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higher sources of Roanoke; and flowing thence to the N. E. over Bototourt county, falls into James river after a comparative course of 40 miles.

CowPASTURE river, Virginia, rising in the mountain valley between the Kittatiany and Warm Spring mountain, interlocking sources with the south branch of Potomac, but flowing in an opposite direction S. S. W. falling into, or joining Jackson's river, to form James river, after a comparative course of 50 miles.

Disual SWAMP. This remarkable swamp extends from north to south nearly thirty miles; and averages from east to west nearly ten; it lies partly in Virginia, and partly in North Carolina. Five navigable rivers, and some creeks rise in it; of the rivers, two flow into Virginia,—south branch of Elizabeth river, and south branch of Nansemond, -and three into North Carolina,—the North river, the North West river, and the Pequimonds. The sources of all of these streams are hidden in the swamp, and no traces of them appear above ground. From this it appears, that there must be plentiful sublerraneous fountains to supply these streams, or the soil must be filled perpetually with the water drained from the higher lands which surround it. The latter hypothesis is most probable, because the soil of the Swamp is a complete quagmire, trembling under the feet, and filling immediately the impression of every step with water. It may be penetrated to a great distrance by thrusting down a stick, and whenever a fire is kindled upon it, after the layer of leaves and rubbish is burned through, the coals sink down, and are extinguished.

The eastern skirts of the Dismal Swamp are overgrown with reeds, ten or twelve feet high, interlaced every where with thorny bamboo briars, which render it almost impossible to pass. Among these are found, here and there, a cypress, and white cedar, which last is commonly mistaken for the juniper. Towards the south, there is a very large tract covered with reeds, without any trees, which being constantly green and waving in the wind, is called the green sea. An ever-green shrub, called the gall-bush, grows plentifully throughout, but especially on the borders; it bears a berry which dies a black color, like the gall of an oak,—and hence its name.

Near the middle of the Swamp, the trees grow much closer, both the cypress and cedar; and being always green and loaded with large tops, are much exposed to the wind, and easily blown down, in this boggy place, where the soil is too soft to afford sufficient hold to the roots. From these causes, the passage is nearly always obstructed by trees, which lay piled in heaps, and riding upon each other; and the snags left in them pointing in every direction, render it very difficult to clamber over them.

On the western border of the Dismal Swamp, is a pine swamp, above a mile in breadth, the greater part of which is covered to the depth of the knee with water: the bottom, however, is firm, and though the pines growing upon it are very large and tall, yet they are not easily blown down by the wind; so that this swamp may be passed without any hinderance, save that occasioned by the depth of the water. With all of these disadvantages, the Dismal Swamp, though disagreeable to the other senses, is, in many places, pleasant to the eye, on account of the perpetual verdure which makes every season like the spring, and every month like May. (See a more pars ticular description of Dismal Swamp, Norfolk county.)

Dan river, belongs partly to Virginia, and partly to North Carolina, it drains the greater part of Granville, Person, Caswell, Rockingham and Stokes counties, of the latter state, and of Patrick, Henry, Pittsylvania, and

Halifax counties, of the former state. The extreme western sources of Dan river are in Patrick county, Virginia, and in the S. E. spurs of the Blue Ridge. The general course almost due east along the intermediate borders of North Carolina and Virginia, to where the four counties of Pittsylvania, Halifax, Person and Caswell meet. Here entering and flowing in Virginia N. E. by E., falls into the Roanoke at Clarksville, having a mean breadth of about 33 miles. This river drains 3,960 square miles.

DIVIDING creek, a small stream of Virginia, forming for a few miles the boundary between Lancaster and Northumberland counties, and then falling into the Chesapeake.

ELIZABETH river, rises hy numerous small branches in Princess Ann and Norfolk counties, flows to the N. W. opening into a wide estuary, terminating in the mouth of James river. The entire length of Elizabeth river is only about 25 miles, but it gains importance as forming the fine harbor of Norfolk, admitting to that port vessels of 18 feet draught, and again as constituting with the Dismal Swamp canal and Pasquotank river, a chain of inland navigation from Chesapeake bay to Albemarle sound.

Elk river, in western Virginia, rises amid the Appalachian ridges in Randolph and Pocahontas counties, interlocking sources with those of Monongahela, Little Kanawha, Wheat, Greenbrier and Gauley rivers. Leaving Randolph and Pocahontas, and traversing Nicholas and Kanawha counties, it finally is lost in Great Kanawha at Charleston, after a comparative western course of 100 miles.

Gauley river, rises in Randolph, Pocahontas, and Greenbrier counties, by numerous creeks which unite in Nicholas, and flow by a course a little south of west, falling into the right side of the Great Kanawha river, at the head of the Great Falls. The valley of Gauley river is about 60 miles long, and lies between those of Elk and Greenbrier rivers.

GREENBRIEr river rises in the northern part of Pocahontas county, over which it flows, and entering and traversing Greenbrier county, falls into Great Kanawha, after a comparative southwestern course of 90 miles. Greenbrier has its remote sources in the same ridges with those of Cheat river branch of Monongahela, and those of the South branch of the Poto

The valley of Greenbrier lies between those of James and Gauley rivers. It is an elevated region. The water level is from actual admeasurement, 1,333 feet at the efflux of Greenbrier into Great Kanawha. The mean height of the farms above the ocean level cannot fall much, if any, short of 1,500 feet.

GUYANDOTTE river rises in Logan county, from the northwestern foot of the Great Flat Top mountain, and flowing thence N. N. W. draining a valley between those of Great Kanawha and Sandy rivers, enters Cabell county and falls into Ohio river below Barboursville, after a comparative course of about 100 miles.

GUYANDOTTE, LITTLE, falls into Ohio river between the mouths of Guyandotte and Great Kanawha rivers, and for some miles above its mouth con. stitutes the boundary between Mason and Cabell counties.

HAMPTON Roads, local name of the mouth of James river opposite the mouths of Nansemond and Elizabeth rivers. Towards the Chesapeake bay, Hampton Roads is defined on the north by Old Point Comfort, and on the south by Point Willoughby; within James river the termination is in. definite. This sheet of water is sufficiently deep for the largest ships of war. The United States commissioners, appointed to examine the lower

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part of Chesapeake bay in 1818, reported, that although extensive, Hampton Roads admitted the erection of adequate defences against an enemy's fleet.

Holston river rises in the Alleghany mountains, in Virginia, and flows S. S. W. into Tennessee, it then takes a course more to the south to Knox. ville, and 35 miles below that town, it unites with the Clinch, and the united streams take the name of the Tennessee. It is navigable for boats of 25 tons burthen, more than 100 miles. On its banks are several iron-works; and the adjacent country abounds with iron-ore, and contains several lead mines. Valuable salt works exist near its sources.

Jackson river, the principal constituent of James river, rises by two branches, the north and south forks, in the southern part of Pendleton county, Virginia. Flowing thence southwestward and nearly parallel, and between lateral chains of mountains, the two branches traverse Bath county, and entering Alleghany, incline towards each other and unite, but the united stream still pursues a southwestern course, receiving Dunlop's creek from the west and Pott's creek from the south, after a comparative course from the source in Pendleton of about 50 miles. With the junction of Pott's creek, the whole stream inflects very abruptly to N. E. and flowing in that direction 15 miles, through rugged mountain passes, unites with Cow Pasture river to form James river. The valley of Jackson's river, is an elevated region. At Covington, the county seat of Alleghany county, where Dunlop's creek falls into Jackson's river, the water surface is 1,238 feet above the Atlantic level; it is therefore probable, that the greatest part of the arable surface of the adjacent country exceeds a comparative height of 1,500 feet. Lat. 38°, and long. 3° west, Washington, intersect in the western part of Bath county, about 6 miles north of the junction of the two main branches of Jackson's river.

James river. The two streams which unite to form this fine river, may be seen under the he head of Jackson and Cow Pasture rivers. Below the junction of its two constituents, the united water is first known as James river, which forcing a passage through between Pott's and Mill mountains, enters Botetourt, and assumes a southern course 10 miles, to where it receives Craig's creek from the south, and infecting to S. S. E. flows in that direction 15 miles, thence abruptly turns to N. E. by E. 20 miles, to the western foot of Blue Ridge, and the reception of North river from Augusta and Rockbridge counties. Assuming a S. E. course of 28 miles, James river, now a fine navigable stream, traverses a gap of Blue Ridge about 15 miles N. E. the Peaks of Otter, and in a distance of 30 miles, separating Amherst from Bedford and Campbell counties, and traversing another lateral chain of mountains near Lynchburg, again turns to N. E. Continuing the latter

course 40 miles and separating Amherst and Nelson from Campbell and Buckingham counties, James river assumes a course a little south of east 70 miles by comparative course, having on the left the counties of Albemarle, Fluvanna, Goochland and Henrico, and on the right the counties of Buckingham, Cumberland, Powhatan, and Chesterfield, to the head of tide water and the lower falls at Richmond.

Meeting the tide, James river, similar to most of the Atlantic rivers of the United States generally, widens and presenting rather the features of a bay than those of a river, turns to a little E. of S. E. 90 miles by comparative courses, finally merges into Chesapeake bay, between Point Willoughby and Old Point Comfort. The entire length of James river, from its source in Pendleton, to its efflux into Chesapeake, is 368 miles, but following the

actual meanders it is probable that this stream flows not much if any less than 500 miles.

The valley of James river, including all its tributaries, lies between lat. 36° 40' and 38° 20', and in long. extends near 1° east to 3° 40' west from Washington. A line in a S. S. W. direction from Old Point Comfort to the Alleghany mountain will pass along very near the middle of this valley 225 miles. The broadest part is along the extreme sources, from the fountains of Jackson's river to those of Craig's creek 90 miles, but the mean width amounts to about 45 miles and the area to 10,125 square miles.

In the natural state James river affords at, and a few miles above, its mouth, depth of water for ships of any required draught, but the depth gradually shallows, so that only vessels of 130 tons can reach Rockets, or the port of Richmond. Though much has been designed above tide water in meliorating the navigation, little has been actually accomplished. A canal connects the tide below, and the navigable water above the falls at Richmond. The following relative heights will show the gradual rise of the James river. Columbia at the mouth of Rivanna 178 feet; Scottsville, at the southeastern angle of Albemarle county, and below the southeast chain of the Appalachian system 255 feet; Lynchburg, also below the southeast mountain 500 feet; Pationsburg, at the great bend above Blue Ridge 806 feet; Covington, at the junction of Dunlop's creek and Jackson's river, 1,222 feet; highest spring tributary to Craig's creek, 2,498 feet. Those heights are only the elevation of the water, and at every point must fall short of that of the arable soil. Without any great risk of error, an allowance of winter temperature equal to 6 degrees of Fahrenheit may be made between the extremes of this valley on the same latitude.

KANAWHA, Great, river. North Carolina and Virginia, has the most remote source in Ashe county of the former, between the Blue Ridge and main Appalachian chain, there known by the name of Iron mountain ; the two higher branches, after draining the northern part of Ashe, unite near the boundary between North Carolina and Virginia, and continuing their original course to the N. E. by N., enters Grayson county of the latter state, breaks through the Iron mountain between Grayson and Wythe; winds over the latter and Montgomery; thence inflecting to the N. N W. traverses Walker's and Peter's mountains. Below the latter chain, the course of N. N. W. is continued to the mouth of Gauley river having received also from the northeast Greenbrier.

Above Gauley river, the main volume of Kanawha is called New river; but receiving the Gauley, and turning to N. W., this now large stream, known as the Great Kanawha, is still farther augmented from the north by Elk river, and from the south by Coal river, falls into Ohio river at Point Pleasant, after a comparative course of 280 miles, 100 above Walker's mountain, 100 from the pass through Walker's mountain to the mouth of Gauley river, and 80 from the mouth of Gauley to the Ohio.

The higher branches of New river have interlocking sources with these of Catawba and Yadkin on the S. E., and with those of Watauga and Holston to the northwest. Below the Iron mountains the interlocking souces are with those of Clinch and Sandy to the west, those of Roanoke to the east, and those of James river N. E., as far down as the gorge of Peter's mountain, westward of the latter pass. Greenbrier, coming in from the north has its sources in the same region with those of the Potomac on the northeast, and with those of the Monongahela to the northward. The valley of Kanawha

proper, below Gauley river, lies generally between the valley of Guyandotte on the S. W., and that of Little Kanawha N. E., though the sources of Elk river, also reach the vicinity of those of Monongahela.

The entire valley of Great Kanawha, including that of New river, extends lat. 36° 15' in Ashe county, North Carolina, to 38° 52' at the junction of Kanawha and Ohio, and in long. 2° 43' at the higher source of Greenbrier, to 5° 08' west of Washington city. The length of this valley from the Blue Ridge between Patrick and Montgomery counties, Virginia, in a N. W. direction is 180 miles, the utmost breadth from the sources of New river, to those of Greenbrier is 180, but the mean width is about 60, and the area may be stated at 10,800 square miles.

The most remarkable feature in the valley of the Great Kanawha, as a physical section, is relative height. At the mouth of Sinking creek, between Walker's and Peter's mountains, 120 miles by comparative courses below the sources, the water level is 1,585 feet above the Atlantic tides; at the mouth of Greenbrier 1,333, and at the mouth into Ohio 525 feet. Comparing the fall from Sinking creek to the mouth of Greenbrier 252 feet in 30 miles direct, that above Sinking creek must be 900 feet at least, consequently, the higher branches of New river, in Ashe county, must rise at a comparative height of upwards of 2,500 feet.

LITTLE KANAWha, rises in Lewis county, and flowing N. W. by W., enters Wood, and falls into the Ohio, at Parkersburg, after a comparative course of 90 miles. The valley of this river is nearly commensurate with Wood and Lewis counties, and has that of Great Kanawha south, Middle Island creek to the north, and that of Monongahela, N. E. is 150 yards wide at the mouth. It yields a navigation of ten miles only; perhaps its northern branch called Šunius' creek, which interlocks with the west fork of Monongahela, may one day admit a shorter passage from the latter into the Ohio.

Little river, of Montgomery county, rises in the western vallies of the Blue Ridge, and flowing to the N. W., about 25 miles comparative course, falls into New river, 12 miles S.. W. by W. Christiansburg.

Mattapony river has its extreme source on the eastern border of Orange county, near the Rapid Ann, about 25 miles westward Fredericksburg, but the most numerous of its creeks are in Spottsylvania. These unite within, and traverse Caroline, and thence forming a boundary between King William and King and Queen, unite with the Pamunky, to form York river, after a comparative southeastern course of ten miles. The valley of the Matta pony lies between those of the Rappa hannock and Pamunky, and is traversed by N. lat. 38o and the meridian of Washington.

MATCHAPUNGO Inlet, on the coast of the Atlantic, between Hog and Prout Islands, Northampton county. It opens into a sheet or small gulf, called Broad Water, 28 miles N. N. E. cape Charles, lat. 37° 20'.

MEHERIN river, of Virginia and North Carolina, deriving its most remote sources from Charlotte, but rising principally in Lunenburg and Mecklenburg counties, and uniting on the western margin of Brunswick. Continuing its original course S. E. by E. over Brunswick and Greenville, and thence seperating a part of Greenville from Southampton, it enters North Carolina, between Northampton and Gates counties, and joins the Nottaway to form the Chowan, between Gates and Hertford counties. The entire comparative course of the Meherin is about 95 miles, but the valley is narrow, not exceeding 20 miles width at any part, (mean width hardly 10,) area

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