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The REKULT of action is denoted by
1. io, nominat. lov neuter, as 1, ματ, μα, neuter,
παιδ-ιο-ν, α little child stem maid 210m. παίς πραγ-μα(τ), a thing done from πραγ 2s in πρασσω
κηπ-to-y, a little garden
κήπος ρή-μα(τ), 4 thing spoken ρε
ερω τμήμα(τ), a cut
Besides the form 10, there are these, namely, lilo (nom. τεμ Τεμνω.
ιδιον), αριo (non. αριον), υδριο (nom. υδριον), as οικιδιο-ν, ο With πραγμα compare το πεπραγμενον, that which has been | little house (οίκος) και παιδαριο-ν, α tittle child (παϊς) και μελυριο-ν, done (Latin, factum); with para compare ro elonjevov, that | a ditty (uelos, a song, our melody). which has been said (Latin, dictum); with tunua compare to TET Jnuevov, that which has been cut (Latin, sectum).
2. Μas. σκο, fem, ισκα, nom. ισκος, σκη, e. g. 2. ες nominative oς, neuter.
νεαν-ισκο-ς, α youth
stem νεανια nom. νεανίας Stem λαχες Nomin. λαχος, α ίot, from λαχ, as in λαγχανω παιδ-ισκη, α ίittle maiden παιο
παι-ς εθες εθος, custom εθ
Patronymics, or nouns denoting descent from a father (marup),
that is, an ancestor, are formed mostly by the suffix ia (nom. The same suffix in derived words denotes the peculiar in-s) for the masculine, and merely d (nom.s) for the feminine. quality.
This suffix is added immediately to the stem in a, as βαρος, weight, adj. sterm βαρυ, nominat. βαρυς
βορεα-δης βορεάς from βορέα βορεά-ς, the north tind The instrument or means of an action is denoted by mpo,
Αινεια Αινειά-ς, Εneas. nominative τρο-ν, neuter (the Latin tru-m).
To consonantal stems the suffix is appended by means of the
vowel 1; apo-tpo-v, a plough from apo, as in apow (Lat. ara-tru-m) λυ-τρο-ν, αγαnsom from λυ, as in λυω
Mas. Κεκροπ-ί-δη-s, fem. Κεκροπ-ι-ς, from Κεκροπ, norm. διδακ-τρο-ν, α teacher's Je, διδαχ, as in διδασκω.
Κεκροψ, Ccrops. Less definite is the meaning of the related feminine suffix, Stems in ev and o of the third declension also take the τρα ; as ξυ-σ-τρα (ξυω, I share), a curry- como ; ορχη-σ-τρα connecting vowel 1, before which the n or ευ disappears : (ορχεομαι, 1 dance), α dancing-place, our orchestra και παλαι-σ-τρα (Thatw I wrestle), a urestling-place.
Πηλε-ιδη-ς, from Πηλευ, nom. Πηλευ-ς. Place is signified by,
An Homeric equivalent is IInAniadns 1, τηριο, nominat. τηρι-ον, neuter (the Lat. toriu-m) ;
Λητο-ιδη-ς, from Λητο, nom. Λητω,
The o of the second declension is replaced by 1, as
Nom. 2. nominat. είο-ν, neuter.
Τανταλ-μη-ς Τανταλ-ι-ς from Τανταλο Τανταλο-ς λογ-είο-ν, α speaking-place, frστη λογο, as in λογος
Κρονο Κρονο-ς. κουρι- είο-ν, α barber's shop και κουρευ και κουρευς
Only to (nom. 10.s) is changed into ia, as
Nom. siems by means of the following suffixes.
θεστ-ια-η-ς θεστ-ια-ς from Θεστιο Θεστιο-ς
Μενοιτ-ια-δης 1. τητ, nom. της, fem. (Lat. tat, tut, nom. tas, tus).
» Μενοιτιο Μενοιτιο-ς Stem Nom.
Adj. St. Nom, A less frequent suffix for patronymics is cov, nominative ταχυτη ταχυτης, quickness
των; as Κρογιων, Son of Kρονο-ς. νεοτης, youth
Gentilia, or nouns denoting the gens or race, the country o: ισοτης, equality
the tribe, whence a person is sprung, have the suflixes, 2. συνα, notminat, συνη, fem.
1, ευ, nom. ευ-ς. δικαιο-συνη, justice adj. st. deraio
norm, δικαιος σωφροσυνη, 8ense σωφρον σωφρων Μεγαρ-ευ-ς from the noun st. Μεγαρο, nom, τα Μεγαρα, δίcgara.
Feminine gentilia end in 8 (nom. g), as
Μεγαριο 1om. Μεγαρ-ις, α woman of Megara. The suffix ia with the vowel of the adjective stem becomes Σικελιωτιδ Σικελιώτις
of Sicily. εια and oια:
2. τα, nom. της. αλεθεια (αλεθεια), truth adj. εt. αλεθε(c) nom, αληθης ευνο-ια (ευνοια), benevolence
Τεγεά-τη-ς (Τεγεα), Αιγινη-τη-ς (Αιγινη), Ηπειρω-τηευνους
(Ηπειρος), Σικελιω-τη-ς (Σικελια). Diminutives, or words denoting the quality in a less degree, are forned from nouns as stems by means of these suffixes :
The most important sufixes for the formation of adjectives are these :
Αλεξανδρος ο Φιλιππου Φωκιωνι μονω, φασι, το Αθηναιων
στρατηγό γραφων προςετιθει το χαιρειν. Αξιουντος δε του
Αντιπατρου ποιήσαι τι των μη δικαιων αυτον, Ου δυνασαι, expresses in the most general way the idea involved in the ειπεν, Αντιπατρε, και φιλο Φωκιωνι χρήσθαι και κολακι. Μετά
δε την Αντιπατρου τελευτην δημοκρατιας Αθηναιοις γενομενης noun from which the adjective comes, as
κατεγνωσθη θανατος του Φωκιωνος εν εκκλησια και των φιλων ουραν-10-ς, heavenly, from the noun ουρανος, heaven
οι μεν ουν αλλοι κλαιοντες ηγoντo, το δε Φωκιωνι σιωπή βαδιεσπερ-ο-ς, δείonging to the evening, from the noun εσπερα (Lat. ζoντι των εχθρών τις ενεπτυσεν απαντησας εις το προσωπον. vesper), evening,
ο δε προς τους αρχοντας αποβλεψας, Ου παυσει τις, ειπε, With the Towel of a vowel-stem the 1sometimes grows into a τούτον ασχημονουντα ; Ηδη δε της κυλικος αυτω προςφερομενης, diphthong; as
ερωτηθεις, ει τι λεγει προς τον υίον, Εγω σοι, ειπεν, εντελλομαι αγορα, α market place αγορα-ιος (αγοραίος)
και παρακαλώ μηδεν Αθηναιοις μνησικακειν. Των δε μελλοναιδο (nom, αιδως), modesty αιδο-to-ς (αιδοίος).
των συναποθνησκειν ενος οδυρονενου και αγανακτούντος, θυκ
αγαπάς, ειπεν, ώ θουδιππε, μετα Φωκιωνος αποθανουμενος. A similiar result ensues after the dropping of the of the stem;
VOCABULARY AND REMARKS. stem θερες (θερος, Summer), θερε; θερε-10-ς (θερειος).
Εμπιπτω, I fall on ;
“ We have fallen on the enemy; why By appending to you also form adjectives from adjectives as may we not rather say that the enemy have fallen on us ?" stems;
Fallen on here denotes met with, implying a subject of con
gratulation. . ελευθερ-to-c, liberal from ελευθερ (ελευθερ-ο-ς, free);
Δωρεαν, ας α gift (from a noun not in use δωρεα, ας, ή, also gentile adjectives from names of places thus
Καγαθον, that is, και αγαθον, honourable and good. from Mιλητ-ο-ς comes Μιλησ-to-ς (instead of Mιλητ-ιος).
Kai dovkalv kal, etc., both to appear and to be so, that is,
honourable and good.
'O din nou, the noun vioc is understood, Alexander, the son which is generally appended to the stem by means of 1, and in of Philip. words derived from verbal stems, signifies fitness :
Κυλιξ, κυλικος, ή, a bout, the bowl of poison.
Το from apx (aoxw) comes
χαίρειν, the customary salutation, the complimentary words, apx-c-50-s, fit for governing. αισθητ (αισθανομαι) ασθητ-ι-κος, susceptible of feeling
this comes greeting, equivalent to our “Dear sir,” or “ Your
Αυτον, is the accusative case before ποιήσαι, which depends
on αξιουντος. the peculiar quality of the noun, as
Kai oily, etc., you cannot use (have) Phocion as at once a
friend and a flatterer. βασιλι-κο-ς, kingly (βασιλευς, α king) ιατρ-ι-κος (ιατρος, ο Karayıyvoorw, I condemn; sentence of death was pronounced physician).
against (with the gen.) Phocion and his friends. θηλυ-κο-ς (θήλυ, female), womanly, feminine.
Eu TTUW, I spit on; one of his (Phocion's) enemies, meeting him,
spat in his face. 4. εo non. εο-ς, ους (Lat. eu-s)
Ασχημονείν, to be ill-mannerly, to behave ill, unbecomingly ;
will no one cause that person to cease being ill-mannerly? indicate the stuff or substance of which a thing is made, as Ovk ayarós, etc., art thou not content, secing that thou sufferest λιθ-ινο-ς, stony from λιθο-ς, α stone
death with Phocion ! ξυλ-ινο-ς, wooden
What is the derivation of συστρατηγος ? εξιοντος ? παραινείν! ξυλο-ν, wood
κατεγνωσθη? συναποθνησκειν μνησικακειν ? χρυσούς, χρυσο-ς, gold (Latin aur
ureus), Give the parts (also go through them) of the following
verbs :-ειπείν); ηρώτησε και εασατω; φασι; πεμψαντος : προς 5, εντ, nom. mas, ει-ς, fem. εσσα, neut. εν,
ετιθει; δυνασαι ; ηγοντο; ενεπτυσεν και εμπεπτωκαμεν.
Explain the augment in these forrns :-ενεπτυσε (ν); προς ετιθει και κατεγνωσθη.
3. ινo nom, ινο-ς.
denotes fulness, as
Xapr-El-s, full of grace or beauty, from xapı-s, grace, beauty υλη-ει-ς, full of wood
υλη, α wood or forest αμαθο-εις, Sandy
LESSONS IN ITALIAN GRAMMAR.-No. XXXIII.
IRREGULAR VERES. Πελοπιδας, και συστρατηγος Επαμεινονδου, της γυναικος επι
The Irregular Verbs are those which deviate in some tenses μαχην εξιοντος αυτου, διομενης σωζειν εαυτον. Αλλοις, εφη, which is given for their model.
and persons from the regular verb of the same conjugation, ειν τουτο παραινείν, αρχοντι δε και στρατηγω σωζειν τους The first irregular conjugation contains only andare, dire, πολίτας. Ειποντος δε τινος των στρατιωτων, Εμπεπτωκαμεν γάνε, διανε, and their derivatives. εις τους πολεμιoυς, Τί μάλλον, ειπεν, η εις ημας εκεινοι και
IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE FIRST CONJUGATION, Αλεξανδρου του βασιλεως εκατον ταλαντα δωρεαν Φωκιωνι των Αθηναιω πεμψαντος, ηρώτησε τους κομιζοντας, τί δηποτε
[A3 all Italian verbs may be generally conjugated with or without per. πολλων οντων Αθηναίων, αυτω μονο ταύτα διδωσιν Αλεξανδρος | iPeg Perb, Teeling confident that to student is tutoroυς Ασημαία:
fonal pronouns, we now think proper omit them in the conjugation of the ποντων δε εκεινων ως μονον αυτον ηγείται καλον καγαθον ne
tenses, which the reader now will be easily able to form and conjugate for ειναι, Ουκούν, εφη, εασατω με και δοκείν και είναι τοιούτον. himself.]
Indeterminate Preterite. dard, he will give 1
Predi or detti, I gave
darémo, we will give
daréte, you will give
daranno, they will give
dem, we gave
Darii, I should or would
darésti, thon wouldst give
darebbe, he would give Hann var reci damely linkund: ese sentido ami r.
darémmo, we would give
Ders. I ses or will give dareste, you would give
darebbero, they would give
IVRATITI Moon. อด 8 8 คู่คองเชิงกางwข" 3 ,
1: F Person diamo, let us gire NAT
date, give se or you) saved
kan tolke de 2h, let him give diano ox duens, let them give
Che dia, that I may give
Che dissi, that I might give
che diumo, that we may give
che déssimo, that we might gire 1***
che diate, that you may give inuiranno, they will go
che diste, that you might give che diano, dieno, déano, that che dessera, that they might
Conditional Present. 13,4, he we going
they may give
andresti, thou wouldst go Ridare, to give again. Addáre or addársi, to apply one's self.
andrebbe, he would go
andremmo, he would go
Fáre, to make.
andiamo, let us go
Present Gerund: facéndo, Past Gerund: avendo fútlo,
féce, fe, or féo, he made
facemmo, we made
facéste, you made
fécero or fénno, they made
Farò, I shall or will make
fardi, thou wilt make II,
farà, he will make Faceva, facea, fè, I was making faréte
, you will make
farémo, we will make Dure, to give.
facévi, thou wast making INFINITIVE Mood.
faceva or facéa, he was making faranno, they will make facevamo, we were making
Conditional Present. simple Tenses,
Compound Tenses. facevate, you were making Faré, I should or would siebent: dire, to give Past: avere dáto, to have given facevano or facéano, they were make
farésti, thou wouldst make
farebbe, he would make
farémmo, we would make Put Participle : déto, given
Féci or féi, I made
faréste, you would make
faribbero, they would make
(No First Person.]
facciamo, let us make
fáte, make (ye or you)
facciano, let them make
daxote, you were giving
• Diét, diéro, dénno, are used in poetry.
IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE SECOND CONJUGATION.
Verbs ending in ere are of two sorts. The first have their Che faccia, that I may make Che facessi, that I might make infinitives long, such as bére, cadére, etc.; the second short, che faccia or facci, that thou che facéssi, that thou mightst such as assórbere, conoscere, etc. make
1st. Irregular verbs ending in ére long. che faccia, that he may make che facesse, that he might make che facciamo, that we may che facéssimo, that we might
make che facciate, that you may make che facéste, that you might make
Bére, to drink. che facciano, that they may che facéssero, that they might
INFINITIVE Mood. make
make So conjugate
Present: bére, to drink Past : avere beúto, to have Assuefáre, to accustom Rifáre, to make up again
drunk Confáre, to become
Sfare, to undo
Sopraffäre, to ask too much Present Gerund : bevéndo, Past Gerund : avendo vento,
Past Participle: beuto, drunk
bévre, he drank Stáre, to stand.
Béo, I drink
beémmo, we drank INFINITIVE MOOD.
béi, thou drinkest
beéste, you drank bée, he drinks
bévvero, they drank Simple Tenses. Compound Tenses. beiamo, we drink
Future. Present: stáre, to stand Past : éssere stato, to have
beéte, you drink
berò, I shall or will drink
berái, thou wilt drink Present Gerund : slándo,
berà, he will drink Past Gerund: essendo státo,
berémo, we will drink standing
beréte, you will drink Past Participle : státo, stood
beévi, thou wast drinking
beranno, they will drink
beéva, he was drinking INDICATIVE Mood.
beeramo, we were drinking
becvate, you were drinking Beréi, I should or would drink
beévano, they were drinking berésti, thou wouldst drink
berébbe, he would drink stái, thou standest stéste, you stood
berémmo, we would drink sta, he stands stéttero, they stood Bévvi, I drank
beréste, you would drink stiamo, we stand
berébbero, they would drink
IMPERATIVE MOOD, starái, thou wilt stand Imperfect. stard, he will stand
[No First Person. beidmo, let us drink Stáva, I was standing starémo, we will stand Béi, drink (thou)
beéte, drink (ye or you) stávi, thou wast standing staréte, you will stand béa, let him drink
béano, let them drink stáva, he was standing,
staránno, they will stand starámo, we were standing Conditional Present.
SUBJUNCTIVE Mood. staváte, you were standing Staréi, I should or would stand
che beéssi, that thou mightst stávano, they were standing starésti, thou wouldst stand
Che béa, that I may drink
drink Indeterminate Preterite. starébbe, he would stand
che béa, that thou mayst drink i che beésse, that he might drink starémmo, we would stand Stétti, I stood
che béa, that he may drink
che beéssimo, that we might staréste, you would stand
drink stésti, thou stoodest
che beidmo, that we may drink
che béano, that they may drink
che beéssero, that they might (No First Person.]
Che beéssi, that I might drink stia or stie, let him stand stiano or stieno, let them stand
Imbére, to imbibe
| Ribére, to drink again
Strabére, to drink hard,
The Italians prefer the regular verb bévere,
Che stessi, that I might stand i che stia or stii, that thou mayst | che stéssi, that thou mightst; stand
II. stand che stia, that he may stand che stésse, that he might stand
Cadére, to fall. che stiámo, that we may stand che stéssimo, that we might che stiáte, that you may stand stand
INFINITIVE Mood. che stiano or stieno, that they che stéste, that you might stand may stand che stéssero, that they might
Present Gerund: cadéndo, fall. | Past Gerund: essendo caduto,
ing Instáre, to insist
having fallen Soprastúre, to differ
Past Participle: caduto, fallen
Sta, stand (thou)
From the point a draw A E perpendicular to BC (I. 12). INDICATIVE Mood,
Then, because the angle A E B is a right angle (Cons.), therefore Present.
the square of A B is equal to the squares of B E and EA together Cádo or caggio, I fall Cadró or cadero, I shall or will
For 'the same reason the square of A c is equal to the squares of cadi, thou tallest
A E and EC together. cade, he falls
cadrúi or caderái, thou wilt fall cadiamo or caggiumo, we fall
Therefore, adding equals to equals (I. Ax. 2), the squares of cadrà or cadera, he will fall
A B and Ac together are equal to the squares of B E and so cadéte, you fall
cadremo or caderémo, we will cudono or cággiono, they fall
together with twice the square of EA. fall
But because Bc is divided into two equal parts in D and two Imperfect. cadréte or caderéte, you will fall
unequal parts in E, therefore the squares of BE and BC are Cadeva or cadéa, I was falling
cadrunno or caderanno, they together equal to twice the square of B D together with twice the
will fall cadóvi, thou wast falling
square of d e (II. 9). cadéra or cadea, he was falling
Conditional Present. Therefore the squares of AB and Ac together are equal to cadevamo, we were falling Cadréi, or caderéi, caderia, ca
twice the squares of B D, D E, and E A together. cadevute, you were falling
dria, I should or would
But the squares of d e and Ea are together equal to the square cadévano or cadéano, they were full
of AD (I. 47), and the doubles of these equals are equal. Therefalling cadrésti or caderésti, thou
fore twice the squares of D E and E A are equal to twice the square Indeterminate Preterite,
of Ad. Therefore the squares of A B and AC together are equal Caddi, cadetti, or cadei, I fell cadróbbe or caderebbe, caderia,
to twice the squares of BD and D A together, Q.E.D. cadésti, thou fellest
cadria, he would fall
Prop. B. Theorem. The squares of the two diagonals of a cadde, cadéo
, cadette, or cadè, cadremmo 'or caderémmo, we parallelogram are together equal to the squares of its four sides, he fell
riano, they would fall
cadéte, sall (ye or you)
Let ABCD be any parallelogram of which the diagonals are
A C and B D cutting each other in E. Then the squares of a C and Present.
BD together are equal to the squares of AB, BC, CD, and DA
together. By Exercise 2 to Proposition XXXIV. of the first book, Che cida or ciggia, that I may che cadossi, that I might fall fall che cadessi, that thou mightstof
which the side BD is bisected in e, therefore, by the last pro
the diagonals bisect each other. And because A B D is a triangle che cúda or ciggia, that thou fall che cadesse that he might fall position, the squares of A B and AD together are equal to twice
the squares of B E and A E together, che cada or cággia, that he may che cadessimo, that we might
For the same reason the squares of BC and cd are together fall
fall che cadiamo or caggiamo, that I che cadiste, that you might adding equals to equals, the squares of A B, BC, CD, and Da
equal to twice the squares of B E and E c together. Therefore, we may fall
together are equal to four times the square of BE together with fall
But A e is equal to Eo, because the diagonals bisect each other, che cúdano or cággiano, that
and therefore the square of A E is equal to the square of so, they may fall
Therefore the squares of a B, BC, CD, and D A together are equal So conjugate
to four times the squares of B E and A 2 together.
But the square of any straight line is equal to four times the
Discadere, to fall away &quare of half the line (II. 4, Cor. 2). Therefore the square of
BD is equal to four times the square of B E, and the square of BC
is equal to four times the square of A E.
Therefore the square of a B, BC, D, and D A are together equal to the squares of a C and B D together. Q.E.D.
Prop. c. Theorem. The squares of the four sides of a traSOLUTION OF EXERCISES TO THE SECOND pezium are together equal to the squares of its two diagonals and
four times the square of the straight line which joins the points BOOK OF EUCLID.
of the biscction of the diagonals.
Let A B Co be any trapezium whose diagonals A c and B D are Let A B C be any triangle having one of its sides B o bisected bisected in the
points p and . Join er. Then the squares of a B, in D. Join A D. Then the squares of a s' and a c are together pc, cd, and D A are together equal to the squares of a and D
together with four times the square of E F. equal to twice the squares of B D and Ad together.