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arrived, on his return from his expedition against the Spaniards, in South America, with a fleet of three and twenty ships. The sagacity of Drake perceived in a moment what was necessary for the colony, and his generosity supplied them with provisions, vessels, and other things necessary to maintain their position, extend their researches, and if necessary to return to England; but the accomplishment of his purpose was defeated by a violent storm which suddenly arose, and nearly wrecked his whole fleet, driving the vessel of provisions intended for the colony to sea, and destroying the Vessels which had been set apart, to be left for their use. He would have supplied others, but the colony with their governor at their head, earnestly June 19. requesting permission to return to England, he complied with
their wishes. Thus terminated the first English settlement in America.
This little colony during its sojourn with the Indians, had acquired something of their fondness for the use of tobacco, and learned to regard it with almost the same superstitious reverence as a powerful medicinal agent. Upon their return they introduced the use of this plant into England, and a weed at first disgusting and nauseating to all who use it, has become gradually the favorite luxury (and indeed with many a necessary of life) of all classes of society and of both the young and the old throughout the world, and this after experience has proven that in most cases it is an injury rather than a benefit to the health.
A few days after Lane's departure, an English vessel arrived on the coast with every necesssary for the colony, but finding it deserted returned home, Sir Richard Grenville arrived soon after with three ships well furnished with stores, for the colony, but not finding it, he also returned, leaving fifteen men on Roanoke Island, to keep possession in the name of Great Britain. A. D. 1587.
The genius of Sir Walter Raleigh was not of a nature to
succumb to slight failures, or ordinary difficulties. The succeeding year another colony was despatched to settle in Virginia, and that they might consider their settlement permanent and Virginia their home, inany persons with wives and families were sent. Jan. 7, 1587. A charter of incorporation was granted for a town to be call.
ed the City of Raleigh, a name revived in after times in the present metropolis of North Carolina. John White was appointed governor, and with eleven assistants constituted the administration for the control of the colony. Ample provision was made by the noble and liberal proprietor for the comfort of the colonists, and a plentiful stock of instruments of husbandry provided, to enable them to supply their own future wants and establish themselves on the only footing which could possibly be expected to be permanent. April 26.
The company embarked in April and arrived in July, at the
place where they expected to find the fifteen unfortunate men whom Grenville had left. But their grounds were grown up in weeds, their tenantless dwellings had become the abode of the wild animals of the forest, and their scattered bones blanching in the sun, were the last sad me. morials which told their fate to 'their anxious countrymen. Whether they fell by civil dissentions among themselves, by famine or disease, or were yet more miserably cut off by the overpowering numbers of a savage host,
* Hacklyt III, 323.
taking advantage of their desolate situation, deprived of sympathy, and des titute of the hope of succour, is one of the mysteries of history which the ken of man may not unravel.
The sagacity of Raleigh had directed the new settlement to be made on the shores of the magnificent Chesapeak, and there was the new city to be built, but the naval officer preferring trade with the West Indies, to explor: July 23.
ing the coast, left White on Roanoke Island, and compelled him
to establish himself there. The colony soon became involved in difficulties with the natives, partly July 28.
from accident, and partly from the previously engendered hostility of
some of the tribes. Indeed it would seem impossible a priori, even if we had not unfortunately too much experience of the fact, that two nations, of such different degrees of civilization, manners and habits, with such dif ferent designs, could longer remain together in peace, harmony and the footing of equals. It would seem to be the nature of man that the ignorant tribe should be jealous, treacherous and vindictive, that the more civilized, should be greedy, rapacious and overbearing. And when a spirit of suspicion is once excited, the imprudence of a single individual too often in. volves in a quarrel all of the citizens of the little communities; nothing is extenuated, and nothing is attributed to accident; but suspicion in the injured party supplies the place of malice in the aggressor. These difficulties made the colonists feel more anxiously their dependance upon England, and forced upon them a melancholy foreboding that without frequent and effectual assistance from the mother country, they could not long sustain themselves in a strange and distant land, the natives of which had become bitterly hostile. Under this impression when their last ship was about to depart for England they forced their reluctant Governor by excessive importunity to desert his charge in order that he might tend his personal aid and influence in sending them
succour from home. He sailed with the ship but not until after Aug. 27.
his daughter Eleanor Dare, the wife of one of the assistant Governors, had presented him with the first white child born on the continent Aug. 18.
of North America. This child was christened Virginia Dare, and
with her mother was esteemed a sufficient pledge of the exertions of the Governor in aid of the colony, and of his speedy return,
White found all England engaged in anxious preparation to meet the A. D. 1588.
threatened Spanish invasion, but this did not prevent the ge
nerous Raleigh from despatching him with two ships of supplies for the relief of the colony. But the spirit of gain overcame the spirit
of humanity, and even the tender ties of parental affection, April 22. instead of going at once to the colony, he employed himself in taking Spanish prizes, and was at last himself overcome, and rifled, which compelled him to return to England, much to the chagrin of the noble próprietor, and probably the destruction of the neglected colony.
The Invincible Armada of Spain had to be overcome, and the safety of England herself to be secured before another effort could be made to succour the little colony at Roanoke, and when this was accomplished, leisure found the noble patron of the enterprise too much impoverished by his previous unprofitable exertions, to fit out at his own expense another expedition. He was obliged to assign an extensive portion of his powers to a company of merchants and others who might carry his schemes inte erd; cution, but with his profuse liberality, the active spring which had quickened previous expeditions was gone, the spirit of gain rather than of glory
presided over the destinies of infant America, and it was not until another A. D. 1590. year had elapsed, that White was sent in quest of his sub
jects and his daughter. When he arrived the colony was gone, an inscription on the bark of a tree, indicating Croatan as the place whither they had gone, was the last record of their existence seen by a civilized eye. Conjecture has pointed to an amalgamation with the tribe of Hatteras Indians as the history of their destiny, and old Indian traditions and the physical characteristics of that tribe are said to confirm the idea, but whilst humanity may indulge a hope, credulity itself must entertain a doubt of the truth of the hypothesis.
White returned to England as soon as he found out that the colony was gone, and Raleigh is said to have sent five several times in vain, to search for his liege-men, but no tidings were ever received of their existence or their fate. Thus terminated the attempts at settlement on the coast of North Carolina, then called Virginia, the scene next opens upon the broad bosom of the “mother of the walers.'
SETTLEMENT AT JAMES TOWN-SUFFERINGS OF THE COLONISTSAD
VENTURES OF SMITH. Ner Company raised-its charter,- James Town,-Machinations against
Smith - Difficulties of the colony-Smith taken prisoner-his release, Arrival of Neroport, -Discovery of earth believed to be gold,-Depar. ture of Newport -Survey of the Chesapeake and its waters by Smith Smith made President, --Şecond arrival of Newport.-Judicious conduct of Snith, -New Charter,--New arrival of emigrants,-Badness of the selection, --New settlements,- Accident to Smith-his departure,
his character. We have now approached the period which the British were destined to make a permanent settlement in America. England already possessed a population considered redundant, in consequence of the inadequate means of support afforded by her limited commerce, and inefficient agriculture, The pacific and timid character of James 1. threw out of employment many of the brave spirits who had served under Elizabeth, and left thema the choice of only two means of acquiring wealth or distinction,—and these were either to draw a mercenary sword in the quarrels of strangers, or to serve their king and country by transplanting their energy and enterprise to a new world.
BARTHOLOMEW GOSNOLD chose the latter. He was a person of rank and intelligence, and had already acquired distinction by his courage and skill in arms. He solicited his friends for aid for many years in vain, bat
This is the translation Usually given of the Indian name “Chesapeak” bu: Chilly McIntosh, the celebrated Georgia Creek Chief, now removed west of the Mississippi with bis tribe, told the writer another meaning which he said was the true one, but which the writer has forgotten ; but which was however not se unlike the one given above but that the same word might well convey the two different impressions, in dil. rent Idioms of the same language,
at length attracted the attention of the distinguished adventurer Capt. John SMITH, EDWARD MARIA WINGFIELD, à merchant, and ROBERT Hunt, a clergymen, who after taking a year for reflection entered zealously into his projects.
Nothing however could be effected until persons of wealth and distinction could be found to patronise by their favor, and aid by their capital the enthusiasm of the adventurers. SiR FERDINAND GORGEs, a man of wealth, rank, and influence, had been informing himself by conversation with several American Indians who had been carried to England by previous voyages, and by every other means in his power of the nature of the country; and from the information he obtained became exceedingly anxious to possess a domain on the western side of the Atlantic. He persuaded SIR Jonn Popham, lord chief justice of England, to unite in bis views. Richard HACKLYT, the distinguished compiler of narratives of maritime adventures, and one of the assignees of Raleigh, had not yet reJinquished his hopes of a permanent settlement in America, notwithstanding the frequent previous discouraging failures, and cheerfully joined in this new scheme of American colonization. The exertions of these ener. getic and distinguished individuals speedily raised a company, and procured å charter from King James.
As this was the first charter' under which a permanent settlement was made, it may be worth attention to notice some of its prominent features. April 10, 1606.
The charter bears date on the tenth of April sixteen
hundred and six. * It grants all the country from four and thirty to five and forty degrees of north latitude, and all'islands within one hundred miles of the coast. This immense extent of country was divided by the charter between two companies, for the more speedy accomplishment of their purpose, -- which have been ever since designated as the London and the Plymouth companies. The London company wished to establish a colony between the 34th and 41st degrees of Jatitude, and the Plymouth between the 38th and 45th, and the grants were made in conformity to their wishes. But as there was room for collision between the 38th and 41st degree of latitude, the colony which first settled was to possess the land for fifty miles north and south of its location, and the other colony was forhidden to settle within one hundred miles of the tolony first planted. Each of the colonies was to be governed by a coun. eil of thirteent persons, under the management and direction of a council of thirteen in England, which was to 'regulate both colonies. The council in the colonies were to govern according to laws, ordinances and instructions prescribed by the king himself. The colonies had full power given to search for and work mines, paying to the king a fifth part of the gold and silver obtained, and a fifteenth of the copper; and they were further allowed to coin money to pass current in the colonies. They were also empowered to levy a duty of two and a half per cent upon the property of the king's subjects trading within their limits, and five per cent upon all * others so trading, for the use of the colony for twenty one years, and afterwards for the use of the king.
Certain articles of necessity were allowed to be carried to the colonies
• See this charter preserved in Stith, -Henning's Stat. at Large, p. 60, and in T. Rynier.
+ It appears afterwards that only seven were appointed ; no reason is assigned for the change.
from any part of the king's dominions free of duty for the first sevem years; and the colonists and their descendants were to have forever the privileges, franchises, and immunities of native born Englishmen.
The English council was to have power to name the persons who were to compose the colonial council, and the latter elected their own president, and supplied vacancies in their own body. The religion of the church of England was established; lands were to descend as at common law; man. slaughter, adultery, and dangerous tumults and seditions were to be pun: ished with death. The president and council constituted the supreme tribunal in all cases. The property of the colonists was to continue in joint stock for five years,
One hundred and nine years.from the discovery of the North American Dec. 19, 1606.
continent by Cabot, three small vessels whose joint tonnage
amounted to only 160 lons burthen, sailed for the coast of Virginia with a colony of 105 men. They were detained for six weeks in sight of England by adverse winds. The voyage was prosecuted under the command of Captain Newport, who sailed by the old route of the Canaries and the West India Islands ; thus consuming the valuable time and provisions of the colonists in a voyage unnecessarily long and circuitous He did not arrive in the Chesapeake outil the 26th of April.
Dissensions had sprung up in the course of the voyage, which there was no competent authority to quell, as the absurd affectation of diplomatie mystery on the part of King James had sealed up his instructions and the names of those who were to constitute the council, in a box which was not to be opened until after they arrived in Virginia.
The southern cape of the Chesapeake received the name of Henry, and the northern that of Charles, after the names of the sons of James. After landing on cape Henry, the box of instructions was opened, and Smith* was found to be named as one of the council, but he was exeluded by the jealous malignity of the rest. Wingfield was chosen President
Soon after passing the capes they reached the mouth of a large and beautiful river which they named after their sovereign James, but which the natives called Powhatan. About fifty miles from the mouth of this May 13.
river they selected a spot for their settlement, to which they gave
the naine of James Town. There could not perhaps be a company mor un fitted for the duty which it had to perform than that which now commenced the foundation of the British empire in America. The colonists were in a wilderness surrounded by sa vages, without a fortification to repel their incursions, possessed of a scanty supply of provisions, without means of planting, -and without a habitation, to protect them from he weather, save such as they might themselves erect; yet in the whole company there were but four carpenters, and twelve laborers, to fifty-four gentlemen. At first however this rare collection of pioneers fell to work with spirit, each to his appropriate duty. The president who seems to have been a very weak man and ill-suited for his station, was too jealous of his own men to allow exercises at arms, or a fortification to be erected; and the only protection provided was a sart of half moon formed of the boughs of trees by the exertions of Kendall. Newport, Smith, and twenty others were sent to discover the head of the river. In
* The council named was Bart. Gosnold, John Smith, Edward Wingfield, Christopher Newport, John Ratcliffe, John Martin and George Kendall.