbid wave,
it and protect it no longer; for it has struck its roots deep; it Threatening to leave the banks it whilom loved to lave:

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lower classes ; but let this, as I before said, i). and the self-dignity oj merely personal be perfectly easy, natural, soever society we may.

Another thing shoes Never be too familiar. respect to many other It is one of the trem but whether at home shop or the street, « is intensely, grossly persons as an adren being kind, they { defensive by assur feel. Never have : your young femrit mill, at the shop, .? as good , wife er relations descene! our own sell-14z in the end, like persons we know

Equally as we breeding, shou!! houses or room live from day friendship, de artificial cle. house or rou: it, unless to aside.

And then part of here place wit), is progress w ment gost the growt". their eft with the i the prelt circunosi nature

wered by the time

inbour, le dis :
ment; and he is
sa mind, no istest
21502. Hame is it

be socha stor

has the
iz plesene I

C 15, to win.
.: annun; and happyfa
: 29 hold him to the

10. Happy for him, if that

1.11, at messenger of good news . 9nreten in earth, Religion, trans...) sare him. Without her 3

os cúd sesuai bin, what an easy vietii wanne. Hridle would be necessary

pies, and throw him grored so we usa abroad on the ocean, or the


2013 mai pin that man; open to him cons 6 1 12w principles of philosopky will ile Gormant power of thoagk:; as ás with un sitered eye. It cergas LEE, Taich he cannot understand:

a. nd begins to penetrate • mert over his own instrs. - Tusuf doing what he had

Berest, a thousand time ute of others, and rentures

waren before would have as really solution from some

uns ner knowledge and
einem ef kis manufacture,

„Tunisies his own labour.
., f is accompanied by the

! s leading him forward
s-wen. Relaxation, too, is

wici w his intellectual - meditation, the plans

is towe bas acquired al unghi, and feels

** Send retreat; and
-NL vaich is the com.

vi Tg:rsions of the
ale i kindly feeling

. He has become

arned to esteem er i himself alone.

Is looks upon his

and feels that he Pemptations assail ar thoughts. He

veings about and Fitue that adorns

23 in the exercise was sad the hope of



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quence many words may spring from one root. I must now. Only a few primitive nouns are formed with a suffix, e.g., enter a little into particulars, and show you the laws by which pułat, a watchman; nominal and verbal stem, pulak (puladow, these formations take place.

I guard); o4 (stem on), a voice ; verbal stem er, as seen in Words are divided into two chief classes, the simple and the ELTELV. compound. Simple words are those which consist of only Consonantal stems before consonantal suffixes undergo the one element; compound words consist of two simple words, necessary euphonic changes ; thus, before pa 9 becomes y, as Or more than two. By a simple element I mean a root or | γραφ-, γραμμα ; 80 λεξις, α word, from λεγ-και δικαστης, α judge, number of letters, which combine to make sense, or at least from dikað (ồixalw). Vowel stems are wont to lengthen the involve an idea in its rudimental state. The simple element vowel, and sometimes introduce a o before several suffixes ; is the same as the stem, and in order to get to it you must thus, ποιημα, from πoιε (compare πε-ποιη-μαι), and σει-σ-μος cut off the formative letters, that is, the letters which form (compare qe-del-0-jar, I have been shaken), a shaking, as of an the cases of the nouns, and the persons, etc., of the verbs. For earthquake. instance, in doy-o-s, a word, you have doy for the stem or In many words the stem undergoes a change of vowel, a simple element after dropping & the nominative case, and o the short vowel being changed into its corresponding long form, or nominal vowel. So in the verb ley-w, I speak, when you take a conversion taking place; thus, from the stem aon- we have away the person-ending w, you have ley, the verbal root cor- non, forgetfulness (compare the verbal deanda); from the stem responding with the nominal root doy.

TEJ TT - we have trouan, a procession (compare Tenouoa); and Simple words may be divided into two classes, the primitive from the stem dif- we have lour-o-s; left, remaining compare and the derivative. Primitive words are those which are le-dourt-a). found from a stem by the affixing of a nominal or a verbal Substantives are formed by various suffixes, of which the termination. Thus doyos is a primitive, it being formed by following are the most important :the addition of os to doy: Also Leyw is a primitive, inasmuch as you form it by adding w to ley. It is another question

Suffixes which form Substantives. which of these two elements, namely, ley and loy, is the original form. That question would open the general ques. by one of these suffixes :

The doer, or the person concerned with some act, is denoted tion as to whether, in the genesis or birth of language, nouns preceded verbs or verbs preceded nouns. A question of such

1, ev, nominative, Ev-s. a nature belongs rather to philology or the science of language than to Greek grammar, and may consequently be passed by here, the rather as for its satisfactory consideration much

Examples in Primitive Words. knowledge and a fine logical sense are requisite. For our γραφ-ευς, α writer, from γραφ- present γραφω purposes both ley and loy may be considered stems, the former a verbal, the latter a nominal stem or primitive.

yov-V.S, a parent,


γιγνομαι The terminations which are appended to the stem have in

koup-EV-S, a shearer


κειρω. themselves no signification in their actual form, whatever they

Example in a Derivative Word. may have meant originally, and so only serve the purpose of denoting to what class of words, whether nouns or verbs, etc., TopOpEV-s, a ferryman, topQuo- nom. #opoulos (nepā, beyond) a stem in a particular form belongs, and of marking the modi. fications which the word undergoes in relation to person or 2. mnp nomin, ang

τειρα nomin, τειρα to time, to manner or to action. The termination is either a

masculine Tpia



тор syllable, as in the case of verbs w and ui, and of nouns n and



τρις της )

τιο os; or simply a consonant which unites with the stem-vowel to form a syllable, as s and v.

Examples in Primitire Words. Derivation words are such as are derived or formed from primitive words. Thus, from apx in apx-n, beginning, and Stem and nomin, ow-typ, deliverer apXow, I begin, comes apx.alos, an adjective formed by suffix,

σω-τειρα, female ing quos to the stem; apx-alos accordingly signifies that which on-top

on-two, a speaker ; pe as in epo goes back to the beginning, ancient.

KOL-T7s, a judge;

κρι κρίνω Nouns are generally formed from either verbal or nominal Totz-ta

ποιη-της, α μοet; stems by means of a termination. This termination may be Stem and nomin. Toin-Tpia, a poetess termed a suffix, or a formative. Thus, by means of the suffix avın-ta

αυλη-της, « flutcplayer ; αυλε avkew o is loy-o-s formed from the verbal stem ley, and apxa-to-ç is avan.tprð- αυλη-τρις, α female formed from apxa (nominative apxn), by the addition of the

Examples in Derived Words. Suffixes serve the end of defining the sense of the root, and Stem moli-ta nomin. 701-7915, a citizen ; todi as in todes 80 of showing the different relations under which the fundamental idea appears. Let us take as an example TOLEW (TOUW), 1

OIKE-776, a domestic; oiko

οίκος enake. By cutting off the person-ending I obtain as the stem


OLKE-TIS, a fem. dom, TOLE. From

with the lengthening of the ε into and the introduction of the suffix or formative, I make these words- The Doing is indicated by the following suffixes :ποιεω (ποιώ), ποιε-, ποιη

1. τι nominative τις ποιη-τη-ς, α μοet, ποιη-σι, poetry, ποιη-μα(τ), a poem.

ot-g from Tt-s (Lat, tio)

feminine Take, as another instance, ypad-w, I write,

The Nouns hercto belonging are all Feminine, as
TIC-T7-8, confiding, trust, faith from 1:0

as in πειθομαι ypad-ev-s, a writer ; ypad-1-5, writing tool; ypaji-ja, writing ;

feljen-ol-s, imitation


ιμέομαι OKEY-S, consideration

σκέπτομαι Having taken two verbal stems, let us now take a nominal stem, that is, dira from dikn, justice.

pate•f, handling, action


πράσσω FEVE-01-5, begetting


γιγνομαι δικα-10-0, just; δικαιο-συνη, justice.

δοκιμα-σια, proving

δοκιμαι και δοκιμαζω. . A more productive nominal stem is—


βασιλευ (βασιλευς, α king).

ota-o-4o•S, cramp, spasm from oa as in oraw
78-0-410-s, chain

a king; Basile-tă, a queen; Baoile-là, a kingdom;

δεω Baoil-cko-s, kingly,

od vp-ro-s, wailing

οδυρ oo ūpw.

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γραμμη, α line.

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