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A TABLE, exhibiting the population of each State, Seats of Government, with their population and distance from Washington, Gorvernor's
Term and salary, the number of Senators and Representatives, with their respective Terms and Pay.
1 153 173 $2 00
481 521 2 00
595 3,9801 1 $1,500 1
1 400 1 10
1 1,1001 21
858 1,600 22,000) 3 22
600 4 1,000 4 980 600
A TABLE, exhibiting the Time of Election of State Officers, the Time of the meeting of the Legislatures, the mode of choosing Eleclors of Presi
dent and Vice-President, and the Number of Representatives in Congress, of the several States.
నిలు-తోటేటేలు బలా అంటే- రాశి ని స లా లా 30
HISTORY OF VIRGINIA.
INTRODUCTION, PROGRESS OF COMMERCE, ROANOKE SETTLEMENTS,
Merit of discovering America, - Advancement of Commerce by the cru
sades—in the Italian cities—in Spain, in Portugal,- Discovery of Ame. rica,-England, - Want of Commerce in early times - Voyages of the Cabots-Progress of English discovery-Frobisher-Gilbert-Raleigh,-Failure of the Roanoke settlements.
The claims of the Icelanders, the Welsh, and even the Norwegians* to the discovery of America, seem in modern times to be universally set aside in favor of a native of a milder clime. Indeed the evidence by which their respective claims were sought to be established was so vague, contradictory and unsatisfactory;t and their discoveries if proven, so entirely accidental, and useless to mankind, that it is not at all astonishing that all the merit should be given to that individual whose brilliant genius first demonstrated a priori the existence of a continent in the western waters, and whose adventurous daringt led him to risque his life in the search of a world, of the existence of which he was only informed by his science, with little aid of any human experience; or that posterity should give to COLUMBus the undivided glory of an exploit for which he received only the ignominy of his contemporaries, and io Italy the honor due the birth place of so distinguished a son, from whose brilliant atchievements she has received little else.
The spirit of commerce and navigation had been spreading extensively in Europe, for some time prior to the discovery of America. The maritime towns of Italy early perceived and enjoyed the advantages of trade, and Venice, Genoa and Pisa sprung under the magic of its influence, from insignificant towns to the wealth and splendor of populous and magnificent cities. This favorable result was much promoted by the crusades. In the Holy wars the Italian cities furnished the transports necessary for the conveyance of the immense hordes of northern and western warriors, with their accoutrements and aitendants, which a love of military adventure, and reli. gious fanaticism, were pouring upon the plains of Asia. The vast sums received for these services, and for the supply of provisions to the christian
* Winterbotham's America, vol. I. p. 1 and 2., and Hinton's United States. + Bancroft's Hist. U. States, vol. I. p. 6, and notes.
#" L'Italie reparut, avec les divins tresors que les Grees fugitifs rapporterent dans sou sein; la ciel lui revela ses lois; l'audace de ses enfants decouvrit un nouvel hemisphere."--De Stael-Corinne.
host, together with the privileges granted them in many of the conquered places,—the discovery of new subjects of commerce, and opening new avenues of trade,—the extension of the knowledge of the countries of the east and the people who inhabited them.--conspiring with the freedom of commerce and boldness of enterprize of the Italian towns themselves, and the taste spread through Europe by the returning soldiers of the cross for those eastern luxuries and refinements to which they had become accustomed, expanded the commerce of the world immensely beyond all former bounds, and threw that commerce almost exclusively into the hands of the towns of Italy.
The spirit of discovery and commercial adventure so happily aroused and extended by the wild and visionary schemes of religious bigots for the emancipation of the holy land was destined to be yet further extended by religious zeal mingled with ignorant superstition. Benjamin, a Jew, travelled from Constantinople through the countries of the Euxine and Caspian Seas to Chinese Tartary, in the vain hope of discovering his own sect ruling in opulence and power, some country of which Europe was ignorant. Innocent IV. sent two monks to Zengis Khan in the midst of his victories, and equally ignorant of the Pope as of the christian doctrines, with orders to embrace the christian religion, and to cease desolating the earth. St. Louis of France being made to believe that a Tartar. Chan had embraced the christian faith, and perceiving the advantages which the christians could have by the exertions of such an ally, in their future wars with the Saracens, immediately despatched two monks to him as ambassa; dors; and one of these made a more extensive circuit through the interiot of Asia than any European had done before him,
To these succeeded the loug commercial and exploring expeditions of the celebrated Venetian adventurer, Marco Polo, who in the course of his rambling perigrinations of 26 years duration, penetrated to Cambalu or Pekin the capital of the great empire of Cathay or China, and increased immensely the intormation of Europe as to the situation and condition of countries, from which they had long drawn luxuries, through circuilous commerce, without knowing even the position of the country whence they
Half a century after the Venetian had astonished the yet ignorant and A D. 1322.
almost semi-barbarous inhabitants of Europe, with his ac
count of the vast extent, wealth, population, variety of maňufactures and extent of trade of the east, his account was confirmed in the most essential particulars by Sir John Mandeville an English genileman, who excited by his example visited most of the countries of the east which he had described
Whilst this spirit of enterprise was developing itself, and Europe, be. coming more settled and civilized, was looking with eager anxiety towards. the vast fields for commerce opening to the east,-another son of Italy, so obscure or so neglected, that we know not his history, habits or profession was about to produce a new era in the history of commerce, and to advance the world a great step in the progress of knowledge and civilization -Flavio G101a, a citizen of Amalfi, discovered the properties of the magnet, and applied it to that indispensable instrument of modern navigation, the mariner's compass.
This discovery rendered it no longer necessary for
Robertson's Ch. V. and History of America.