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English,

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French.
Pronunciation.

If it can be illustrated by analogous English sounds, it seems
Algarade
Al-ga-rad

Insult

quite reasonable to suppose that through this process, many Approche A-prosh

Approach more students would understand and acquire it, than if they Article Ar-teekl

Thing.

were left merely to the doubtful policy of imitation. Let us Ballotto Ba-lot

Ballot.

cry: Domestique Do-mes-teek

Domestic. Before the pupil attempts to pronounce the French words Passage Pah-sazh

Passage. used for examples, let him observe most carefully the sound of Possible Po-see-bl'

Possible

the last syllable of the following words, when uttered as they Spectacle Spek-ta-kl

Sight

usually are, in common conversation, viz.:--Terrible Ter-reebl'

Awful.

Moth-er! Broth-er! Nev-er! Sis-ter! Wa-ter! Véritable Vay-ri-tablo

Genuine,

Take any one of the above English words, viz. :- the first In the following words, the E is silent, viz. :

-Moth-er! Pronounce it naturally and aloud with a full

voice several times, until the common sound of the last syllable Celui pronounced S’lwee.

in particular, is familiar to the ear. Take each of those words
S'la or S'lah.
Cela
Prierai
Pre-ray.

and thus practice, by pronouncing alous? carefully, but

naturally; observing at ihe same time THE SOUND OF Again in the following words, the middle E is silent, viz. :-/ THE LAST SYLLABLE. Autrement,

Now, by what combination of letters would you represent Entrevoir, and Paiement, etc.

that sound? By UR, as in the first syllable of the English In the word Contenance both E's are silent; ordinarily, the word Mur-mur? Or, by UH!! Manifestly the latter. Below E before A and O is silent, viz. :

are a few French words, which you will now proceed to proJean and Georges.

nounce aloud, giving to the vowel E in each example, the last syllable of the word Nev-ER! Pronounce each of the fol.

lowing French words quickly and abruptly, as if an exclama37. Ee MUTE OR UNACCENTED.

tion mark were placed over each one of them, viz. :Before proceeding to the illustration of the sound and use

That is, a combination of the letter S, of E mute or unaccented, let us commend the following Ce like suh! with the usual sound of the last syllaextract to the careful perusal of the pupil. Speaking of

ble of the English word Moth-ER! the unaccented E, it is said, -"Several of our best orthoepists

That is, a combination of the letter D, express themselves thus on that subject :- The proper De like duh! with the usual sound of the last syllable utierance of the unaccented E characterises, in part, the

of the same word MOTH-ER! pronunciation of the gentleman, as a vicious one marks

That is, a combination of the letters the low-bred and ignorant. The unaccented E is some

ZH, with the same sound mentioned times pronounced and sometimes not; and in that consists

in the first example; or, like the sound a great difficulty for foreigners, who, always pronouncing it

Je like zhuh!

of the last syllable of the word PLEABfuil, are long before they are able to follow a French conversa

URE! as usually pronounced, but withtion, and thence are inclined to believe that the French speak

out the sound of the Y, which is somemuch faster than any other people. The truth is, that the

times heard ; i.e., peas-ure ! and not pleasFrench, taking them in general, do not speak faster than

yure! other people ; but, in conversation and in familiar reading,

That is, a combination of the letter L, they drop the unaccented E as often as they can do it, and Le like luh! with the same sound mentioned in the thus go quicker through a sentence than does a foreigner, who

first example, gives the full sound of U in TUB to every unaccented E he

That is, a combination of the letter M, meets with. Thus the word Contenance, and the phrase je n'ai

with the same sound mentioned in the first pas reçu tout le vêtement, will be pronounced by a foreigner and Me like muh;

example; or like the sound of MU in the a Frenchman native of Gascony,--Con-te-nan-ce-je pa re-çu

first syllable of the English word MUTTER, tou le -te-men ; whereas a well-bred Frenchman will pronounce-cont-nans,—jne pa rsu toul vêt-men, sounding in the

That is, a combination of the letter N, first word two syllables only, where the others would sound

with the sound mentioned in the first four; and in the sentence, sounding six syllables, where the Ne like nuh!

example ; or, like the sound of NU in the others would sound ten.'

English word Nut. Pronounce NU in

the word NUT, and you have the correct The French custom of clipping or shortening words as much

pronunciation of the French word NE. as possible, in ordinary reading and common conversation, is will illustrated in the following sentence, viz. :

Se like suh! {CE as given in the first example.

That is, exactly like the pronunciation of “Quand vous serez le même, vous me trouverez le même." This sentence contains thirteen syllables in prose, viz. :-) Te like tuh !

That is, exactly like the sound of the

last syllable of the English word WaQuand-vous-se- rez-le-même-vous-me-trou-ve-rez-le-même. In poetry, méme would have two syllables. However, in familiar reading and conversation, it is pronounced in eight syllables only,

That is, like the sound of the last syllaviz. :— Quand-vou-srel-même-voum-trouv-rel-même. The

Que like kuh! ble of the English word BAKER, pronounced

rather carelessly suppression of this E is precisely the reason why foreigners imagine that the French speak so very quickly.

Take, if you please, another illustration, viz. :-the sound

of U in the English word NUT, as explained above, in illusEe Mute OR UNACCENTED.

trating the sound of the French word NE. This will give the correct sound of E mute or unaccented.

The sound of E mule or unaccented, resembles the sound of UH! Like the sound of the letter U in the English word the letter E of the word THE, which is heard in pronouncing NUT; or, like the sound of the last syllable ER in the words quickly these two words, viz. :-The Man. Apply the sound OVER and WATER, when spoken quickly.

of this E thus pronounced, to the E in the following words, The E mute or unaccented, " is a mere emission of the voice viz. :-Ce, De, Je, Me, Ne, Se, Te, Que, etc. without any distinct sound. It either succeeds a consonant, Or lastly,-he sound of E mute or unaccented, is based by the articulation of which it becomes sensible, or comes after upon the sound of English A pronounced naturally. Let the a vowel, of which it may be considered the prolongation. organs within the mouth maintain as nearly as possible the

It is confessedly difficult to illustrate the sound of this same position, whilst the lips are protruded as if to pout or vowel by the aid of English letters; yet it is worthy an whistle. Then, whilst the mouth is in this position, endeavour honest attempt. True, it may be acquired from a teacher, by to pronounce English A again; this, in a majority of cases, sheer imitation ; but alas, all learners are not good imitators'? I will give the correct sound of E mute or unaccented, Piactise

TER!

Name.

Sound.

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frequently or this ins:-Jitu Dei pian aned, and the ar wi.'
NAA Cer-ct the ricLares UI ESTTECH.655 vítt.escor.1. Moot
pups who are stgrA imilaUIS OÍ U13, fir.d Lore or less Fiech.
difficulty in acqusitz this sourd; but paiitot perseverance Bê:e
whil, in due time, overcome every obstacle.

Crêre
In illustrating the sound of Em, te or unaccented, the fol.
lowing sigue will be used, smetines one, again the other, fil.,

Crépe TH:, and the Apostophe, thus:

Dépêche

ÉTe
Je
by Zhuh! or by

J'
Se
Suh!
8

Extrême

Fore: 38. É É ACUTE.

Même

Précher
Kame.
Bound.

Prét
AY Like the letters A Y in the English word PRAY.

Rère

Téte
EXAMPLES.

66

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French.
Pronunciation.

Ergiizh.
Arrivé
A-re-vay
Arrired.

LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.—No. XXII.
Eevé
Ayl-ray
Rausd.

(Continued from page 419.)
Eie
Ay-täy

Siner.
Flagorné
Fia-gor-Day

Wheedled,
Forgé
For-zhay

ADDITION OF RADICAL QUANTITIES.

Forged.
Joué
Zhou-ay

Sported. It may be proper to remark, that the rules for addition,
Mérite
May-reet

Worth.

subtraction, multiplication, and division of radical quantities Obligé 0-ble-zhay

Obliged.

depend on ihe same principies, and are expressed in nearly the Prévéler Pray-say-day

same language, as those for addition, subtraction, multiplica

To proceed
Prémédité
Pray-may-dee-tay

tion, and division of powers. So also the rules for involution

Premiditated. and evolution of radicals, are similar to those for in volution
Trouvé
Troo-vay

Found.

and evolution of powers. Hence, if the learner has made Vérité Vay-re-tay

Truth,

himself thoroughly acquainted with the principles and optra

tions relating to powers, he has substantially acquired inose 39. È • Grave.

pertaining to radical quantities, and will find no difficulty in

understanding and applying them. Name. Sound.

When radical quantities have the same radical part, and are
AI Like the letters AI in the English word STAIR.

under the same radical sign or inder, they are like quantities.
Hence their rational parts or co-efficients may be adard in the
same manner as rational quantities, and the sum prefixed to the

radical part.
EXAMPLES.

Thus, 2 b + 31b = 5vb.
Trench.
Pronunciation.

1. Add "Vay to vay.
English,

2. Add - 2 y'a to 5va. Chère Shair

Cheer.

3. Add 4 (2+)? to 3(x+4)!!
Colère
Ko-lair

Passionate.
Llève
Ay-laiv

Pupil.

4. Add 70ké to 50 Fievre Feai-vr'

Ferer.

5. Add y v bch to avb-h. Juridinière Zhar-de-neair

Gardener.

If the radical parts are originally different, they may some
Danicre
Ma-neair

Manner times be made alike, by the rules for reduction of radical
Madere
M 1-dair

Madeira.

quantities. Mere Mair

Mother.

6. Add V8 to V 50.
Modele
Mo-deil
Pattern.

Here the radical parts are not the same. But by reduc-
Pere
Pair
Father.

tion, V8 = 22, and y 50 = 52. And 21? +
Ratière
Rateair
Rat-trap.

5y2 = 7V2. Ans.
7. Add v 166 to v 46,

8. Add V ax to v o'z. 40. E é CIRCUMFLEX.

9. Add (36a’yto (25y)?

10. Add v 18a to 3V 20. Name. Sound.

If the radical parts, after reduction, are different, or have AI Like the letters AI in the English word STAIR. different exponents, then the quantities being unlike, can be has a longer and broader sound than Ė. The mouth added only by writing them one after the other with their

signs. must be opened wider in pronouncing the former than the latter. In ordinary, reading and cominon conversation, the

11. The sum of 3V6 and 27a, is 3/5 + 2va. difference between É and É is hardly perceptible. Still there It is manifest that three times the rout of b, and twice is a difference; just the difference betwen pronouncing E

the root of a, are neither five times tbe root of b, por like the letiers XI in the English word STAIR with the

five times the root of a, unless b and a are equal. mouth balf opened, and pronouncing the same letters in the 12. The sum of?v a and sya, is 'va + 3V a. same word with the mouth well opened, and also prolonging The square root of a, and the cube root of a, are neither the bound. Practice will demonstrate this, viz.;

twice the square root, nor twice the cube root of a.

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1

GENERAL RULES POR ADDITION OF RADICALS.

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n

mt-n

n

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mn

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From the preceding principles we deduce the following- 10. Thus the product of v 2 into V 18 = V 36=6. Ans.

11. Multiply (aoy3)

into (ay)

Roots of the same letter or quantity may be multiplied, by adding If the radical parts are the same, add their co

co-efficients, and

their fractional exponents. to the sum annex the common radical parts. If the radicals are unlike quantities, they must be added by reduced to a common denominator before they can be united

N. B. The exponents, like all other fractions, must be writing them, one after another, without altering their signs.

in one term. EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE.

12. Thus ao xa

at =al+} = a8+ = %. 1. Add v 27 to v 48.

The values of the roots are not altered by reducing their 2. Add v 72 to v 128.

indices to a common denominator.
3. Add ✓ 180 to 405.

Therefore the first factor at a
4. Add 3 / 40 to 3V 135.
6. Add 43 54 to 5 37 128.

And the second
6. Add 9V/243 to 10v 363.

=axat xad.
7. Add v 816 to 7 496.

And ai = ax at.
8. Add v9ad to 16a-d,
9. Add xv 25x^c to v 36x'c.

The product therefore is a xam xat xat xad = a*. 10. Add 3 Va6b to 4a3 a3b.

N.B. In all instances of this nature, the common denomi. nator of the indices denotes a certain root; and the sum of the

numerators shows how often this is to be repeated as a factor SUBTRACTION OF RADICAL QUANTITIES.

to produce the required product
Rule.- Subtraction of radicals is performed in the same manner
as addition, except that the signs of the subtrahend must be changed

13. Thus a x ха

Ха as in subtraction of other quantities.

14. Multiply 3y* into y 1. From Vay take 3vay. Ans. — 2vay.

15. Multiply (a+b), into (a + b)
2. From 4"y a + x take 3 "V a + r.

a!
3. From 31" take
525

16. Multiply (a-y)" into (a4) .
4. From a (x+y)? take 6(x + y)?

17. Multiply a** into a

.

18. Multiply y into y
5. From n take - 2an.
6. From v 50 tak- V 8.

19. Multiply an into a n
7. From /bty take v bye.

20. Multiply 8. From "V x take V x.

into x
9. From 2 v 50 take V 18.

21. Multiply a? into a.
10. From V320 take 3V 40.
11. From 5V 20 take 3V 45.

Any quantities may be reduced to the form of radicals and

may then be subjected to the same modes of operation. 12. From V 80ux take V 20a2x,

22. Thus y: x y* =y+=y. MULTIPLICATION OF RADICAL QUANTITIES.

n+1

23. And 2 x Radical quantities may be multiplied, like other quantities, by writing the factors one after another, either with or with- N.B. The product fwill become rational whenever the out the sign of multiplication between them.

numerator of the index can be exactly divided by the deno

minator.
1. Thus the product of va into V b, is va XVb.
2. The product of nt into yt, is it?

24. Thus ai x ad

Х

-} But it is often expedient to bring the factors under the same 25. Multiply (a + b) 8 into (a + b) radical sign. This may be done, if they are first reduced to a

26. Multiply

ať into aß. common index.

When radical quantities which are reduced to the same Hence, quantities under the same radical sign or index may be index, have rational co-efficients, the rational parts may be multimultiplied together like rational quantities, the product being placed plied together, and their product prefixed to the product of the under the common radical sign or index.

radical parts. 3. Multiply ’V x into 3v y, that is,

.

27. Multiply av b into cv d.

The product of the rational parts is ac.
The quantities reduced to the same index, are (23)+, and

The product of the radical parts is v bd.
(92)t, and their product is, (zoy2)* = Vzəy?. Ans.

And the whole product=acy bd.

Aus. 4. Multiply va + m into va mn.

28. Multiply axł into bad. Ans. ab(x?d?)? 5. Multiply v dx luto v hy.

But in cases of this nature we may save the trouble of reduc6. Multiply as into x4.

ing to a common index, by multiplying. 7. Multiply (a + y)into (6 + h)n.

29. Thus ax? into bd= ax+vat

Ans.
8. Multiply am into ".

30. Multiply a(b + x)# into y(h --~)*.
9. Multiply V 8x6 into V 2 xb. Prod. V 16x262 = 4xb. 31. Multiply av yinio by hy.
In this manner the product of radical quantities often be.

32. Multiply av x into bv t.
comes rational.

33. Multiply ax

---- into by's

34. Multiply z ' / 3 into y3y9. * The case of an imaginary root of a negative qualțity may be considered radical quantities, are connected with them by the signs +

If the rational quantities, instead of being co-efficients to the

n

n

12

3 &

=al.

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an exceptioni.

THE RICH MAN'S SON AND THE POOR MANS

SON.

BY J. R. LOWELL.

and --, each term in the multiplier must be multiplied into each term of the multiplicand. 35. Multiply a tub Into

ctvo ac tevo

avdtvbd

act opbtavat v bd. Ans. 36. Multiply a tv y into 1 trvy.

atvy-tarvy try. Ans. Hence we deduce the following

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GENERAL RULE FOR MULTIPLYING RADICALS,

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Radicals of the same root are multiplied by adding their fractional erponents.

If the quantilies have the same radical sign, or inder, multiply them together as you multiply rational quantities, place the product under the common radical sign, and to this prefix the product of their co-efficients.

If the radicals are compound quantities, each term in the multiplier must be multiplied into each term of the multiplicand by uriling the terms one after another, either with or without the sign of multiplication between then.

11

BXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE.

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1. Multiply v a into ' V b. 2. Multiply 5 7 5 into 3/8. 3. Multiply 23 into 33 V 4. 4. Multiply V d into 3V ab. 5. Multiply V2 ab into ad 6. Multiply a (a ---) into (cd) x (ar). 7. Multiply 5V 8 into y 5; 8. Multiply V6 into **V 9. 9. Multiply V 18 into 5V 20. 10. Multiply 2V 3 into 131 V 5. 11. Multiply 72103 into 120 ja*. 12. Multiply 4 +272 into 2 -- V2.

The rich man's son inherits lands,
And piles of brick, and stone, and gold;

And he inherits soft, white hands,
And tender flesh that fears the cold;
Nor dares to wear a garment old:
A heritage, it seems to me,
One would not care to hold in fee.

The rich man's son inherits cares ;
The bank may break, the factory burn;

Some breath may burst his bubble shares.
And soft, white hands would hardly earn
A living that would suit his turn:
A heritage, it seems to me,
One would not care to hold in fee.

What does the poor man's soon inherit?
Stout muscles and a sinewy heart;

A hardy frame, a hardier spirit;
King of two hands; he does his part,
In every useful toil and art :
A heritage, it seems to me,
A king might wish to hold in fee.
What does the poor man's son inherit :-
Wishes o'erjoyed with humble things;

A rank adjudged by toil-worn merit;
Content that from employment springs;
A heart that in his labour sings;
A heritage, it seems to me,
A king might wish to hold in fee,

What does the poor man's son inherit:A patience learned by being poor,

Courage, if sorrow come, to bear it,
A fellow feeling that is sure
To make the outcast bless his door :
A heritage, it seems to me,
A king might wish to hold in fee.
Oh ! rich man's son, there is a toil
That with all others level stands :

Large charity doth never soil,
But only whitens, soft, white hands :
This is the best crop from the lands :
A heritage, it seems to me,
Worth being rich to hold in fee.

Oh! poor man's son, scorn not thy state; There is worse wearines than thine,

In merely being rich and great ;
Work only makes the soul to shine,
And makes rest fragrant and benign:
A heritage, it seems to me,
Worth being poor to hold in fee.

Both heirs to some six feet of sod,
Are equal in the earth at last;

Both children of the same dear God;
Prove title to your heirship vast,
By record of a well-filled past:
A heritage, it seems to me,
Well worth a life to hold in fee.

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One of our students has sent us the following creditable metrical version of

HORACE, Book 3, Ode 7.
Austeria, why bemoan the youth
Whom favouring winds and love of truth,
Laden with precious things will bring
Back to thy side in early spring ?
Thy Gyges long by tempests tossed,
And cast on some deserted coast,
Full many a cold and sleepless night
Will pass before he greets thy sight.
Though his admiring hostess tries
To catch him with her young bright eyes,
Declares her love, around him plays,
Aod tempts him in a thousand ways;
Relates how simple Prætus nigh,
Had raised the assassin's knife on high,
And stabbed Bellerophon the good
To please a woman's spiteful mood, -
How Peleus feared the assassin's arms
For slightiog Hypolita's charms,
And cites him history to prove
That faith is seldom kept in love :-
Her arts are vain. More deaf is he
Than rocks in the Icarian Sea;
Yet fears he lest Enipeus win
Thy heart ere he relurns again.
What youth like Gyges e'er could guide
A ship on the Etruscan tide ?
What youth like Gyges could restrain
A fi ry courser ou the plain ?
Then close thy door at night betimes,
Nor heed the serenader's ryhmes ;
To Gyges ever constant prove,
And Gyges will requite thy love.-J. T. P.

Quand vous aurez donné à une femme le nom sacré d'épouse, vous devez vous consacrer à son bonheur, comme elle doit se con: sacrer au rôtre. Mais l'obligation qui pèse sur vous est d'autant plus grande que votre femme e-t une créature plus faible, et que vous lui desez, comme étant le plus fort, le bon exemple et toutes sortes de secours.- Silvio Pellico.

Le méchant fuit sans être poursuivi de personne ; mais le juste est hardi comme un lion, et ne craint rien, --Salomon.

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The Prepositions.
LESSONS IN GREEK.-No. XLVIII.

The prepositions require careful study, as on them, as well

as on other invariable verbs, the sense very much depends, By John R. BEARD, D.D.

and you will be ignorant of some of the most delicate shades of meaning, and unaware of many an elegance, if you do not

familiarise your mind with the import and the usage of the INVARIABLE WORDS,

prepositions and the conjunctions particularly:

Prepositions have a relation to place, and denote the direcThe words which we have hitherto studied are susceptible of tion of an action in regard to place.' Thus, I say "you go certain changes. With these changes I have endeavoured to from home;" " you go to home;" "you go round the house;" make the student familiar. There are other words which do "you go over the wall." In order, therefore, to your possessing not undergo change, or undergo change only to a small extent. an exact knowledge of the prepositions, of which there are in Many of these have occurred in the course of the instructions | Greek eighteen, you must study them in their relation to I have given. Nevertheless, invariable words must be put place. In the ensuing table, they are arranged as they stand together, and spoken of specifically.

in regard to place.

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The Prepositions arranged in their Relations to Place.

1. EV

3. προς

5. απο

7. ava

8. κατα

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9. παρά 10. μετα

over

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sub

14. προ

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15. αμφι 16. περι

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Relations to Place,

Greek.
Latin. English.

Examples.
1. Place where you are

in

in

EV TY Tolen, to be in the city. 2. εις or ες in

into 2. Place uhither you go

EIS 19P holiv, to go into the city. ad

to

at pos TNV Toliv, to go towards the city. 4. Ek or aš ex, e

out of 3. Place whence you come

EK TNS Tolews, to go out of the city.
ab, a

from aTo TNS TOREws, to go from the city.
6. δια
per

through dia roù TE LOU, to go through (over) the plain, 4. Place through which you pass

per

up

ava ta opri, to go up (over) the mountains. 5. Place at which you stop down which you go

ad, de

down, at, on kata rus aktus, to land on the shore.
6. Different relations of position-
Place by the side of

secundum, apud along hapa Tov Torajov, to walk along the rirer. together with

inter, cum, post with JETit Toù harpos, to be with your father. connected with 11. συν and ξυν cum

with OUV TY otpatw, to follow the army.
12. ÚTTEP
super
over, above U TEP TWv' ¿TTOjLevwv, to be above those who

follow.
under
13. υπο

under, by oi úto TIVI, those who are under some one, before

prae

before TIPO Tūv audūv, before the gates.

φάρος βαλείν αμφι τινα, to throw a cloak on both sides

around a person.

around around

Ta nepi rivos, the things around a person,

circumstances.
on or upon

17. επι
in

εφ' ίππων ειναι, to be on horseback.
7. Opposition, displacement

against avri Baoilews , to make one who was a king
18. αντι
pro

instead of
δούλον ποιειν )

a slare.
In this general view it is only the general meanings that I !

αναβαινω I go up, mount, ascend, have been able to give. It is the office of Syntax to set forth

αναλαμβανω I resume, take details, especially as the import of the prepositions is modified

καταβαινω I go down. I descend. by the case which they govern, for, as you already know, most

παραγω

I lead beside, aside. of them take more cases than one.

παραβαινω I go beyond transgress. A little close' attention will show you that the Latin pre

μεταμορφοω I change the form of, metapositions are intimately connected with the Greek in origin as

morphose. well as signification : thus, ev and in are the same; so are ex

μεταλαμβανω I take part with, partake. and ex ; so, also, i tep and super, and uno and sub.

11. συν

συλλαμβανω I take with, I comprehend. The following six words may also be considered as preposi

12. υπερ

υπερβαινω I go over. tions, namely :

1 put'under, I subject.

I laugh a little, I smile. ατέρ

προβαινω I go forward, I proceed.
ανευ της δικαιοσυνης, ιoithout justice

αμφιβαινω I go round.
ένεκα
on account of įveka Tourov, on that account

περιβαινω

I surround. axpl

17. επι

επιβαλλω I throw on, I aid.
μέχρι
up to, until
mexpi 'Pwins, to (as far as), up to Rome

18. αι τι

αντιβαινω I go against.
πλην but, except
πλην ενος, one excepted.

αντιδιδωμι I give instead, in exchange for. You have already seen how prepositions combine with More than one preposition may combine with a verb; e.g. verbs ; I here present you a complete list of prepositions in

ežayw, I lead out (an army from its camp), combination, so that you may be able to have the whole at

a apežayw, I lead out (an army against the enemy). once under your eye, and study the matter thoroughly.

avtitapeçayw, I lead out (an army and march it to assail

the enemy).
Prep, and Verb.
Signification.

Adverbs,
εμβαλλω I cast into, I fall into.

Among the invariable or indeclinable words are adverbs. εισαγω I lead to, into.

Adverbs qualify action in regard to
προσαγω

I lead up to.
4, EK, ET εξαγω
I lead out.

1. place

5. interrogation
απαγω
I lead from, away.

2. time

6. affirmation
6, δια
I disperse, scatter.

3. manner or quality 7. negation
I run through, over, I traverse.

4. quantity

8. doubt.

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