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the ordinary county buildings, this crept up to reconnoitre, and discovervillage contains from 90 to 100 dwel- ed a large muscular Indian, sitting on ling houses, 1 house of public wor- a log with his back towards the ship, (Methodist) 9 miscellaneous whites, and facing the Indian encampstores, 2 cabinet makers, 1 painter ment, engaged in mending a moccaand glazier, 1 coppersmith, 1 tin plate sin. The Indian was partially conworker, 4 boot and shoe makers, 2 cealed by a tree, under which he was tanyards, 3 saddlers, 1 printing office, sitting, from the view of the villagers. issuing a weekly paper, 4 taverns White at once, though fully aware of and 6 blacksmith shops. Population the danger of the atempt determined about 600 persons; of whom 7 are at- to carry that Indian to Clarke, and tornies and 5 regular physicians. leaving his companions, not thinking

County Courts are held on the it prudent for the three of them to 2d Monday in every month ;--Quar- proceed for fear of discovery, he crept terly in March, June, August and softly up behind the Indian, who sat November.

perfectly unconscious of danger, Circuit Superior Courts of Law till he felt the grasp of While on his and Chancery are held on the 7th throat, and saw a pistol presented at of April and September by JUDGE his head. White in a few hurried BROWN.

words, in the language of the tribe, Early Traditions.—There is much told him that if he made any noise or traditionary lore in this county among resistance he would shoot him inthe old settlers. One romantic cir- stantly through the head, but if he cumstance, though not exactly inac went with him quietly he would procordance with this work, may be worth mise he should return to his tribe. recording as evincing the difficulties The Indian submitted to his fate and of various sorts, which occurred in White carried him in triumph to first settling the frontier counties of Clarke, who immediately on seeing the state.

him, said “this is no Indian," enquiry The incident alluded to, is that a being made of the prisoner who and man by the name of White, who lived whence he was, he said that he was on Walker's creek, was out with born of white parents, that when a General ROGERS CLARKE. The small boy, the Indians attacked the General being in want of intelligence settlement, killed all the family save as to the future plans of the enemy, his elder brother, who escaped during and being desirous of obtaining infor- the onset, and took him prisoner. mation, sent out White by himself to He described the place from which bring him in an Indian.

Indian. White he was taken. During the recital, went out, and after two days unsuc- the countenance of his captor appeared cessful hunt returned without one. very much agitated, he asked him The General still being determined several abrupt questions as to his early to have an Indian, sent White out the rememberances, and finally cried out, second time, saying take companions I AM your Brother." All circumif you will. White being remarkable stances went to confirm the truth of for size, strength, agility, courage and this assertion, even to the similarity prudence, selected two men, and start- of persons. The exile was restored ed with the determination of having to society, and for many years sat in an Indian if he went to Canada for the legislature of Kentucky, but still him. After a days travelling they so far retained his old habits and prestruck on a faint trail, which, by the dilections as to spend months at a time middle of the third day, took them to in the woods. an Indian village. White cautiously

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Accomack, Albemarle, Alleghany, Amelia, Amherst, Augusta, Bath, Bedford, Berkley, Bottetourt, Brooke, Brunswick, Buckingham, Cabell, Campbell, Caroline, Charles City,and New Kent, Charlotte, Chesterfield, Culpeper, Cumberland, Dinwiddie, Elizabeth City and Warwick, Essex, Fairfax, Fauquier, Fayette and Nicholas, Fluvanna, Floyd, Franklin, Frederick, Giles, Gloucester, Goochland, Grayson, Greenbrier,

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The Constitution lays off the Senatorial District as follows:

Brooke, Ohio, Tyler, and (Marshall,) 1,--Monongalia, Preston and Randolph, 1,-Harrison, Lewis and Wood, 1,-Kanawha, Mason, Cabell, Logan, Nicholas, (Fayette, Jackson) 1,-Greenbrier, Monroe, Giles, Montgomery, and (Floyd) 1,-Tazewell, Wythe, Grayson, and (Smyth,) 1,Washington, Scott, Lee, 1,-Berkley, Morgan, and Hampshire, 1,-Frederick, Jefferson, 1,--Shenandoah, Hardy, and (Page,) 1.-Rockingham, and Pendleton, 1,-Augusta, Rockbridge, 1,- Alleghany, Bath, Pochahontas, and Botetourt, 1,-Loudoun, and Fairfax, 1,--Fauquier, and Prince Wil. liam, 1,--Stafford, King George, Westmoreland, Richmond, Lancaster, and Northumberland, 1,-Culpeper, Madison, Orange, and (Rappa hannock,) 1,-Albemarle, Nelson, and Amherst, 1,-Fluvanna, Gooch!and, Louisa, and Hanover, 1,-Spottsylvania, Caroline, and Essex, 1,-King & Queen, King William, Gloucester, Mathews, and Middlesex, 1.- Accomack, Northampton, Elizabeth City, York, Warwick, and City of Williamsburg, !,-Charles City, James City, New Kent, Henrico, and City of Richmond, 1,-Bedford, and Franklin, 1,-Buckingham, Campbell, and Cumberland, 1.—Patrick, Henry, and Pittsylvania, 1,--Halifax, and Mecklenburg, 1,Charlotte, Lunenburg, Notto way and Prince Edward, 1,—Amelia, Powhatan, Chesterfield, and Town of Petersburg, 1,--Brunswick, Dinwiddie, and Greensville, 1. - Isle of Wight, Prince George, Southampton, Surry, and Sussex, 1,-Norfolk, Nansemond, Princess Anne, and Borough of Norfolk, 1.

()Those counties in brackets have been created since the Constitution, from portions of the districts to which they have been assigned.

The arrangement of the counties into CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS since the last census, is given after the District of Columbia.


ESTABLISHMENT, SITUATION, BOUNDARIES AND EXTENT, THE sixteetith clause of the eighth section of the first Article of the CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES gives to Congress the power • To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states; and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of government of the United States"_In pursuance of this power GENERAL WASHINGTON, by authority from Congress, after great research and observation selected the present District of Columbia, as the site for the metropolis of this Great Empire of Confederated Republics. It was ceded in 1790 by the states of Virginia and Maryland to the United States, and became the seat of govern. ment in 1800

It lies upon both banks of the Potomac, in form an exact square of 10 miles, containing of course 100 square miles, or 64,000 acres. Two of its sides run in a N. E. and 8. W. direction,--at right angles to the other two running in a S. E. and N. W. direction. It extends in lat. from 38° 46' 30" to 38° 58' N. nearly; and the long. of the capitol (which we assume as zero with respect to all other places in this country) has been found by accurate astronomical calculations to be with reference to Greenwich, the English point of reference, 76° 55' 30" west.

The District on the Virginia side is bounded by the county of Fairfax, and on the Maryland, -by Prince George county on the S. E. and Montgomery county on the N. W.

The location of the District having been determined on, the first store to mark its boundary was set in Jones's Point, the uppermost cape of Hunting, ereek, on the 15th of April, 1791, in presence of a large concourse of spectators. Of the 100 miles square included in the District, 36 lying south of the Potomac, and included in the county of Alexandria, were ceded by Virginia. A strip 10 miles long, by about 8 broad lying N. of the Potomać and comprehended in Washington county was ceded by Maryland.

The surface of the District is gently undulating, affording fine sites for the cities within its limits. In a commercial view its situation is highly fatorable. Ships of any draught can be navigated to Alexandria, and those of very considerable size to the Navy Yard on the East branch of the Polomac, at Washington. The Chesapeake and Ohio canal, and the fine roads which the government has made in every direction, also contribute much to its commercial advantages.


There is as much variety of soil as of sarface in the District. The hills are for the most part caverod with forests, and the vales are cultivated or covered with wild shrubbery, presenting a landscape, almost every where, of great beauty. Springs of the finest quality abound.

Rock creek, Tiber creek, and the Easteri Branch of the Potomac on the north,—and Oren Run on the south,—and Four Miles Run on the west,irrigate a great portion of the District.

The Potomac presents a vast sheet flowing from N. W. to S. E. Viewed from Fort Washington,—with the mouth

of the Eastern Branch on the left,—the main stream on the right,--and the opening of Four Miles Run in front, it presents the appearance of a great inland sea, rather than of a river

The composition of the soil on the banks of the Potomac and the Eastern Branch, is a deep alluvial-rich and various—accumulated from the deposites of successive ages.-and the gradual retreat of the waters. Frag. ments o primitive rocks, pyrites, gravel, sand, shells and decayed vegetable substances are mingled together.

The soil generally near the river is fertile and productive, elsewhere rather thin, and sometimes sandy; but susceptible of great improvement. The most forbidding and barren looking with ordinary attention, and by the use of manure and gypsum, may be fertilized to an extraordinary degree.

With such a soil, nothing is wanting but enterprise and perseverance to change the face of nature from a barren waste, to a blooming garden, and one would think that a market of sufficient extent to stimulate to the requisite exertion was presented alnıost at the very doors of the farmer and horticulturist ;—if indeed the facilities for water transportation afforded by the Potomac and its branches do not bring the more distant, but more fertile portions of Virginia and Maryland into injurious competition.

The Rock creek lands are of a light, loamy nature, with a substratum of clay.

The staple produce of the country is the same with that grown in the adjoining portions of Virginia and Maryland, viz: tobacco, wheat, Indian corn, fruit, and the esculent roots.

There is near the District, on Acquia creek, an extensive quarry of freestone, and on the Seneca one of beautiful variegated marble, or pudding stone from which the columns in the Hall of the House of Representatives were made.

The composition of the city low grounds, lying below the hights, from the Capitol to Halorama and to the margin of the Potomac, are alluvial, and appear to have been reclained but recently.

Within the memory of many now living, seines have been hauled, and fish taken, where handsome stores vow stand, in the part of Pennsylvania Avenue in which most business is now carried on, namely-between 9th and i0th streets.

The extent of the marshes below Columbia College bears evidence that a part of the stream of Rock creek once found its way across towards the Eastern Branch, along the foot of the hights which flank the northern part of Washington.

By judicious draining these swamps have been recently limited to a comparatively small space, but their existence has still an injurious effect upon the health of the inhabitants residing in their vicinity. This fact is clearly established by the improvement of the health of all situated in the vicinity of the low grounds from the centre market lo Capitol Hill.

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