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at all, but contains forty-four per cent. of carbonate off under-lying bed. The German miners call it briefly Rothliemagnesia combined with carbonate of lime. In other places gendes. it consists chiefly of the carbonate of lime which has concreted This rock consists of sandstone and sand, which, in Yorkinto globular pieces, varying from the size of a boy's marble shire and Durham, separates the Permian system from the to that of a cannon ball, which, when broken, are found to coal formation. It is better known in England by the name radiate from the centre. There are, however, districts in of the “ Pontefract stone," which consists of yellowish sand. which some earthy and powdery beds of this rock pass into stone and conglomerates, and containining various fossil compact limestone, or into hard granular Dolomite,

plants.

The precise relationship of these sandstones to the Permian No. 2. THE BRECCIATED LIMESTONE.

and to the coal measures is not yet well defined, but as such You will remember that if rounded pebbles be cemented into sandstones are nearly co-extensive with the Permian, they are a hard mass, it is called a conylomerate, but if the rocky frag- generally classed with it. ments cemented be angular and not water-worn, the mass is called a BRECCIA.

No. 7. THE DOLOMITE CONGLOMERATES OF BRISTOL. The fragments which form the cemented breccia in the In some of the English counties bordering on the Severn, magnesian limestone, are not from remote and different rocks, north and south of Bristol, a low bed of the Permians rests but consist of pieces of this very limestone itself. Some of immediately but not conformably upon the coal measures. It these angular fragments are, as at Tynemouth, good two feet is a bed of pebbles called dolomite, consisting of fragments in diameter. These fragments never appear water-worn, but of older rocks cemented together by a red or yellow base of seem to have been cemented on the spot where they were magnesian or dolomitic limestone. It is sometimes a conglobroken up, perhaps by atmospheric influences.

merate and sometimes a breccia. This bed is in patches,

stretching over the whole of the downs near Bristol, and is No.3, THE FOSSILIFEROUS LIMESTONE.

found filling up the hollows in the mountain limestone. It is

composed principally, at every spot, of the ruins of the rocks The bed of this fossiliferous limestone is sometimes called on which it rests, such as coal shale, millstone grit, mountain the upper Zechstein, and the rock of which it is composed is) limestone. This may be advantageously studied in the valley called Dolomite, from M. Dolomieu, a French geologist, who of the Avon near Clifton, where the coal strata are seen to overwas the first to mark its lithological character.

lie the mountain limestone. It is a stratum of great extent and thickness, and it contains a large proportion of magnesia, whiclı is probably the reason II. THE FOSSIL REMAINS OF THE PERMIAN. why the yellow limestone in Durham, so abundantly charged

1. The fossil contents of the Permian rocks have this interest, with magnesia as to form a true dolomite, gave the name of that they present specimens of the last types of organic the magnesian limestone to this bed wherever it was found. This true dolomite rock consists of a granular, crystalline, of our globe. There are 166 species of plants and animals in

life, which had prevailed from the earliest epoch in the history and limy stone, but instead of being pure lime, it is often more the Permian, which have been accurately determined, and of than half carbonate of magnesia. In England, the lines of these 148 are unknown in any other formation. Though these stratification in this rock are generally distinct and clear. In deposits are exceedingly diversified in their mineral aspects a fresh quarry, the structure of the rock looks perfectly granu- they are all marked by one type only of animal and vegetable lar, and has a glimmering lustre, like a sugar-loaf fresh cut. organisms, and that is essentially palæozoic. On this account The rock has different colours in different places; for when the Permian ranks as the uppermost, or the newest, group of it is infiltrated with hydrate of iron it is pale fawn or yellow; the palæozoic rocks, but when with oxide of iron, it is red. Sometimes this division has beds of very hard stone, and plants have been found, of which several are common to the

2. In the Permian rocks of Saxony, sixty species of fossil supplies the best building materials in England. The outside coal measures, but forty of them are never found elsewhere. of the New Houses of Parliament in London are built of dolo

3. The bed of crystalline limestone, No. 1, has for its chief mite, or magnesian limestone.

characteristic the fossil shells Schizodus Schlotheimi, and No. 4. THE COMPACT LIMESTONE, CALLED THE LOWER

Mytilus septifer, which are found about Hartlepool and Sunder. ZECHSTEIN.

jand.

4. The dolomitic limestone, No. 3, abounds with the delicate In mineral character this bed is much the same with No. 3, coral called Fenestella retiformis

. It has also shells of the for, as far it is developed in Nottinghamshire, Yorkshire, and genera Spirifer and Product us, which are not found in any Durham, it consists of yellow magnesian limestone. In

stratum above the Permian, but are abundant in this division Russia, it is a mere subordinate member of vast beds of rocks of what used to be called the yellow magnesian limestone. containing copper ; but in Germany, to the south of the Hartz

5. The marl slate, No. 5, has furnished fine specimens of mountains, and in Thuringia, it consists of enormous masses several fossil fish, called the Palæoniscus, P'ygopterus, Celocano of limestone and gypsum.

thus, and Platyosomus—all of which are found in the older and the underlying rocks, the coal measures; and yet the Permian

species of these fish are peculiar, and vary from those of the The marl slate is called by the Germans, Kupferschiefer, or coal rocks. copper shales, and consists of hard, limy slates, marl shales, One mode of distinguishing fish is by the fin which forms and thin seams of limestone. In England, these red marls their tails. In one tribe, as in the shark and the sturgeon, and sandstones extend from the neighbourhood of Nottingham the back.bone of the fish is continued to the upper lobe or to the southern parts of Northumberland, and at East Thickley, division of the tail. This tribe is called Heterocercal. In in Durham, it is thirty feet in depth. About Mansfeldt in another tribe, like the herrings the back-bone does not enter Thuringia, this marlstone is richly impregnated with copper either lobe of the tail, but the tin of the tail is equally divided

. pyrites (pe-ry-tes), for which it is extensively worked. This This tribe is called Homocercal. These two trides are repreis the reason why the Germans call this bed copper shale. sented in the following engraving, fig. 13. At Eisleben, the native place of Luther, this stratum furnishes 6. The plants of the marl slate, No. 6, has not, as yet, their fossil fish in the most beautiful condition, having their bodies relations well determined. In some regions they are supposed splendidly covered with copper pyrites, and even their scales, to be, in species, identical with those of the coal measures ; and, appear as if turned into burnished gold.

in that case, they ought properly to be referred to that epoch:

but the true Permian plants appear, from Sir Roderick MurchiNo. 6. THE INFERIOR SANDSTONE.

son's work on Russia,

to be in species quite distinct from these

of the coal, The German miners call this inferior sandstone by the hard name of Rothe-todie-lie-gendes--the red-dead-lyer

. It is thus remains of a saurian, or lizard, called the Protorosaurus,

7. The Zechstein of Thuringia bas furnished the fossil called, partly because of its red colour, and partly because the reptile nearly allied to a monster' of the living creation, called copper pyrites die out when the miners dig down into this ! Monitor

No. 5. THE MARL SLATE.

8. In the dolomitic conglomerates at Redland near Bristol, sylvania, and the skeleton of a saurian, four feet long, having
the remaivs of two distinct species of saurians, or lizards, have been found in a rock of the carboniferous age in Germany.
been found. One species is called the Thecodontosaurus, on 8. The appearance, in a palæozoic formation, of the lizard
account of its teeth being implanted in distinct sockets, like the fish called the Protorosaurus, a reptilie allied to our present
erocodile ; and the other is called the Paleosaurus, the ancient Monitor, is, as Professor Owen has shown, opposed the doc-
lizard. These are also found in the Permian rocks of Russia. trine of the progressive development of reptiles from fish, or

9. The most remarkable fossil plants of the Rothe-todte- from simpler forms to more complex organisation ; for if the
lie-gende, in Bohemia and Saxony, are the silicified trunks of Protorosaurus were now in existence, it would be at the head of
tree ferns, of the genus called Psaronius. Their bark is sur. the order of lizards.
rounded by a thick mass of air-roots which greatly strengthens

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By J. R. Beard, D.D.
The eloquence of the British senate has no parallel. Greece
had but one Demosthenes, and Rome produced no orator
comparable with Cicero. But England may boast of a
succession of statesmen, who to profound wisdom and the
highest administrative skill united the most brilliant and
powerful eloquence. Foremost among these truly great men,
to whom is largely to be ascribed the high and indomitable

spirit of Englishmen in peace and in war, stands William Pitt, Heterocercal Tail— The Shark. Homocercal Tail ---The Herring. Earl of Chatham, sometimes distinguished as “the elder Pitt,'

eminent alike for ability and character. the stem, and doubles and sometimes even quadruples its

William Pitt, the son of a private gentleman, by name diameter. These Psaronites are found in the upper coal seams Robert Pitt, of 'Boconnoc, Cornwall, was born on the 15th of of Autun, in France, and also in the upper coal strata of the November, 1708. He received a classical training at Eton and State of Ohio, North America ; but all these are of a species Oxford, and by his abilities and love of country early excited different from those of the Rothetodteliegende.

great expectations. In the year 1735 he entered parliament as

member for Old Sarum, a rotten borough dependent on his III. SOME GEOLOGICAL PHENOMENA OF THE PERMIAN.

family. His friends, out of their scanty means, had purchased

for him a cornet's commission in the cavalry. He lost the post 1. Some of the beds of the concretionary limestone are in consequence of supporting in his place in parliament an ripple-marked, and the class of shells which are found in it, increase in the provision for the Prince of Wales. His persetogether with the complete absence of corals, indicate that the cution called his eloquence into fuller play, and nerved his rock was formed in shallow water.

patriotic soul. He soon obtained in parliament and among the 2. Though the lines of stratification in the limestone are people so predominant an influence, that the court saw it generally regular and clear, yet there are instances in which prudent to bestow on him an office. He became (1746) Treathe stratification is obliterated by the process of concretionary surer for Ireland, and shortly afterwards was appointed Pay. action, which seems to have re-arranged the materials of the master-General of the Forces. At this time, the Duchess of rock after they had been deposited, and to have thereby des- Marlborough, pleased with the patriotism of the daring orator, troyed the lines of stratification. This may be seen in the presented him with an estate worth £10,000. A similar piece cliffs at Pontefract and Ripon in Yorkshire.

of good fortune fell to him on similar grounds at a later period. 3. The concretionary masses in the dolomite limestone When, in 1735, Fox became Secretary of State in place of furnish a beautiful illustration of the manner in which spheri- Robinson, Pitt laid down his office, as he found himself in cal bodies are formed by chemical action-an action intro- strong opposition with the policy of the new minister. He was duced into stratified detritus after its deposition. It is remark- not, indeed, averse to either the war against France or the able that, notwithstanding the concretionary action, the lines treaty with Prussia, but he wished that therein the interests of of the original lamination or seams continue to pass through | England alone should be regarded; while George II. was the spheroidal or oval masses. This is evident, as the lime- solicitous for his German possessions, and contemplated sendstone is commonly traversed by veins and strings of carbonate ing troops to Hanover. In 1756, the king, yielding to the of lime,

wishes of the nation, dismissed Fox. Thereupon Pitt suc4. The fossiliferous limestone bed, No. 3, is supposed, from ceeded as Secretary of State, and conducted the war according the delicate corals which abound in it, to have been a deep to his own comprehensive plan. He formed a national militia, water formation,

called out the energies of the British people, and directed them 6. The marl slates abound with Heterocercal fish. This to their own peculiar sphere, the ocean, with the view of form, in the fish of the present day, is exceedingly limited; effecting a landing on the French territory. To this course but it was almost universal in the Permian period, and in all the king was opposed. Pitt, therefore, surrendered the seals the ancient formations. This type, therefore, characterises of office in April

, 1757, In the June ensuing, he again the earliest periods of our earth's history, when the organisa- received them from his royal master's hands, for the stirring tion of fish was much more like lizard reptiles than now. requests of the people were irresistible; and the war in Han

You will remember that in all the rocks above the Permian over, under the Duke of Cumberland, went on badly. Pitt at the homocercal tail prevails.

once became the soul of the cabinet. His great aim was to 6. The fossil fishes contained in the Permian are most gene- debilitate France and make England powerful. His bold and rally found curved or contorted, which seems to indicate the kindling eloquence obtained for him a controlling sway over violent conyulsion that attended their sudden death. AGASSIZ the legislature. He showed the people that the strength of the (A gassi), however, thinks that their curved state is to be British nation lay in its naval force. He proved that the great attributed to muscular contraction during decomposition, after industrial population of the three kingdoms could be free, life was extinct.

rich, and secure only when trade flourished, and the fleet ruled 7. The earliest certain indications of the existence of reptiles the waves. His policy was so simple and straightforward, upon our globe are supplied by the Permian system ; for in that the people rose to their former self-confidence, and put the more ancient formations, no teeth or bones of any higher forth gigantic efforts which eventually overcame all opposition. animals than fishes have yet been discovered.

Pitt not only succeeded in defeating the policy of France and Two circumstances scem to come into collision with this Spain, but applied his great powers to oppose the unjust and statement, namely, the impressions of the feet of quadrupeds disastrous war undertaken by England against her North having been discovered in the mountain limestone of Penn-1 American colonies, employing the most vivid and rapturous

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eloc uence to dimahile he sun ie 1.nt and we he te the English Toote than I do: I know their virtues and their government. H. mnunr. a ** IPT

Y -

I wow they can achieve anything but impossibilities; verily waye maump Hy Peer. Dizide itse int ut ! 270* that the conqrest of English America is an imposPar and Rarit ludiam. et 22 sendinto bility Y annot my lords, you cannot conquer Amethrough which je **nt lis in i mit sei.

What is your present situation there? We do not w38nar. 'le port in kerence searance n know the worst; but we know that in three campaigns we the roue va reguar. I mu je It be remni. save tone nothing, and suffered much. You may swell every ties of the body D prent 1 bis aranz 1 1 9 pense. seamate every assistance, and extend your traffic patriotism and pribrny III vse mi psisties to the shampies of every German despot; your attempts will benemlence, he or heat ines: Trepik s seat pe for ver tan and potent :--doubly so, indeed, from this in parliament in de buurt. 14, and Die mith eat neprar ud on when you relyfor it irritates, to an in. enerzy warsi be gent de me?. ut ven le riiet "arie resen ment, the minds of your adversaries, to overrun to wires ne ause an, 'I 4 speera rien ne rise of them with nercenary sons of rapine and plunder, deroting Richmond, de vis to iverdowezedi Tutans har de iz hem and her possessions to the rapacity of hireling cruelty. on hp tuor n

* 3:11, Iv .cris, who is the man that, in addition to the w inn o his sume a L. nio, *".-re le arteri

fisgraces and desenes of the war, has dared to authorise and ite in the heat 1.1

138002D so ju arms the tomahawk and scalping-knife of the Cam ten s trens 25 i 01.

3 2 kur DAISES vibal s In

sayıs • t case be cir.ised alliance the wild and inhuman

wants at the woods : to delegate to the merciless Indians w: Camden v Rens i NTB

2e letenee of sted rights, and to wage the horrors of his anong: ist. 4: DER zalaam si. 2* .* Tural aresseta jarnarss var uans: our brethren? My lords, these enor. hos con ani- amun, same IT UNIT.

1.4S TT LD bar redress and punishment. But, my lords, nom-n ster, is not oui teie is eise deri

is ararcus measure has been defended, not only on the in uses in Drun. -33825 Tusse randes cf peizey and necessity, but also on those of 及? ,MT4a ! 这次。“以。 20. Von:

Duru: Sr. as is pertectiy allowable,' says Lord Suffolk,

'se tae Dents which God and nature have put into our Clun - IN 2 C D

...

zanes. am as a sud, I am shocked, to hear such princi. 2e ne sum : * **** * * * vecent arriuage Enfessed; bear them avowed in this house, or in this

ruary Mycris, I did not intend to encroach so much on wyregn i herba sa ay v2:

pour intentirn: but I cann t repress my indignation - I feel *****,* *as de herramienta

mysel need to speak. My lords, we are called upon as {"? **am s unu 18 asap wach

Demmers or the house, as men, as Christians, to protest can be destueu vay de pele "L", si wis

Quast such hor bie barbarity! That God and nature have the power tits spindle du Canay kurs site

is into cu bants!' Wbat ideas of God and nature that theatre # us oves, tae erudur of 2 was a pies cierd may entertain, I know not; but I know, that such and its withering aspecs un sareasa. La sua decestarile prineipies are equally abhorrent to religion and the t'Ise y voice and the muri force of a bagi and

human.cy. Wha! to attribute the sacred sanction of God earum ih recer. His teine once sau 13 source in these and nature to the massacres of the Indian scalping-knife! : bara wis anvi svurat lies wu sre ake resistess and she savize, torturing and murdering bis unhappy victims un decav1, Wind sie istina y Baracterise the one ince of the Sueh notions shocks every precept of morality,

every feeling

of *** 228.43et vist, ansi wanava: waich unter deras bumanity, every seguiment of honour. These abominable klu» ar ble piny a spouca-aaway, or a segue su uf

principies, and this more abominable arowal of them, demand Fermeer inform noun mar de wand in the "Istory of the and this must learned beach, to sindicate the religion of their

We 2 si decisive indignation. I call upon that right reverend, Liela Pres. Bier w Chandana, 153: trend wod, to support the justice of their country. I call upon the w the Lale of the 4: di un'in Wan Pas, Euri ut : fhathaibo ate on ite peupoozy be erros or as and who has shops to interpose the unsullied sancuty of the laen; 8.nu un Harian-esho it an alle var !: Lind. upon the judges to interpose the punity of their ermine, to 1: Leeters wreeleta v libe whats Earl of Cham tais lordships, to reverence the dignity of your ancestors, and to

save us from this pollution. I cail upoc the honour of your medew, l'hem Pict, trwaru Lord (one ford," 3rd i Petition. Londoz. isvei " Hustory of the Ky Hugourable maintain your own. I call upon the spirit and humanity of Witam Pres . Kari of Chathas, by Francis Thackeray," my country, to vindicate the national character. I invoke the

genius of the Constitution. From the tapestry that adorns The character of the Earl of Chatham's oratory mas be with indignation at the disgrace of his country. In vain did

these walls, the immortal ancestor of this noble lord frowns juced wat by the milo win tirse burst af cinquence

he defend the liberty, and establish the religion of Britain

against the tyranny of Rome, if these worse than Popish ON ANERKAN AFFAIRS.

crueities and inquisitorial practices are endured among us, * T ***0e, may forels, I ws! not, join in congratulation on To send forth the merciless Indians, thirsting for blood! **** (ne andere I'hy, my forets, perilous and against whom :-your protestant brethren! to lay waste their

The 4* 111.37pt it at a time for adulation; the i country, to desolate their dweli...gs and extirpate their race ****, ***** HARY (* sve us in this rugged and / and name, by the aid and instrumentality of these horrible in mind *** It tak w net wary to instruet the throne in the hell-hounds of war! Spain can no longer boast pre-eminence 14100g wil truth 1pmunt, ut pessible, tıxpel the delusion in barbarity. She armed herself with bloodhounds to extirand starts i hund envelope it ; and display, in its full danger pate the wretched natives of Mexico; we, more ruthless, loose *****0e pandents, the ruin which is brought to our doors. these brutal warriors against our own countrymen in America, to tako i mult pesume to expect support in their in- endeared to us by every tie that can sanctity humanity. ] Animations can parliament i *o dead to its dignity and duty. solemnly call upon your lordships, and upon every order of ** *** pro the support to measures thus obtruded and forced men in the state, to stamp upon this infamous procedure the

ps thema / measures, my lords, which have reduced this late , indelible stigma of the public abhorrence. More particularly,
Helenga pinguere #**** and contempt! But yesterday, I call upon the venerable prelates of our religion, to do away
and long haired have bad nennst the world, now, none with this iniquity; let them perform a lustration to purify the
*** **** file bie's Home The prophe, whom we ar tirst country from this deep and deadly sin,
the past ten but we *11***a newens enemies,
How to do it ny tried "*, he's of the parer minary store, say more; but my feelings and indignation were too strong to

* My lords, I am old and weak, and at present unable to Best intensamenlood, Hisill missat 'n entertained by have allowed me to say less. I could not have slept this

arned monstests to this, and dare not, night in my bed, nor even reposed my head upon my pillow, Ini Alistas Two dle stale can army shroat without giving vent to my steadfast abhorrence of such enorta tu jari Allen

NIE *** Butip highly ***** .1*** *** honours mous and preposterous principles."

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Pronunciation,

Speaking of these different methods of pronouncing the
LESSONS IN FRENCH PRONUNCIATION.

Liquids, the following opinion is taken from "BOLMAR'S LEVI.
No. VII.

zac's French GRAMMAR, viz. :

" This last pronunciation being the easiest of the two, has 72. LIQUIDS.

been adopted by so many people in France, that it is no longer L and LL.

considered a fault, except by grammarians. However, I

recommend the former, not only on account of its correctness, WHENEVER I. and LL are preceded by al, Ei, oui, and some but also on account of its being a sound very common to the times by 1 only, they receive a sound very different from that Spanish, the Italian and Portuguese languages; in which which tney have when initial. In the former case, they languages this sound does not admit of any variation. It is recone Liquid, and are so called from their peculiar sound. represented in the Spanish by ll, in the Italian by gli, and in Yet it is a sound with which foreigners are well acquainted. the Portugese by lh.The only difficulty is, in expressing or illus ruting the sound

GN. by means of English analogous sounds It is the same sound which is given to the letters LLI in the

This Liquid is much used in the French language. Its correct pronunciation of the English words COLLIER, correct sound is peculiar, delightful, and by no means difficult BILLIARI), BRILLIANT, and WILLIAM. If you pro- to obtain. It is the sound of the letters GN, in the English nounce any one of these words very carefully, observing at words BAGNIO, MIGNIONETTE and VIGNETTE. It the same time the peculiar sound of the letters LI.1, you will may be represented also by the letters NI in the English have the correct Liquid sound which is ilustrated by the words MINION, ONION, PINION and UNION. pecuiiar sound of the ietters GL, in the English word

Pronounce the word MIGNIONETTE correctly and careSERAGLIO.

fully; observing, at the same time, the peculiar sound of the In French words con‘aining Lig aid sounds, observe the letters GN; pronounce also the word PINION, observing the following General Rules, viz.

sound of the letters NI. Give to GN in the following
examples the sound of GN in the word miynionette, or of

NI in the word pinion, which will be the correct sound of this
Pronounce the letter A before Ils and Ile-, as A in the Liquid,
English word AH!

French.

English.
II.

Bagne
Bagn

Galley.
Pronounce the letter E before IL and ILL, as A in the

Baigné
Bay-gnay

Bathed.
English word DAY.

Bignonie
Bee-gno-nee

Trumpet-flower.
In the illustrated pronunciation of the following examples Digne

Deegn

Worthy. 1 Liquid sounds, the last syllable YE of many of them, is Dignitaire

Dee-gnee-tair

Dignitary, scarcely sounded, Let it be but the mere faint echo of the

Dignité
Dee-gnee-tay

Dignity. voice.

Epargne
Ay-pargn

Economy.
Gagner
Ga-gnay

To earn.
Name.
Bound.

Poigne
Paygn

Comb.
GL. Like the letters GI in the English word SERAGLIO.

Régnant
Ray.gnanh!

Reigning.
Pronunciation.

English.
Signe
Seegn

Sign.
Accueil A-kueegl-ye or k'weegl-ye Reception.

Soigner
S'wah-gnyay

To attend to.
Briller
Breegl.yay
To brighten. Vigneron

Veegno-ronh!

Vine-dresser. Castille Kas-ugl-ye

Contention, Dépouille Day-poo-eegl-ye

Reiics.

The exceptions to this method of pronouncing the letters
Anh!-nor-gueegl-yeer, or

GN occur only in these words, in which they belong to dif-
Enorgueillir

To be proud of. ferent syllables ;-that is to say, in dividing those words into

g'weegl-yeer Famille Pa-migl-ye

Family.

syllables, it would be found that G belonged to one syllable,

Paper, or a sheet and N belonged to the next succeeding syllable, viz. :-
Feuille
Fuh!igl-ye
of paper.

Pronunciation,

English,
Fille
Feegl-ye

Daughter.

Igné
To wet.

Ig-nay
Mouiller

Igneous.
Moo-eegl-yay
Oreille

Ear.

Ignescent Ig-naya-sanh!
()-raygl-ye

Ignicole
Ig-ne-kol

Fire-worshipper.
Paille

Straw.
Pah-eegl-ye, or pahgl-ye
Pouiller

To abuse.
Ignition
Ig-ne-seonh!

Ignition.
Poo-cegl-yay

Ignivome
Alarm-clock.

Ig-ne-vom
Réveil

Fire-vomiting.
Ray-vaygl-ye

Ignivore
Furrow,

Ig-ne-vor
Sillon

Fire-eating.
Sigl-yonh!

Magnificat
Sun.

Mag-ni-fe-kat
Soleil

Name of a sacred hymn.
So-laygl-ye

Regnicole Raig-ne-kol

A native:
Tailleur
Tahgl-yuh!r, or

Tailor.
Stagnant
Stag-nanh!

Stagnant.
Tah-eegl-yuh!r
Tourbillon

Whirlwind.

Stagnation Stag-nah-seonh! Stagnation.
Toor-bigl-yonh!
Travail
Tra-vahgl-ye, or

To the above may be added a few Proper Names.

Labour,
Tra-vah-eegl-ye
But there is another very different and commom method of GENERAL RULES FOR PRONOUNCING AND READING

FRENCH.
pronouncing the Liquid suund illustrated in the preceding
examples. Its chief merit is, the case with which it may be

73. The preceding lessons have been devoted exclusively,– acquired. It cannot be stigmatised as absolutely vicious, though and it is hoped satisfactorily, -to the illustration of every it be, at least in our opinion, INELEGANT.

known French sound, whether occurring singly, or the result The following examples will be used to illustrate the kind of combinations of Vowels, Consonants, Compound Vowels, of pronunciation just spoken of, viz. :

Diphthongs, Nasals and Liquids. ANALOGOUS ENGLISH
Pronunciation.

SOUNDS have constituted the agents of the foregoing illus-
Aiguille
A-guee-y'

Needle.

trations of French sounds, Generally, this has had referBuuilli Booee-y'

Boiled Beef.

ence to SEPARATE WORDS, only. But, let it be rememBouteille Boo-tay-y'

Bottle,

bered, that to give the correct sound of a French word, as it Cuiller Kuee-yeair

spoon.

STANDS ALONE, is a very different thing from giving that same
Fauteuil
Fo-tuh!-y'

Arm-chair. F.ench word its correct sound, when it is used with other
Groseille
Gro-zay-y'

Currart. words in the formation of a sentence in reading, or a phrase
Muraille
Mu-rah-y?

Wail.

in conversation.

French.

French.

French.

English,

XIII.

In this preval, the French language is like our own, as wordt mina conversation. Toe srstem of WORD-CON.! NRTIS in sentences and phrases in both larguazes, is

WzeBere & word ending with a Consonant immediately by giving sevimens of truko CNT::N3 in the Eazas de

casa, or to the word itself, if it be a monosyllable, nesten hvemal . Fir the purple of Eestrati, we are bore precedes a scd beginning with a Vowel or silent H, the sound

the desi Corsocant of the former word is carried to the first languste, via. My hai was on the table,-is posecanced es i Ferizalarly the case, if the two words are inti.

- use a word commenced with that Consonant. jampi ape the needs oordzsed as 3 zda ma teerd is sease.

Te Te Bane oves its existence entirely to Euphony; to Ipam - - - - Series : hండ

FLERET:

visst everything else is sacrificed in the XX Li -s prie:end ssd--r-I serta dari sez secara sek. Sail the student must not observe it pantai-ir-te uma : PICA -, ese

to mpetits poetry. Neither in prose nor conversation,

Begood in the following cases, viz. :TENA CFL-SIXTIN E en

Era sound would be the consequence. Som anstre ; tbe 2:54 L' rlite run no 77• Mengur in the Hamm.621 ... THE E

190t Te usy punctuation mark is placed between the two

VII Desa. berg is

XII. beet. Se Li Be

** TIT I L San xud zrc LE DE İT mag 1 the words ZT-a conjunction meaning and—and VALAISIN 1 she is run er II 21-Desirg a hundred—is never carried to the following Fri ett vit : STRINI : >> RS Dr

viri arunciation, D:& rr: D.LT

En 21 SIITIE IKS 1. IL TIRDI. = .. wirt irem 20 * Ve. Eit ISILAIT. Das

1e vord AOLT, is not generally sounded. Some: L r n r-rum SI TAL

smes, stere, it is pronounced, but it is considered incorrect. TEX II 134 Trend II LSI DITT I us 100T-seaning August (the month), is pronounced ཀུག་ཨང་ཀུ:Tuའགྱུ ག་ཝཱ ཨ ཀ བ་..

སྒྲུབ་ 729 i Wri sana **. 24 AH00. 1:21.5 2.0 TR nung 2. 31. I

XIV. PLS Pr Term":111 wei.

In de Cimeend word EST-IL, and a few others, the T is Ana a ráta un rimua maum.

* w 1.413 v mu szans. Driving us TR 1 the secued syilable in pronunciation. Pirts End ummin muur vai ne

XV. time, want daar is ******** UNE VR wes rrinin u urrs. Wwwever I word en ding with a silent E is immediately ITVE 1 hotinis Maria de La HD 3:52. isa sau viluwe IT anuge werd beginning with a Vowel or H mute,

De Laat peseeding the silent E of the first word is

sme v me sexi word in pronunciation, viz. :-
Wwftud be the more posts

A SANCE ENTIERE ; as if printed
LA TUNIXTIE RĘ, and pronounced,
Larruz sanh-teair.
KUITE HOUVE; as if printed

NS-rumXs, and pronounced,

L'u-may-com.
Vand will be
u SSS

ITT.
With the words AH! EH! OH! OUEST,-one of the points

of the compass-OCF! OUI, ONZE, ONZIEME, PHO! In god ide top www oh, oh!O: DK Nie some UNIEME, YACHT, YATAGAN, YOLE and YUCCA, no Wlan ཞེས ས ས ས སཱཝཱ ཀ ན པ ༣ ༣༣ པ *** དྷ ནས ༣ སཾ

inal Consonans of a preceding word is connected in pronun. | ciation. Neither is any elision of the Article made before any

of these words. ***. totode beste will be back il ta the English abai paliek of words ending

VII. In the phrase VERS LES UNE HEURE, the S final of the second word-LES-is not carried to the following word

UNE-in pronunciation. Hotel la tine de la mule or unaccented.

XVIII.

CINQ, is pronounced sank!, whenever it comes before & findings at the twissel vi like the letters SH, mute, it is pronounced sanh!k.

Consonant of an Aspirated H. But before & Vowel or ! iu show badania view letters CH in the word

XIX. Villa made iti al tu thu ile (AST and ANTICHRIST, are and Q.

l'E, have the sound of U, when they are not silent after a

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XX.

DIX,—ten, before a Consonant, is pronounced DEE; 1 * ** ***** Alivet kapestival, errupt in the words before a Vowel or I mute, DEEZ; and at the end of a clause,

as DEESS.

XXI.

SIX, --six,- before a Consonant, is pronounced SEE; bafore In this viki?', the 4 Iriters Hisare never a Vowel or H mute, SEEZ ; and at the end of a clause, as

SEES.

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