« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
liquid in which the two wires representing the electrodes are but what are the duties arising out of man's relation to Gods placed.
his Creator, Benefactor, and Preserver. Although the obliga. For physiological and chemical effects, the wire wound |tion to obedience arises primarily from the relations jest round the bobbins is fine, and about 1,700 to 2,000 feet upon mentioned, yet it is necessary to take into view the supreme eaeh. For physical effects, on the contrary, the wire is thick, excellence and majesty of the character of God; for if picas and about 80 or 100 feet on each bobbin. Figs. 463 and 461 and devout sentiments towards God be required, it is because show the shapes of the bobbins. The former represents the there is in the character of God, as exhibited in his works, inflammation of ether, and the second the incandescence of a something to call forth such affections from rational and nightly metallic wire o, along which passes -- always in the same disposed minds. If God were not supremely excellent, i direction—the current going from the strip a to the strip c. would not be reasonable to demand supreme love from his
creatures, and so of other things. But as we know that God is possessed of every excellence in an infinite degree, there
exists an object for every affection and sentiment towards him LESSONS IN MORAL SCIENCE--No. XII. of which the human mind is capable. From what has been
said it is evident, that in order to perform any other duties to DUTIES OF MAN TO THE CREATOR AS THUS
the Creator, some knowledge of his true character is requisite
Without knowledge the rational mind cannot exercise night
affections, Having given, in a summary, the proofs of the existence and character of God, so far as reason can guide us in the inquiry,
Supposing, then, a rational mind, such as it is reasonable to we are now prepared to consider the relation in which man think man possessed when he proceeded from the hands of stands to God, and the obligations which arise out of this rela- his Maker, and possessing that knowledge of his attributes tion. As man himself, in the wise and wonderful constitution which may be learnt from his works, what would be the ir of his mind and body, has been supplied with the most striking thoughts and feelings of the newly-created soul? In ou and convincing evidences of a powerful, wise, and beneficent judgment, the first feeling would be an emotion of profound Author of the universe; we are led at once to see, that God, as veneration, or perhaps the word adoration would more strongly being the Creator of man, and the Giver of all his remarkable indicate the state of the mind, absorbed in the contemplation endowments, has a perfect right to claim his obedience to the of a Being so august, so powerful, and so immense. This utmost extent of his powers. And on taking an impartial feeling, then, is one which ought to exist in every rational survey of the origin of his being, of the goodness of the mind towards the Almighty. This is the true foundation of Creator in his various beneficent endowments, and of his con- divine worship. It is the deep and solemn emotion which is tinual dependence upon divine Providence, not only for the con- the essence of the worship, which holy beings in all watida tinuance of his being, faculties, and susceptibilities, but also offer unto God. for all those gifts necessary to his health and comfort, man
And this feeling would lead to a reverence for every thing cannot but feel that
he is under the strongest moral obligation which has any relation to God. His very name would be to obey, honour, and glorify his Maker, with his best affections sacred. We have read of men of great eminence who here and most strenuous exertions. This is the foundation of what mentioned that name without a solemn pause, or some external is called the law-that moral law which is, as it were, written token of reverence. on the heart of every man; for what man is there, who has The duty which most naturally arises from the relation which come to the exercise of reason, who does not perceive a clear man sustains to God, as his Creator
, Benefactor, and Redeemer distinction between right and wrong? And where can be is that of gratitude. This is, when strong, a very livels ant found a human being, who, upon having his relation to impulsive feeling. It draws men along as taken captive; 20
. God as his Creator set before him, does not feel in his con- yet the constraint is not painful, but pleasing. Under the science, that he is under a moral obligation to be subservient to influence of gratitude, men will engage in the most odio his will
duties, and will voluntarily make the most self-denying set The general obligation on all moral agents, to serve their fices. Under the influence of this affection men have been Creator, is evident enough. It will require some time, and willing to lay down their lives. Gratitude is, then, an imper careful consideration of this relation in which man stands to tant principle of man's obedience. It is true, some bare his Maker, to ascertain the particular duties which are obliga- attempted to degrade this principle as one which scarcely ex tory on all men.
be said to partake of the nature of virtue, because it has respect This we shall now attempt so far as reason can guide us in to self, and to our own interest. But though gratitude cris this matter.
nates in the sense of benefits received by ourselves, it does ad Here it may be proper to remark, that the essence of all deserve to be classed with mere selfish affections. Its object : obedience is internal; that is, consists in the cispositions, to make a return to a benefactor for favours received. Its affections and purposes of the heart. Outward actions partake therefore, an elevated species of justice ; for when a suitable of a moral nature only so far as they proceed from these inter- and adequate return can be made for favours received, gram nal affections. Human laws must be satisfied with external tude will not be satisfied until this is done. And in regard to obedience, because human lawgivers cannot search the heart, the benefits received from our Creator, as an adequate compet nor serutinise the motives of those who owe obedience. Bui sation is utterly beyond our power, gratitude manifests isel even earthly judges, in administering justice, endeavour, as far in acknowledgment of obligation in thanksgiving and in as haman judgment can go, to discover from what internal ceasing praises. There is, however, no necessity to argue this motives any action under examination was performed ; and matter ; the appeal may safely be made to the feelings of every their decision of acquittal or condemnation is grounded on the rightly constituted mind. All men who acknowledge the erit opinion which they form of the intention and motives of the tence
and providence of God, feel that a debt of gratitudes person under arraignment. Much more, then, does the moral due to their great Benefactor. Governor of the World require of his creatures the obedience As the mind, when uncorrupted, is so constituted as to let of the heart ; for he possesses a perfect knowledge of what is and esteem
whatever is excellent, and as moral excellence in nature of moral good and evil, as those qualities exist in the this excellence in an infinite degree, it is reasonable that is nature demand the highest degree of excellence of which the it is true, can never exercise love proportionate to the encode attribute in the highest perfection, it is reasonable to infer
, capacity of apprehending it, and the
susceptibility of africa dued with the seeds and principles of every moral virtue. powers. And this cannot be considered as demanding to And if the nature of man is not now found adorned with these much of the rational creature, for no other measure of aliele Moral excellencies, he must in the exercise of his free will have can be fixed without supposing
a wrong estimate of the objects departed from his primeval state. Our present inquiry, how- or a defect of right feeling; for what is more reasonable de ever, is not whether man has fallen from his original integrity, Ito proportion the intensity of our affection to the excelente
the object? But in this, also, the excellency of the object are not essential to acceptable prayer. The silent breathings infinitely surpasses our capacity of love, so that if the mind of desire are known to God, and will be acceptable to him. should be enlarged a thousand-fold, so as to possess a thousand It is reasonable to believe that God never takes more comtimes as great a power of love and esteem as at present, the placency in his creatures, than when they come before him in obligation to love God with this increasing capacity would be the humble, reverential posture of adoration, prayer and praise. complete ; and any less degree of esteem and care would be Nothing can be more evident, than that the creature should casting dishonour on God. And again, this obligation would exercise benevolence or good will towards the Author of his exist, even if it were painful to come up in our affections to this being. Not that we can desire Him to be more excellent, high demand; but this is so far from being the fact, that man's more wise, more powerful, or more independent than he is; happiness is perfect in the same proportion as his obedience is but we may rejoice in all his attributes and glory in his great. perfect. From every consideration, therefore, it is evident that ness, and be delighted with the idea of his unbounded and man is bound by the law of his nature, and the relation which uninterrupted happiness; and in these elevated emotions of he sustains to God, to love him with his whole soul.
joy, and acts of glorying and glorifying God, it is believed As the will of God is always guided by wisdom and that the purest, sublimest, and most constant happiness of all goodness, whenever and however this will is' manifested, it holy beings consists. Nothing is more evident to impartial should be implicitly and cheerfully submitted to, even though reason, than that the glory of God should be the supreme object contrary to our wishes, and even what seems best to our reason; of the rational creature's pursuit. It is, in fact, the noblest which is submission to the providence of God.
object which can be considered. We are unable to imagine Another duty clearly incumbent on the rational creature of any thing more glorious for God himself to seek, than his own God, is trust or confidence. As man is dependent, and as the glory. Certainly, then, it is the highest end at which any supply of his necessities can be derived from no other source
creature can aim; and it is a sentiment entirely accordant than from God, it is evidently his duty to place his confidence with reason, that all the creation was produced for the purpose in God for every thing, believing in his goodness, faithful- of exhibiting the glory of God, and man was er.dowed with ness and power.
a capacity of knowing and loving God for the very purpose of is as natural and reasonable for a dependent creature to apply the manifestation of these perfections is what is properly This trust in God, however, involves the duty of prayer. It glorifying his Maker. Not that any addition can be made to
the essential perfection and felicity of the Eternal One; but to its Creator for what he needs as for a child thus to solicit called the glory of God. the aid of a parent, who is believed to have the disposition and ability to bestow what it needs. Plausible objections have
All the duties which have been specified commend thembeen raised against the duty of prayer, derived from the omni- selves, to every impartial mind, as obligatory on rational science of God, and from his immutable purposes. But these creatures; all that seems further necessary is to give a brief objections possess no real validity. For although God knows summary of what has been said on this subject. perfectly well beforehand what his creatures need, yet the is not very important; for though there is an order of prece
The order in which these devotional exercises are set down acknowledgment of their dependence is manifestly proper, and dence and sequence
in all our mental exercises, yet while it is the offering of petitions for such things as they need has a tendency to keep up a proper sense of dependence. And as unnecessary to speak of those affections which have God for God deals with his creatures according to the nature which he their object seriatim, they are commonly combined and minhas given them, it is proper that he should require of them gled in the conscious experience of the mind; so that in the such dispositions and acts as are becoming in dependent same moment various acts and exercises appear to be simul. creatures. This, too, is in accordance with the conduct of men
taneous. They may, however, be all comprehended under the on whom others are dependent. The object of prayer, includ- / single term, Love, if we give a genuine meaning to that term. ing praise, is to preserve in the mind a right state of feeling
The summation which seems as proper as any other that towards a Being to whom it owes every thing, and from whom suggests itself is the following: alone blessings can be expected. The highest privilege of the
1. Adoration, having for its object the greatness, majesty, most exalted creature is to enjoy communion and intercourse holiness, and incomprehensibility of God. with the Infinite Source of all good. Prayer is the only means
2. Admiration, or holy wonder of the wisdom of God in the which man enjoys of holding immediate intercourse with his multiplied contrivances and organisations in the created uniMaker. And this privilege is the highest honour which he verse. can enjoy in the present state. So, also, it is a means of the
3. Esteem for and complacency in God's moral excellence. most sublime happiness. By this exercise he draws near to
4. Desire of Union and Communion with God, and of conGod, and when such approaches are made sincerely and affec-formity to his character. tionately on his part, it cannot be doubted that Divine com- 5. Gratitude for his goodness manifested in all creation ; but munications will be rouchsafed, and the light of the Divine particularly to man, in the constitution of his soul and body, favour be lifted upon him, and the answer to his prayers and in the provision made by the providence of God for the granted by the dispensations of divine Providence toward subsistence and comfort of the human family, and of all him,
living creatures. As to the objection derived from the immutability of the 6. Trust, or Confidence in God, as a benignant and kind Divine purposes, it arises from a narrow view of this subject, Father and protector, who will not abandon the work of his which leaves out an important part of the Divine plan. The own hands, nor be wanting in contributing to their happiness purposes of God, though immutable, are not inconsistent with in future, as long as they are obedient to his will. the freedom of his creatures, nor with the use and efficacy of 7. Acquiescence in the will of God, and submission to those appropriate means. The truth is, all these acts and means are dispensations which even cross the natural feelings, is an included in the Divine plan. If God has decreed that a cer- evident moral duty. Indeed, the surrender of soul and body tain field shall produce a plentiful crop, he has also decreed to God, to be used and disposed of by him for his own glory, that all the influences of sun, rain, and the necessary labour is the state of mind of which the moral faculty approves. shall take place. And if he has purposed to bestow certain 8. Prayer to God for such things as we need, is a duty dicfavours on his rational creatures, he may in the same manner tated by the law of nature, including suitable expressions of purpose that these benefits shall be given in answer to prayer; our devotional feelings in words and gestures. But no crtaso that prayer may be considered as the means by which these ture has a right to institute or adopt any ceremonies of blessings are obtained, as truly as a plentiful crop is the effect worship which God has not appointed. of a skilful and laborious tillage of the ground.
9. Making the Glory of God the supreme end of all his actions, As to external acts of devotion, reason and nature teach the object of his constant and untiring pursuit; and rejoicing that humility and reverence in our words, attitudes and ges- and triumphing in the intinite glory, independence, immu. tures are highly proper when we address our praises unto God. tability, and blessedness of God. When we are tilled with devotional feelings, nature prompts us The above enumeration, it is believed, comprehends the to give utterance to our emotions; and the use of appropriate internal acts and exercises in which the duty of man to God sounds and gestures seems also to keep up and increase the consists, which duties plrinly arise out of the attributes of feelings of the mind. These outward expressions, however, I God and man's relation to him, as his Creator, Preseryer, and
zrossi a* ". WL YIL 1a We taxa ( X. ********
, 14 we ley **** ul. 15. , * & **
*** , the matt #ta Pytas tiun 1 Hra se La euwe wuu wA. Dumn*, fa, SIA * L ** L. 14**. . - 1.reg eru ofernt u, wu tar with
. It is evenit fjon A. &... Um elar A.
'... I In add wedeww.1,
W1.32 're"Low . 1, 2, 5 : 5 ** . Lint this whis, rox lisve by rock imala tasks in the tit 18 kuil i ein s ty, 'I w, leur'n brauto; wat tak to
. escape from this wrev bu mtva, "LE WA VA INI,
, 18. I tartalte, 21 -1 -26 7 SC ZEITIT ** STI. are. The stationen bene egne
D. L., tat that corce 2.5 cze: xs BIOGRAPHY-N9. XX.
1942.se. Miary erpret Testamine
Fir the 2109, erne bei wes a dui ebrazia ad arizzati GIBBON.
090.20.auon : three tisus did I compare the trs cepa, s.
twie le second and third, before I was seer.STBILERA TO BY J. L BEALO, D.D.
ten effect. In the remainder of the Tay I adTezeta TIN Euwaun (1930s, the laet ,? Prolar.d's haaral triumvirate, a ucie Eyual ar.d easy pace. wis burn on the th of May, 1737, at Purney in murrey. Of á ** The first volume was now ready for the press. Ater the under traine, he owed tile priservatum and his Rutmequent perilous adventure had been deciined by any friend, Wr. health to the delicate, thoughtful, 1941. and constant care of Eimsiry, I agred upon easy terms with Mr. Tocmas (sdei, a a gond sunt mudying in the WorLEINELT Behool ard the respectable bookseiter, and Mr. Wala Stradan, an enginea Univermity of Oxford, Cabelon laid in an ample sure of wound priur; and they w.derwok the care and risk of the public. wcholarship, and no prepared the way 1597 him clamsical work, uun, which denved more credit from the name of the shop the listory of the Decline and Pall of the Roman Empire," than fruin that of the author. The last revisar of the pros we in which he hus exhaunt:d as well as adorned every dirert and submitted 20 y vigilance, and many blemishes of sipe, which collateral topic connected with his grand and imposing subject. had been invisible in the manuscrips, were discovered and In a viry charming composition, entitled “ Memoirs of my corrected in the printed sheet. So moderate were our hopes Life and Writings, Gibbon himself has given some pars that the original impression had been stinted to 60€, täl the ticulurs respecting his great production, which, as being number was doubled by the prophetic taste of Mr. Stracen. specially intrenting and instrutive, we shall transcribe, run. During this awful interval I was neither elated by the ambition ning thein together. " My temper is not very suscepuble of of fame, nor depressed by the apprehension of contempt. Hy arthuninam, and the enthusiasm which I do not feel 1 diligence and accuracy wtre attested by my own conscience. have ever mearned to affect; but at the distance of twenty- History is the inost popular species of writing, since it can five years I can neither forget nor exprce the strong eno- aiapt itself to the highest or the lowest capacity." I had chosen conk whith agitated my mind an I approached and entered an ulustrious subject. Rome is familiar to the schoolboy sed the otimal city, after a sleepless night, and trod with a lofty the state man, and my narrative was deduced from the list mtup the ruins of the forum; each memorable spot where penod of classical reading. I am at a loss how to describe the Komulun nuod or Tully spoke or (anar tell, was at once pre success of the work without betraying the vanity of the writer, sont to my eye ; and several days of intoxication were lost or The tirst impression was exhaurted in a few days; a semi enjoyed tuture I could dencend to a cool and minute investi- and a third edition were scarcely adequate to the demand. N patium, It wan at home, on the 16th of October, 1764, as I rat book was on every table an almost on every toilette ; the blia muning amidat the ruins of the Capitol, while the lare-footed torian was crowned by the taste or fashion of the day; nor was Iriars were singing Verpreth in the Temple of Jupiter, that the the general voice disturbed by the barking of any profane crize iden ot writing the decline and fall of the city hrst started to The style of the tirst volume is, in my opinion, somewhat crede
But my original plan was circunscribed to the and elaborate; in the second and third it is ripened into ease eray of the city rather than ot the empire, and though my correctness and numbers ; but in the three last I may have romling and reflections began to point towards that object, been seduced by the facility of my pen, and the constant haber nome years olapued, and several avocations intervened, before of speaking one language and writing another may have infured I wa serioumly engaged in the execution of that laborious some mixture of Gallic idioms. Happily for my eyes, I bare work. I began grundly to advance from the wish to the always closed my studies with the day, and commonly with the hope, from the hope to the design, from the design to the morning; and a long but temperate labour has been server execution of my historical work, of whose limits and extent 1 plished without fatiguing either the mind or body. I have bind yet a very inndequate notion. The classics as low as presumed to mark the moment of conception ; I shall not come Theilun, the younger Pliny and Juvenal were my old and memorate the hour of my final deliverance. It was on the det luminar companion, Treviewed again and again the immortal or rather night, of the 27th of June, 1787, between the hours of works of the French and English, the Latin and Italian eleven and twelve, that I wrote the last line of the last pape, clasics.
My Greek studies maintained and extended iny a summer-house in my garden. After laying down my ps. knowledge of that incomparable idiom. Homer and Xeno took several turns in a berceau, or covered walk of acacias wat phon were still my tavourite authors. I insensibly plunged commands a prospect of the country, the lake and the mountains into the ocean of the Augustan Hlintiry, and in the descending The air was temperate, the sky was serene, the silver ord et the weries I investigated, with my pen almost always in my hand, moon was reflected from the waters, and all nature was the original records, both Greek and Latin, trom Dion Cassius I will not dissemble the first emotions of joy on the returers to Ammunus Marcellinus, from the reign of Trajan to the my freedom, and perhaps the establishment of my fate. Be lant of the Western Casars. The subsidiary ruys of medals my pride was soon humbled, and a sober melancholy was por and inscriptions, of geography and chronology, wire thrown over my mind by the idea that I had taken an events on their proper vinjuts; and I applied the collections of Tille- leave of an old and agreeable companion, and that
we munt, whore innuitable acturacy almost assumes the cha- might be the future late of my history, the life of the racter of genius, to fix and arrange within my reach the loose would be short and precarious. I will add smo fans und scattered atoms of historical information. Through the have seldom occurred in the composition of six or s: 23* 11 darkness of the middle ages 1 explored my way in the " Ånnals quartues : 1. My tirst rough manuscript, without me
mnd Antiquities (Italyne of the lia Muraturi, and diligently diate copy, has been sent to the press ; 2. Net askeri 220 best }
seen by any human eyes, excepting those of the author and spirit of fraud for enthusiasm, whose abode is not in the the printer'; the faults and the merits are exclusively my heavens but in the mind of the prophet. The faith which,
under the name of Islam, he preached to his family and nation, Gibbon died at his dwelling, St. James's-street, London, on is compounded of an eternal truth and a necessary tiction-that the 16th of January, 1794. We hope that these particulars, com- there is only one God, and that Mahomet is the apostle of bined with the ensuing extracts, will lead some of our readers God.” to the diligent perusal of the history which is the everlasting monument of his fame.
THE RELIGION OF THE ANCIENT GERMANS.
“ The religious system of the Germans (if the wild opinions
of savages can deserve that name) was dictated by their wants, “According to the tradition of his companions, Mahomet was their fears and their ignorance. They adored the great visidistinguished by the beauty of his person-an outward gift ble objects and agents of nature, the sun and the moon, the which is seldom despised, except by those to whom it has been fire and the earth; together with those imaginary deities refused. Before he spoke, the orator engaged on his side the who were supposed to preside over the most important occuaffections of a public or a private audience. They applauded pations of human life. They were persuaded that, by some his commanding presence, his majestic aspect, his piercing ridiculous arts of divination, they could discover the will of eye, his gracious smile, his flowing beard, his countenance that the superior beings, and that human sacrifices were the most painted every sensation of the soul, and his gestures that en- precious and acceptable offering to their altars. Some forced each expression of the tongue. In the familiar offices applause has been hastily bestowed on the sublime notion of life he scrupulously adhered to the grave and ceremonious entertained by that people of the Deity, whom they neither politeness of his country: his respectful attention to the rich confined within the walls of a temple, nor represented by any and powerful was dignitied by his condescension and affability human figure; but when we recollect that the Germans were to the poorest citizens of Mecca; the frankness of his manner unskilled in architecture, and totally unacquainted with the concealed the artifice of his views; and the habits of courtesy art of sculpture, we shall readily assign the true reason of a were imputed to personal friendship or universal benevolence. scruple, which arose not so much from a superiority of reason, His memory was capacious and retentive, his wit easy and as from a want of ingenuity. The only temples in Germany social, his imagination sublime, his judgment clear, rapid and were dark and ancient groves, consecrated by the reverence of decisive. He possessed the courage both of thought and succeeding generations. Their secret gloom, the imagined resiaction; and although his designs might gradually expand dence of an invisible power, by presenting no distinct object with his success, the first idea which he entertained of his of fear or worship, impressed the mind with a still decper divine mission bears the stamp of an original and superior sense of religious horror; and the priests, rude and illiterate genius. The son of Abdallah was educated in the bosom of as they were, had been taught by experience the use of every the noblest race, in the use of the purest dialect of Arabia ; artifice that could preserve and fortify impressions so well and the fluency of his speech was corrected and enhanced by suited to their own interest. the practice of discreet and reasonable silence. With these “ The same ignorance, which renders barbarians incapable of powers of eloquence, Mahomet was an illiterate barbarian; conceiving or embracing the useful restraints of laws, exposed his youth had never been instructed in the arts of reading and them naked and unarmed to the blind terrors of superstition. writing; the common ignorance exempted him from shame or The German priests, improving this favourable temper of their reproach, but he was reduced to a narrow circle of existence, countrymen, had assumed a jurisdiction, even in temporal and deprived of those faithful mirrors which reflect to our minds concerns, which the magistrate could not venture to exercise ; the minds of sages and heroes. Yet the book of nature and of and the haughty warrior patiently submitted to the lash of man was open to his view; and some fancy has been indulged correction, when it was inflicted, not by any human power, in the political and philosophical observations which are but by the immediate order of the god of war. The defects ascribed to the Arabian traveller. He compares the nations of civil policy were sometimes supplied by the interposition and religions of the earth; discovers the weakness of the of ecclesiastical authority. The latter was constantly exerted Persian and Roinan monarchies; beholds with pity and to maintain silence and decency in the popular assemblies ; indignation the degeneracy of the times; and resolves to and was sometimes extended to a more enlarged concern for unite, under one God and one king, the invincible spirit and the national welfare. A solemn procession was occasionally primitive virtues of the Arabs. Our more accurate inquiry celebrated in the present countries of Mecklinburgh and will suggest, that instead of visiting the courts, the camps, Pomerania. The unknown symbol of the Earth, covered with the temples of the East, the two journeys of Mahomet into a thick veil, was placed on a carriage drawn by cows; and in Syria were confined to the fairs of Bostra and Damascus; that this manner the goddess, whose common residence was in he was only thirteen years of age when he accompanied the the island of Rugen, visited several adjacent tribes of her caravan of his uncle, and that his duty compelled him to return worshippers. During her progress the sound of war as soon as he had disposed of the merchandise of Cadijah. In hushed, quarrels were suspended, arms laid aside, and the these hasty and superficial excursions, the eye of genius might restless Germans had an opportunity of tasting the blessings discern some objects invisible to his grosser companions; some of peace and harmony. The truce of God, so often and so seeds of knowledge might be cast upon a fruitful soil ; but his ineffectually proclaimed by the clergy of the eleventh century, ignorance of the Syriac language must have checked his curi- was an obvious imitation of this ancient custom. osity; and I cannot perceive in the life or writings of Mahomet, * But the influence of religion was far more powerful to that his prospect was far extended beyond the limits of the inflame, than to moderate, the fierce passions of the Germans. Arabian world. From every region of that solitary world the Interest and fanaticism often prompted its ministers to sancpilgrims of Mecca were annually assembled, by the calls of tify the most daring and the most unjust enterprises, by the devotion and commerce: in the free concourse of multitudes, a approbation of Heaven and full assurances of success. The simple citizen, in his native tongue, might study the political consecrated standards, long revered in the groves of superstate and character of the tribes, the theory and practice of the stition, were placed in the front of the battle; and the hostile Jews and Christians. Some useful strangers might be tempted army was devoted with dire execrations to the gods of war or forced to implore the rites of hospitality; and the enemies and of thunder. In the faith of soldiers (and such were the of Mahomet have named the Jew, the Persian, and the Syrian Germans) cowardice is the most unpardonable of sins. Á monk, whom they accuse of lending their secret aid to the brave man was the worthy favourite of their martial deities : composition of the Koran. Conversation enriches the under- | the wretch who had lost his shield was alike banished from standing, but solitude is the school of genius; and the the religious and the civil assemblies of his countrymen. uniformity of a work denotes the hand of a single artist. From Some tribes of the north seem to have embraced the doctrine his earliest youth Mahomet was addicted to religious con- of transmigration, others imagined a gross paradise ot immortal templation: each year, during the month of Ramazan, he drunkenness. All agreed, that a lite spent in arms, and a withdrew from the world and from the arms of Cadijah : in glorious death in battle, were the best preparations for a happy the cave of Hera, three miles from Mecca, he consulted the l futurity, either in this or in another world.”
LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-No. XXXVII. the same rate?
8. H 35 tons of hemp cost £660, what will 220 tons costat
9. If 165 bushels of apples cost £32, how much will 31 ANALYSIS.
bushels cost? The term Analysis, in physical science, signifies the resolving
10. If 72 bushels of peas cost 253 crowns, what will a pist of a compound body into its elements, or component parts.
cost at the same rate : ANALYSIS, in arithmetic, signifies the resolring of numbers
11. If 150 acres of land cost £7,000, what will a square into the factors of which they are composed, and the tracing of rood cost? the relations which they bear to each other.
12. If 2 pipes of wine cost £315, what is that per gill? In the preceding lessons the student has become acquainted money, which was of the cost : what did they cost
13. A farmer bought a yoke of oxen, and paid £40 in ready with the method of analysing particular examples and combinations of numbers, and thence deducing general principles and of the price of it: what was the cost of the house?
14. Bought a house, and paid £630 in goods, which was rules. But analysis may be applied with advantage not only to the development of mathematical truths, but also to the all he was worth: how much was he worth?
15. A young man lost £256 by gambling, which was r's of solution of a great variety of problems, both in arithmetic and practical life. Indeed, it is the method by which business how much did his land cost per acre ?
16. A man having £1,500, paid f of it for 112 acres of land: men generally solve practical questions. A little practice will give the student great facility in its application.
17. If a stack of hay will keep 350 sheep 90 days, how long No specific directions can be given tor solving examples by
will it keep 325 sheep? analysis. None, in fact, are requisite. The judgment, from the long will the same quantity last 28 men ?
18. If 440 barrels, of flour will last 15 men 55 months, hor conditions of the question, will suggest the process. Hence a imitjšis may, with propriety, be called the Common Sense long will it take 16 men to build it?
19. If 136 men can build a warehouse in 123 days, hot RCLE. In solving questions analytically, it may be remarked in
20. If, of a pouud of tea cost 1s. 8d, what will of
pound cost gene:al, that we reason from the giren number to 1, then from I to the number required.
21. If 3 of a yard of broadcloth cost 8s. 6d., how much wü E.:. 1. If 60 yards of cloth cost 240 crowns, what will 85
of a yard cost? yards cost?
22. Bought it of a ton of hay for 23 5s.: how much wil
of a ton cost : Aiviytic Solution.-Since 60 yds. cost 240 crowns, 1 yd. will cost o of 210 crowns; and do of 240 crowns is 1 crowns, or much will it of a hogshead cost?
23. Bought % of a hogshead of molasses for £38: bou £l. Now, if i yd. costs 4 crowns, 85 yds. will cost 85 times
24. If } of an acre of land cost £108, how much will y d as much; and 4 crowns X 85=310 crowns, or £55. Ans.
an acre cost? Or, we may reason thus : 85 yds. are o of 60 yds.; there
25. If of a barrel of four cɔst £2 108., how much will of fore, 85 yds. will cost $8 of 240 crowns (the cost of 60 yds.), a barrel cost? and of 240 crowns is 240 crowns X=340 crowns, or £85, 26. Paid £4,200 for of a vessel : how much can I afford to the same as before.
sell 1'i of the vessel for? Other solutions of this example might be given; but our
27. Sold 18.! baskets of peaches for 34 crowns: how much present object is to show how this and similar questions may would 65, baskets come to be solved by analysis. The former method is the simplest and
28. If I pay £12 10s. for building 201 rods of wall
, bor most strictly analytic, though not so short as the latter. It much must I pay for 2153 rods ? contains two steps :
29. A man can hoe a field of corn in 6 days, and a boy ces First, we separate the given price of 60 yde. (210 crowns) hoe it in 9 days : how long will it take them both together to into 60 equal parts, to find the value of 1 part, or the cost of i hoe it? yd., which is 4 crowns. Second, we multiply the price of one yd. (4 crowns) by 85, day he can hoe of it; and since the boy can hoe it in daya
Analysis. Since the man can hoe the field in 6 days, in ! the number of yds. whose cost is required, and the product is in 1 day he can hoe of it; consequently, in 1 day they can the answer sought. This and similar questions are usually placed under the quires them both i day, te of it will require them } of a dir
both hoe +=ts of the field. Now, if of the field te rule of Simple Proportion, or the Rule of Three. The operation of solving a question by analysis, is called an which is equal to 33 days. Ans.
and is will require them 18 times as long, orts of a day, analy:ic solution. In working the following examples, each one should be analysed, and the reason for every step given in full, 6 hours
long will it take them both to chop the same
30. If A can chop a quantity of wood in 4 hours, and B in 2. A man bought a horse, and paid £15 down, which was : quantity? of the price of it: what did he give for the horse : Analysis.--Since £15 is of the price, the questien resolves days : how long will it take all of them together to dig it
31. A can dig a trench in 6 days, B in 9 days, and C in 1! itself into this : £15 is of what sum. If £15 is of a certain sum, is 1 of £15; and of £tú is £9. Now, if £9 is 1 for it in corn at 48. a bushel : how many bushels did it take
32. A man bought 25 pounds of tea at 68. a pound, and paid seventh, 7 sevenths are 7 times as much; and £9X7=£63. Analysis.- If 1 lb. of tea costs 6s., 25 lbs. will cost 25 times Ans. £63.
as much, which is 1508. Again, if 48. will buy 1 busbel of Proop. of £63=£9, and 5 sevenths are 5 times as much, 'corn, 150s. will buy as many bushels as 48. is contained times which is £15, the sum he paid down for the hurse.
in 150s.; and 1508.+4=373: Ans. 37} bushels. In solving examples of this kind, the learner is often per. The last and similar examples are frequently arranged plexed in finding the value of !, etc. This difficulty arises under the rule of Barter, from supposing that if of a certain number is 45, 4 or it must
Barter signifies an exchange of articles of commerce at prices be of 45. This mistake will be easily avoided by substitu- agreed upon by the parties. ting in his mind the word parts for the given denominator. Such examples are so easily solved by Analysis that a pt Thus, if 5 parts cost £15, 1 part will cost of £15, which is cific rule for them is unnecessary. 19. But this part is a seventh. Now, if 1 seventh cost £9, 33. A cheesemonger bought 110 lbs. of sugar at think then 7 sevenths will cost 7 times as much.
pound, and paid for it in laru at 8d. a pound : how much lard 3. If 40 bales of wool cost £120, kuw much will 100 bales did it take? cost:
31. How much butter, at 12 d. a pound, must be given für 4. Bought 35 tops of bag for £70: how much will 16 tons 250 lbs. of tea, at 38. a pound? cost 5. What is the cost of 37 gallons of rum, at £21 a hogshead given for 56 yds of cloth, at 1s. 3d. per yard?
35. How many pounds of tea, at 23. 6d. per pound, must be 6. What is the cost of 1,500 pounds of rice, at £14 per ton: , What is the cost of 18 quarts of chestnuts, at 3 crowns a for 50 tons of coal at £i 10s. per ton?
36. How many pairs of boots, at 15s, a pair, must be given bushel ?
| 37. A, B, and C, united in business ; A put in £250. B