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47. Y y.
This latter is also a word; that is, it is one of the parts of
Y, is also pronounced like the letters EE in the English
word BEE, when it BEGINS or ENDS a word; and also
It must be acknowledged, however, that the English letter when it occurs in the body of a word, after a Consonant, viz.:-
Ee-ol or E-ol
MOUEN; divided thus, viz.: M01-1-EN, but pro-
nounced in two syllables, viz. : Mor-IEN. Practise often ALOUD, according to the directions of this JOYEUX, should be pronounced as if printed thus, viz. : Rule, and success will crown your efforts. The rule has
Jouleux; divided thus, viz.: J01-1-kux, but pro-
nounced in two syllables, viz.: Jor-IEUX,
ROLIAUME; divided thus, viz. : Roi-1• Aume, but
pronounced in two syllables, viz.: Roi-IAUME.
The pupil need not attempt to pronounce these three French
and other letters occurring in them, has not yet been ill us
The pronunciation of Y with these and other combinations of
letters will be explained in future lessons,
In the two following words, the Y, though not placed betrocen
two towels, is under the same Rule, viz. :
PAYS, meaning, A COUNTRY, should be pronounced as if
printed Paus; divided thus, viz. : Par-is, and pro
PAYSAGE, meaning, A LANDSCAPE, should be pronounced as
if printed Pausage; divided thus, viz. : Pai.l.
SAGE, and pronounced PA-EE-ZAŽI.
LESSONS IN ITALIAN GRAMMAR.No. XXXV. 46. Û a CIRCUMPLEX
polévano, potieno. or poteano, potremo, we will be able they were able
potréte, you will be able Present. piacéste, you pleased
potranno, they will be able Pidccio or piccio, I please piccquero, they pleased piaci, thou pleasest
Potéi or potè, I was able, or I Conditional Present.
Potréi, potria or poria, I should
, thou wast able
or would be able piacéte, you please
potè or poteo, he was able piacerà, he will please
potresli, thou wouldst be able piacciono or piáciono, they please piacerémo, we will please
potémio, we were able potrebbe, potria or poria, he Imperfect.
potéste, you were able
would be able piaceréte, you will please
potérono, potéttero, potero or potremmo, we would be able Piaceva, I pleased piaceranno, they will please
potér, they were able piacevi, thou pleasedst
potres e, you would be able Conditional Present.
Future. piaceva, he pleased
potrebbero, potriuno, poriano or Piaceréi or piacería, I should piacevamo, we pleased
potrieno,' they would be or would please
Potro, I shall or will be able able
piacerésti, thou wouldst please potrai, thou wilt be able
(No Imperative.] Indeterminate Preterite.
eno, they would please Che possa, that I may be able Che potessi, that I might be che possa, that thou mayst be
able IMPERATIVE MOOD,
che potessi, that thou mightst che possa, that he may be
be able [No First Person.) piacéte or piacciate, please (ye
che potesse, that he might be Pidci, please (thou)
che possidio, that we may be able piaccin or piacia, let him please piacciano or piaciano, let them
che potessimo, that we might piaccidimo or piaciamo, let us please
che possiate, that you may be be able please
che poteste, that you might be
che possano, that they may be able SUBJUNCTIV& Mood.
che potessero, that they might
che piacéssi, that thou mightst
Rimanére, to remain.
che piacéssimo, that we might che piacciamo or piaciumo, that please
Compound Tenses. we may please
che piacéste, that you might Present: rimane’re, to remain Past: e'ssere rimaso, to have che picciate or piacidte, that please
remained you may please
che piacéssero, that they might che piacciano or picciano, that please
Present Gerund: rimane'ndo, Past Gerund: esse'ndo rimuso, they may please
Past Participle : rimaso, * re-
rimane'mmo, we remained X.
Rimango, * I remain
rimane’ste, you remained rimani, thou remainest
rimasero, they remained Potére, to be able, rimane, he remains
Future, rimaniamo, we remain
Rimarró, I shall or will remain INFINITIVE MOOD.
rimane'te, you remain
rimarrai, thou wilt remain rimangono, they remain
rimarrà, he will remain Simple Tenses. Compound Tenses.
rimarre'mo, we will remain Present : potére, to be able
Past : avere potuto, to have Rimane'va, I was remaining rimarre'te, you will remain been able
rimane'vi, thou wast remaining rimarranno, they will remain Present Gerund: poténdo, be- Past Gerund: avendo potuto, rimane'ra, he was remaining
Conditionsl Present. ing able having been able rimanevamo, we were remain
Rimarre'i or rimarria, I should Past Participle: potúto, been
or would remain rimaneváte, you were remain
rimarre'sti, thou wouldst reing
rimane’vano, they were INDICATIVE Mood.
rimarrebbe or rimarría,
rimarre'mmo, we would remain
rimarré'ste, you would remain puoi or puo', thou art able
rimase, he remained
Rimasto is used in a familiar style; but as rimáso is more elegant, wo póssono, pónno or pon, they are potevamo, we were able
advise the student always to prefer the latter. able polevate, you were able
• Rimágno, mentionel hy somo Italians, is not good.
a woman runs.
the orderly arrangement of words. The order here implied ise.g.-ott kaẢn, is fair ; who is fair. The sentence is in-
the (her) son. η γυνη εστι καλη the woman is fair,
Here you have to contemplate what I have termed the
object, namely, tov viov, The object is so named because it is
Object, two words, TM and yuvn; the article and a noun.
παιδα however, have a subject without an article, as
(a) boy. γυνή τρέχει
In these simple statements you have the essential elements ; first of all Syntax, and secondly and specifically of all the
Greek Syntax. Syntax has nothing else to do than to show The predicate also consists of two words, namely, eoti ka.n; in detail what is here set forth generally. With each of these a verb and an adjective. The verb is a part of the substantive elements Syntax has to deal; with each of them separately; verb eival, or the verb which denotes existence; the verb with all of them unitedly. It is the office of Syntax to show which affirms one thing of another, a quality of a subject. how each part may be modified, and how the several parts Here the verb cori predicates kain of youn. The verb eivai, must grammatically stand to each other. (or a verb of similar import, as yiyverdai), united with an
Greek Syntax then, you see, presents itself under two adjective forms what is called the predicate of a proposition; aspects ; first, as Syntax in general, and secondly, as general or that which is declared of the subject. Two things are Syntax modified by the peculiar usages or the peculiar forms requisite in a predicate, namely, a verb and an adjective; an
of expression (words) of the Greek. It suffices for our pur. adjective expressive of the attribute (hence called the attribute, pose to point out this distinction. We shall treat of general and hence adjectives so circumstanced are termed attributives) (Syntax as it appears in a particular form, namely, as observed or quality ascribed to the subject, and a verb which performs by the best Greek prose writers. the office of ascribing or referring the quality to the subject.
Of Greek Syntax the essential laws are implied in the The verb as connecting the attribute with the subject, is called sentences just given. Look, again, at the first sentence. You the copula, or link. Here, then, 1 present to you, with their see that the predicate is in one sense identical with the subject ; logical designations, two
for the attribute fair belongs to or inheres in the woman; coti is merely the connecting link. The copula identifies the two.
This will be soon evident if you change the form a little; as Simple SENTENCES,
j καλη yuun
Here kan, and yuyn are brought together so as to show that
the two belong to the subject of which we speak. That sub2.
ject is not simply yuvy), a woman, or any woman; nor is it τρέχει
yuvn tis, a certain woman; but į kaln yuvn, the fair woman. The second sentence you will see is logically equivalent to the Consequently, kalŋ and yuvî refer to the same person, and first. In consequence, spexet contains in itself a copula and an referring to the same person they combine to describe that attribute, and is in itselt the predicate of the proposition. person. As they then agree so as to be one in fact or in
Without these parts you cannot have a complete proposi- thought, so must they agree so as to be one in form. Hence
form of speech allowable only if I had wished to express con
tempt of the particular woman referred to. Είναι with an attribute ο θεος εστιν αγαθος God is good In the second place, advert to number. Suppose I had without ο θεος εστιν
God exists written kalai; then I should have made the woman at once εστιν ο θεος.
singular and plural; intimating that she was one and more
than one person. In the third place, had I written kalns, I Il, now, you drop ý yuvn, then you have no subject, and should have produced a different sense, for, by disconnecting consequently nothing of which a declaration can be made; I wann from yuvn, the predicate from the subject, I shouid have
1. η γυνη
θεος εστιν. .
said something of this kind —" the woman is (the daughter, or of the predicate, as is the case in intransitive verbs; whereas the mother) of the fair one."
in the previous case, the predicate involves the object; e. 8. Similar remarks would serve to show that the article (which is a species of adjective--a qualifying, that is, determinative
Predicate. word) must also agree in form with its noun, seeing that it of necessity agrees in sense, both referring to the same object.
Objert. As adjectives and substantives which agree in sense must
τον υιον οι agree in form, 80
copula attribute The subject must agree with its verb.
(τον υιον. . If, for instance, I had put before the verb toti a plural subject, as ai yuvaixes, saying the women is fair, then I should for so may, Tutte be resolved. If now I put down in Greek the have represented the subject as at the same time plural and changes indicated in the other sentence, you will have the singular, intimating that it was plural by the form of the noun
whole before you at one view. and the form of the adjective; and intimating that it was
καλη We now come to case. Take the example
These preliminary explanations contain the substance of the
Greek Syntax. Other observations, particulars, and rules, Here rov viov is in the accusative case, illustrating the fact are only the expansion and the application of these general that Turtw is one of those verbs which require their object to principles. be in the accusative case. Other verbs place the object in the Take an illustration of the fact in an expansion of the sen. genitive case, and others in the dative case. In either the tence, Ÿ yuvn TUATEL tov viov. You may make this simple accusative, the genitive, or the dative case must every object sentence into a compound sentence, by adding another verb, be. Consequently a noun found in either one of these cases is e. g. known to be an object--an object governed by a preposition if not by a verb. In the sentence given above, then, I know yuvn προσκαλεί
viov that roy viov is the object, or receives the action implied in the woman
calls and strikes her
viov their arrangement.
. Now then suppose that I had written την γυναικα εστι καλη. I should have sundered saly from yuvn, making the subject By adding another verb we should add that which would make an object, for it is in one of the cases in which the object ap- the compound sentence equivalent to three simple sentences. pears. Had I written y yuun kote kalnu, I should have em. Indeed totidem verba, totidem sententiæ ; that is, in English, as ployed an object kalnu, without any verb or preposition to many verbs as you use, so mans sentences you have. govern it,
These two sentences may, however, be reduced to a simple Observe, moreover, that kalŋ is in the same case as yuvn, sentence by changing one of the verbs into a participle, thus though a verb comes between them. That verb is egt. Hence
1) you may infer, as a general rule, that the verb elva, has the
viov same case after it as before it; the reason is found in the fact the woman calling (him) strikes her already mentioned, that elvai, as a copula, merely unites the attribute with the subject. Indeed, whether, as here, the You may also expand the other components of the sentence, adjective is an attribute, or whether it is an epithet im- e. g. mediately qualifying the noun, the adjective must agree with
The Subject j
vior the noun in gender, number, and case.
the The parts of a sentence thus explained may be variously
bad woman strikes her
The Verd modified.
the 1. The article may be dropped, and then you have yuvn EOTI
severely strikes kaly. The article becomes plural if the noun is plural; it The Object 01 yuun may also pass into the dual number agree with the noun.
the woman strikes her disobedierit son. 2. The subject may be in either the plural or the dual number.
A secondary subject may be introduced, as 3. If the subject is changed 80 as to be in the plural or dual
) number, the verb must also be changed.
yuun, Ασπασια καλουμενη, τυπτει 4. The verb may undergo changes, passing into the dual or
who is called Aspasia, strikes her the plural, in order to correspind to the subject. 16. "If the subject is in the dual or the plural number, the takes place when a noun is added to a noun, the second beting
This instance illustrates what is called apposition ; apposition attribute is changed into the corresponding number.
in the same case as the first, by way of explanation, that is, Also in the second sentence, vi yurn TVATEL Toy viov, many in order to state who or what is meant. similar changes may be made in the subject, the verb, and the A secondary object may be introduced; e. g. object. Besides changes like those just pointed out, the sub.. ject may be involved in the verb, being indicated by the per.
ένεκα της απευθειας son-ending, as
strikes her son on account of his disobedience, τον υιον
The secondary object may relate to place and so qualify the
verb, as where subject and verb blend together in Turtw. Another
TUTTTEL change may be undergone, for the verb may contain the whole the woman strikes her son
in the house.