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11, COMPOUND VOWELS.
elementary works of the English Language, is the syllable of
any given word which requires an emphasis, marked.
18. But it is not so in the French Language ; here, accents
of various kinds are constantly meeting the eye on every page.
One thing, however, must be observed, viz. :--the position of 12. DIPHTHONGS.
the Accent does not always and infallibly mark the syllable of a
word, which must receive the stress of voice in common pro-
19. Modern Grammarians have established the following
rule, viz.: To PLACE THE STRESS OF Voice ON THE LAST
PRONOUNCED SYLLABLE OF EVERY WORD. ia ie io
20, A slight inspection only of the following examples will
The first syllable of this word is marked with
an accent; must the stress of voice therefore be iai iau ieu
oui uai uei Dé-ro-rer placed upon the syllable de: No :-if the rule uie and
be applied to this word, the stress of voice falls
on the last syllable, HER. These Diphthongs are thus divided into syllables, viz. :
It will then be asked, What is the use of this accent: We i-ai i-au i-eu
answer, It modifies the sound of the rouel over which it is placed. u-ei u-ie and u-eu,
Again :- the word used now as an ex
ample, has the same kind of an accent as the They must, however, be pronounced quickly, and as one
word used in the previous example had; syllable.
and also, it is placed over the same vowel. Sometimes, also, we find FOUR SUCCESSIVE Vowels in the Lé-gère-ment But it has another different accent over the game word, riz:
first vowel of the second syllable; and,
according to the rule, the stress of rcice is
not placed either upon the first or second
syllable, but upon the last.
This second accent (observe its form and position) only
serves to modify the sound of the vowel over which it is placed.
syllable, which, according to the rule, receives the stress of
Again, in the word used here as an example,
a third, and still different accent is placed over
the vowel A. Its presence affects the sound of
that vowel only. It has nothing whatever to do 13. Y.
with the proper accent of that word, as the term Accent is The vowel Y is frequently found combined with other understood when applied to words in the English language. vowels, but in such combinations it is never used as a diph. As a general rule, the stress of voice is not so strong in the
French as in the English language. thong. Its use in combination is peculiar, and will be fully
21. Accents, as used in the French language, are certain explained hereafter,
marks differing from each other, and placed over certain vouels
only, for specific purposes. 14. NASAL VOWEL SOUNDS.
22. There are three Accents, viz. :
called the Acute Accent, These are certain sounds produced by the combination of the
23. 'The acute accent, is used only over the vowel E, and
serves two purposes : whose sounds will be explained hereafter.
First, - to modify its sound.
Secondly,–10 mark the existenie of a dietinct and final 15. NASAL DIPHTHONGAL SOUNDS.
syllable, viz. :These are certain sounds produced by the combination of
Trom-ré, nasal vowel sounds with a vowel, not nasal, before them,
24. 'The Grave accent, is used only oper the vowels A, E and
છે, Père, and
and serves two purposes :
First,-to modify the sound of the vowel E.
Secondly,-to distinguish one part of speech from another,
qu is an Adverb, ou is a Conjunction,
26. ^ This character, which represents the Circumflex | words commencing with a vowel or H mute, and is much
L'ami instead of Le ami,
L'homme Le homme.
30. EUPHONIC T.
This letter is thus called on account of its peculiar position
between two parts of speech, viz., the Verb and Pronoun. It Bête, Fête, and Tête
does not sound agreeably to the French ear to say were formerly written
a elle, a il, demande on, etc. Beste, Feste and Teste.
Therefore, to prevent the hiatus of sound between the vowels
at the end of the first and the beginning of the second words
and after it, viz. :--
parle-t-il ? va-t-on:
This letter cannot be translated, because it has no meaning.
It is thus used, merely for the sake of euphony.
31. PARENTHESIS AND PUNCTUATION.
In the French language, the
Semicolon ; Colon :
Period. Mark of Interrogation ? Mark of Excla-
mation ! Dash and Quotation
are the same, and used for the săme purposes, as in the English
language. B-sides the three kinds of accents just enumerated, certain
The ASTERIAS in the French language, are also the same,
$ 1 vowels A, 0, and U, viz. : Ç.
It indicates that the leiter C under which it is placed, has
LESSONS IN MORAL SCIENCE.-No. I.
CONSCIENCE, OR THIE MORAL FACULTY.
As all men, when reason is developed, have a faculty by
which they can discern a difference between objects of sight Reçu
which are beautiful and those which are deformed, so all men
possess the power of discerning a difference between actions,
as to their moral quality. The judgment thus formed is imme-
Whatever difference of opinion may exist respecting the
origin of this faculty, it is universally admitted that men, in
all ages and countries, have judged some actions to be good Naïveté pronounced as if printed Na-ive-té.
and deserving of approbation, while they have judged others Ouïr
to be bad and of ill desert. Poëte
In all languages, we find words expressive of the ideas of
moral excellence, and moral evil. In the laws and penalties 28. HYPHEN,
established in all ages throughout the world, it is evidently The Hyphen is a short horizontal mark, which is used to In cases of Hagrant injustice or ingratitude, all men, of every
implied that some actions ought to be done, and others avoided. connect words and syllables, viz. :
country and of every age, agree in their judgment of their moral A-t-il, Belles-Lettres, Celui-ci, Demi-kilomètre,
evil. There is, in regard to such actions, no more difference Fait-on, Suis-je, und Très-rarement.
in the judgment of men, than respecting the colour of grass,
or the taste of honey. If any man does not perceive grass to Its use in connecting syllables is precisely the same as in be green, or honey to be sweet, we do not thence conclude the English language; that is, when a word is divided, so that that men's bodily senses are not similarly constituted, but that a part of it is at the extreme right-hand of a page, and the the organs of the individual who does not see and taste as rest at the extreme lett.
other men do, are defective, or depraved by disease.
To determine whether all men have one original moral 29. APOSTROPHE.
faculty, tł:e case proposed for their moral judgment should be
siraply good or evil. For a complex act, in which there is · The APOSTRVAE is like a comma placed at the upper end something good and something evil, or rather where there of letters, instead of at the lower end, or at the bottom on a must be an accurate weighing of motives in order to ascertain line with the lower end.
the quality of the action, is not a proper test as to the existIts use is, to show the elision or cutting off a vowel before ence of a uniformity of moral judgment in men. Therefore,
the historical fact adduced by Dr. Paley,* from the history of good parent. If a case like this were presented to a thousand Valerius Maximus, is not at all suited to his purpose; because persons, from as many different parts of the world, there would the case is very complex, and one on which it is difficult to be but one judgment and one feeling; all would judge the determine at first view, what the true inoral character of the conduct of the son to be blameable. Different degrees Os action is. The facts, as related by him, are as follows: The moral disapprobation would be felt by those whose moral father of Caius Toranius had been proscribed by the Trium- faculty was in a cultivated state; but there would be no differvirate. Caius Toranius-coming over to the interests of that sence in the opinion entertained of his conduct. All would party_discovered his father's place of concealment to the feel disapprobation, accompanied by a desire for the punishment officers who were in pursuit of him, and gave them, withal, a of the offender. It is found that savages appear to have but description of his person by which they might distinguish him. an obscure exercise of conscience, but in proportion as their The old man, more anxious for the safety and fortunes of his minds are cultivated, this faculty becomes more manifest, and son than for the little that might remain of his own life, began operates more forcibly. immediately to inquire of the officers whether his son were well, and whether he had done his duty to the satisfaction of THE MORAL FACULTY, ORIGINAL AND UNIVERSAL. the generals. “That son (replied one of the officers), so dear
If conscience were not an original faculty, enabling us to to thy affections, has betrayed thee to us; by his information forin a conception of moral qualities, man could never acquire thou art apprehended, and diest.' With this, the officer struck such an idea by any other means. The opinion, therefore, a poniard to his heart, and the unhappy parent fell, affected that moral feelings are merely the effect of instruction and not so much by his fate, as by the means to which he owed it.” leducation, is erroneous. For every class of simple ideas there Now, the question is, if this story were related to the wild boy must be 'an appropriate faculty, without which these ideas caught some years ago in the woous of Hanover, or to a savage can never be acquired. In regard to the bodily senses, this is without experience and without instruction, cut off in his too evident to be called in question. Without the organ of infancy from all intercourse with his species, and consequentùy vision, the simple idea of light and colours could never be under no possible influence of example, authority, education, communicated by any instructions; without the organ of sympathy, or habit, whether or not such a one would feel hearing, no idea of sound can be conveyed; and so of the upon the relation any degree of that sentiment of disapproba- other senses. And it is equally true of that knowledge which tion of Toranius's conduct which we feel.
is acquired by what some have called the internal senses. If In our judgment, such a case would afford no criterion by there were in man no such faculty as taste, by which beauty which to determine whether men possess constitutionally a is perceived, no idea of the beautiful could possibly be commoral sense. For, in the first place, the trial would be no better municated. A horse has no perception of the beauty of a than if the question were proposed to a child two years old, scene which perhaps enchants his rider, even though the aniin whose mind the moral faculty is not yet developed. A mal sees all the objects with equal distinctness. So it is in human being, arrived at adult age without instruction or com- regard to moral qualities. There must be an original faculty munication with others, would be-as it regards to the mind to give us the simple idea which we have of morality; otherin a state differing very little froin that of infancy. It is not wise the idea of virtue or vice could never have entered the held that the moral sense will be exercised without the usual human inind, and the feelings of moral obligation, of which means by which human faculties are developed. If an all men are conscious, would never have been felt. organical defect in the brain should prevent the intellectual We are aware that those who advocate the utilitarian scheme, faculties from coming into exercise, the unhappy individual resolve all our ideas of morality and moral obligation into the thus deprived of reason would prove nothing in regard to the mere principles of benefit or 112jury, apprehended to be conoperations of reason where it is developed. So, also, if a nected with each action. Dr. Paley inturins us, that the human being were brought up from early infancy in a dark subject continued to be involved in impenetrable mystery, dungeon, and if no information were coinmunicated to him, until he took this view of it. the mental faculties would not be developed, and it would be It is deemed useless to argue this point; it cannot be absurd to have recourse to such a one to ascertain what decided by reasoning. The appeal must be made to the confaculties belong to the human mind. The same remark will sciousness of every man. apply to the case of the wild boy, referred to by Dr. Paley ; If any one persists in declaring that he sees no evil in any and also, though in an inferior degree, to savages of the action but as it is evidently detrimental to human happiness, most degraded class.
nothing can be said in the way of argument to alter convicLet it then be fairly understood what it is which is asserted tions derived from his own consciousness. All that is proper in regard to conscience, as an original, universal faculty. It to be said is, that the mind of such a person is differently is, that every human mind, when its faculties have been constituted from that of most men; cr rather that an impartial developed, and have arrived at some degree of maturity, dis- examination of this subject has not been made. It is recomcerns a quality in certain actions which is termed moral; that mended to such persons carefully to scrutinise the exercises of is, it intuitively perceives that soine actions are right and their own minds; they will perceive that the idea of virtue or
moral good is entirely distinct from that of mere utility. Another objection to the historical fact adduced by Dr. There is, indeed, a connexion between these two things which Paley, is, that it presents to the mind, not a case of simple, is very intimate, and this seems to have misled many in their unmixed good or evil, but a complex case, in which-before a judgments. Virtuous conduct leads to happiness, and is judgment can be formed of the action of the son--it must be always beneficial; yet our idea of its moral character is not decided whether a man ought to be governed by a regard to derived from this consideration, but from the nature of the llie welfare of a parent, or to the public good.
If the son action itself, believed that the party in pursuit of his father was promoting the public good, he might feel that he ought to be governed A MORAL FACULTY BEING SUPPOSED, WHETHER by this rather than by filial affection. Here, then, we have
ITS DICTATES ARE UNIFORM? presented a complex and difficult case in morals, about which men would be very apt to differ; and we are to determine
One of the strongest objections which has been brought whether all men-even those totally uneducated—would view against the doctrine luid down is, that among men of different
countries, and of entirely different education, there is no To render the case a suitable one to be a test of the question immorality of the same actions. Whereas, it is alleged, that
azreement in their judgments respecting the morality or under consideration, it should be supposed that the father if such a faculty were originally a part of man's constitution, was acting in conformity with the strictest principles of recti- there would as certainly re uniformity, as in the perception of the good of the commonwealth but its destruction; and that objects by the external senses. Now, if the dictates of cont by inercenary motives, or by unjust and unnatural dislike to a tion makes them ? And what is gained by maintaining the the sun, in betraying the place of his concealment, was actuated science in men of different countries do so much differ
, does it
not show that the moral feelings of men are just what educaCome the chapter of his Mural Philosophy, under the head " The Moral existence of a moral faculty, as part of man's original consti
it in the same light.
It will, we think, be admitted, that in all countries and con- fundamental truths, there has never been any difference of
scarcely be said ever to reflect on the subject of moral duty.
, But a more satisfactory explanation of those facts, in which and this will produce perplexity ;'or even a kind of specumen seem conscientiously to go contrary to the fundamental lative assent may be yielded to such conclusions of ratiocina, principles of morals, is, that the principle on which they act tion; but whenever it is necessary to form a practical is correct, but through'ignorance or error they make an erro- judgment, the belief of intuitive truths must prevail. Our neous application of it.
assent in these cases is not a matter of choice, but of necessity.
suaded themselves that this opinion was true; but these very
LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.-No. XXI.
(Continued from page 391.)
POWERS OF ROOTS.
In the preceding examples of roots, the numerator of the
, or roots of povrers.
These quantities may be considered
, like the fine
N.B.- In all instances, when the root of a quantity is
of a, i.e. that a is to be resolved into three equal factors ; Obs. — From the manner of performing evolution it is
On the other hand, co denotes the evident, that the plan of denoting roots by fractional indices,
indices. third power. One expression is equivalent to the other.
1. Required the cube root of as. Ans. a'. 1. What is as equal to ? 2. What is ao equal to ?
2. Required the cube root of a or a'. Ans. a), or iv a. 3. What is yo equal to ?
4. What is 83
equal to 6. Write the fifth root of the fourth power of a.
For at xet x at, or 3/a XVax Va=a. 6. Write the seventh power of the ninth root of d.
3. Required the Afth root of ab.
4. Required the nth root of a”.
7. Required the cube root of all.
8. Required the fourth root of a-1. a is resolved into a certain number of factors; and the nume
9. Required the cube root of ass. rator shows that all these factors are multiplied together in an.
10. Required the nth root of xm.
11. Required the third root of ah. On the other hand, when the numerator of a fractional in
12. Required the fourth root of .x8. dex becomes equal to the denominator, the expression may
13. Required the second root of zin. be rendered more simple by rejecting the index,
14. Required the fifth root of d3.
15. Required the cighth root of a3. Instead of a”, we may write a.
The rule in the preceding article may be applied to The index of a power or root may be exchanged for any every case in evolution. But when the quantity whose root other index of the same value.
is to be found, is composed of several factors, there will fre-
quently be an advantage in taking the root of each of the
This is done upon the principle that the root of the product of
Thus Vab=Va XV b. For each member of the equation if
When, therefore, a quantity consists of several factors, we
may either extract the root of the whole together, or we may
into each other.
17. Required the fifth root of 3y.
18. Required the sixth root of abh.
19. Required the cube root of 8). mation to the true index.
20. Required the nth root of any.
The root of a fraction is equal to the root of the numerator 13. Thus a* = an.3 nearly, or c0 33333 more nearly.
divided by the root of the denominator. In this manner, the approximation may be carried to any
at degree of exactness which is required.
21. Thus the square root of
22. Required the nth root of
23. Required the square root of
Signs.--(1.) An odd root of any quantity has the same sign
(2.) An even root of a positive quantity is ambiguous.
Thus the square root of a' is ta, or- a.
be ambiguous, and is inarked with the sign + Thus the
square root of 35 is +136. The 4th root of x is +21
nature of the case, or a previous multiplication, it is known
or from a negative quantity.
For taxta=ta?. And
An even root of a negatire quantity is, therefore, said to be d=d. So the cube root of lø, is
impossible or imaginary.