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tion for the state, having declared it independent, passed an ordinance declaring that “The common law of England, all statutes or acts of Parliament made in aid thereof prior to the fourth year of the reign of King James the first, and which were of a general nature and not local to that kingdom, should be considered as in full force, until the same should be altered by the Legislature."

After this the Legislature re-enacted by special acts all of the statutes of the British Parliament which they thought applicable and necessary; and on the 27th December, 1792, declared that no statute or act of Parliament should have any force or authority within this commonwealth, -saving all judicial and remedial writs which might have been sued out before that act.

The common law, the constitution and statutes of Virginia, the constitution of the United States and the laws and treaties made in pursuance thereof, constitute the whole law of Virginia.

RELIGION.

Although the bill of rights, in 1776, declared that all men were equally entitled to the free exercise of religion, according to the dictates of conscience, yet the first constitution contained no express provision on the subject. The legislature, in 1785, passed an act for establishing religious freedom, and subsequently repealed all laws which recognized the Protestant Episcopal Church as the legal establishment. The glebe lands, and other church property, were vested in the overseers of the poor, for charitable uses, reserving only to the living incumbents an estate for life, and exempeing the church buildings from confiscation. The new constitution of 1830 fully recognises absolute religious freedom as a part of the fundamental law. The Episcopal church, which, after the loss of its revenues, suffered almost total extinction in Virginia, has revived, in the last twenty years, by the voluntary support of its friends, and is now distinguished by numerous and wealthy members, and by a pious and intelligent clergy. In 1834 the number of ministers in the State, including two bishops, was 59, churches, 58, and 2840 communicants. In the same year, the Presbyterians numbered 117 churches, 100 ministers, 11,413 communicants; the Methodists, 168 ministers, communicants 34,316 whites, and 7,447 colored, total 41,763; the Baptists, 261 ministers, churches 450, and communicats 54,302, of whom it is conjectured that one-half are slares. The precise distinction between the regular Baptists and the Reformers, called the disciples of Christ, not being in all cases drawn, there is no coming to any thing like certain knowledge, but it is supposed they do not exceed 10,000 in number, neither are they so systematically arrayed as to afford any accuracy in their statistics, either as to the number of teachers, congregations, meeting-houses, &c. Attempts are now being made for a better arrangement of their affairs. The increase of new members, for the last two or three years, has been so great that it has not been possible to keep pace with the demand for preachers, meeting-houses, &c. They have advanced in the U. States, within 10 years, from a few in number, to something like 150,000. The Catholics have 5 ministers, and 10 congregations; but the number of lay members is not ascertained. It will be perceived that the Baptists and Methodists are the most numerous sects in ihe state; and the estimate does not include a considerable number of separatists from both communions. Besides these, there are Friends, Lutherans, Dunkers, Unitarians, Jews, &c.

scattered through the state, whose numbers are not accurately known. The Presbyterians have a theological seminary in Prince Edward, and the Episcopalians one near Alexandria, both of which institutions have flourished by private liberality. The state, in its political capacity, has always manifested a strong jealousy of all ecclesiastical establishments; yet the Virginians are generous in private contributions towards objects of religion and benevolence. Sunday schools, and societies for promoting temperance, African colonization, &c., have been extensively patronized in late years.

EDUCATION. LITERARY FUND.—This Fund was established by the Legislature in 1809, by devoting the proceeds of all escheats, fines, and forfeitures, to the encouragement of learning. In 1816 it was encreased by the liberal appropriation of the debt due from the United States to Virginia, on account of advances made by the State in the late war with Great Britain. The permanent capital of this fund amounted, in September, 1833, to $1,551,857 47 Of this there was invested in stocks, loans and debts, $1,551,803 34

54 13

Leaving in the treasury to the credit of the fund,
To which balance must be added the undrawn school
quotas, amounting to

$20,256 74 First deducting the amt. invested in bank stock, of 7,150 00

13,106 74

Which leaves a total balance to the credit of the fund of $13,160 87
The revenue arising from this fund amounted, in 1833, to $78,340 61
Of which there was expended

62,927 18 Leaving a balance, to encrease the capital, of

$15,413 43 When the Legislature appropriated the United States debt to this fund, it at the same time gave 8230,000, and an annuity of $15,000 from the fund, to the University of Virginia.

Primary Schools.— The sum of $45,000 annually has been appropriated from the revenue of the Literary Fund, to the different counties, in proportion to their white population, for the sole purpose of instructing poor children in the elements of learning. This sum is placed under the management and control of School Commissioners, appointed by the Court of each county.

The primary school system has been modified from time to time since its establishment, and is now under the control of the Second Auditor, who renders an annual report to the Legislature, of the disbursement of the fund, founded on the returns of the county commissioners.—As the public bounty is confined to the offspring of indigent parents, a plan is now partially in operation, by which contributions may be received from individuals to establish schools free for all classes of pupils; and strong hope is entertained that the experiment will prove successful, notwithstanding the difficulties which arise from the mixed population of one portion of the state, and the scattered population and rugged surface of the other. Experience has already demonstrated the utility of even the existing system, and thousands who must have groped through life in the darkness of ignorance, have had the cheering light of knowledge shed upon them by means of the primary schools. We annex the Second Auditor's abstract of the number of poor children taught in each county, the expense, &c. for the year 1832-3: ABSTRACT of School Commissioners' Reports for the year 1832, receiv

ed between 30th September, 1832, and 1st October, 1833.

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Albemarle,
Amelia,
Amherst,
Alleghany,
Accomac,
Augusta,
Bath,
Bedford,
Berkeley,
Botetourt,
Brooke,
Buckingham,
Brunswick,
Cabell,
Campbell,
Caroline,
Charles City,
Charlotte,
Chesterfield,
Culpeper,
Cumberland,
Dinwiddie,
Essex,
Elizabeth City,
Fairfax,
Fauquier,
Franklin,
Fayette,
Frederick,
Floyd,
Fluvanna,
Grayson,
Greenbrier,
Greensville,
Giles,
Gloucester,
Goochland,
Halifax,
Hampshire,
Hanover,
Hardy,
Harrison,
Henry,
Henrico,
Isle of Wight,
James City,

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50 4

2 24

442 98

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Jackson, Jefferson,

14 Kanawha,

14 King & Queen, 9 King Ceorge, 6 King William, Lancaster,

9 Lee,

10 Lewis,

9 Logan, Loudon,

15 Louisa,

12 Lunenburg, li Madison,

9 Mason,

9 Matthews,

6 Mecklenburg, 10 Middlesex,

9 Monongalia,

9 Monroe,

11 Montgomery, 8 Morgan,

6 Nansemond, 11 Nelson,

7 New Kent,

9 Nicholas, Norfolk County,

8 Norfolk Borough, Northampton, Northumberland, 9 Nottoway,

8 Orange,

11 Ohio,

10 Patrick,

12 Page,

6 Pendleton,

15 Preston,

7 Petersburg,

12 Prince Edward, 10 Prince George, 11 Prince William, 8 Princess Anne, 8 Pittsylvania, 15 Powhatan,

6 Pocahontas,

5 Randolph,

9 Richmond County, Richmond City, 9 Rockbridge, 12 Rockingham, 13 Russell,

8 Stafford,

9 Shenandoah, 13 Scott,

7 Smyth, Southampton, 11 Spottsylvania, 12 Surry

5 Sussex,

11 Tazewell, Tyler,

11 Washington, Warwick,

9 Westmoreland, Williamsburg,

75 900 27 250 15 300 15 200 19 175 13 90 80 300 10

150 80 1000 25 450 9 300 9 150 20 150 18 247

9 150 18 150 33 300 30 100 16 130 17 190 16 150 40 240 40 500 19 150 20 250 36 400 23 220 18 200 15 150 12 120 18 400 14 200 54 1100 20 80 17 120 22 350

99 154 80 99 89 40 90 282 135 109 356 190 30 38 26 178

50 368

23 100 197

29383 12260 6256 5931 6697 6975 14282 11359 32341 10154 4745 3783 5373 3689 2037 5214 11423 22136 6835 5331 5390 7745 23032 8786 5469 14298 9374 6900 3008 3028 11655

6124 19752 2596 6018 7947

70
100 4
75 4
76 4
53 3;
112 3
94 4
85 4
51 24
54 31
70 4
57 31
81 4
65 4
73 4
52 3
74 4
280 11
69 4
58 4
135 4
86 4
81 21-12
65 3
50 4
40 31
49 3
230 3

79 4
116 4

65 4 124 4

54 34 113 4 60 3 40 31

2 96
4 10
3 40
3 18
2 23
3 55
4 14
4 06
1 39
2 05
3 05
2 46
3 60
2 96
3 65
1 82
3 13
4 28
3 00
2 73
6 19
3 70
1 84
2 09
2 17
1 45
1 61
7 62
3 33
5 30
2 81
2 36
2 26
4 64
2 11

1230 18 505 13 282 41 248 10 283 41 220 29 625 62 539 91 889 15 395 40 207 44 162 75 238 51 169 06 102 22 179 80 482 36 342 55 297 65 242 89 247 70 333 78 520 06 281 92 237 25 515 43 306 14 228 57 126 45 137 80 500 18 267 94 830 62 106 84 211 29 280 64

1 37

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RECAPITULATION.
Number of schools in 100 counties and towns, as per column 1,

2,833 Number of poor children in ditto, as per column 2,

32,804 Number of poor children sent to common schools in ditto, as per column 3,

16,669 Number sent to district schools, as per statement A,

412 Total number of poor children educated,

17,081 Amount expended for tuition at common schools, and all other

expenses, for books, compensation to officers, &c. as per column 5,

42,033 06 Ditto, at district free schools, as per statement A,

963 21 Total expenditure for tuition, &c.

$42,996 27 Average number of days actual attendance of each poor child at common schools,

65 Average amount paid for each poor child, including books and writing materials, clerks' and treasurers' compensation, at common schools,

$2 521 Ditto, at district free schools, per statement A,

2 331 Average rate paid for each day's actual attendance at common schools, including books, &c. and officers' compensation,

3 9-10 STATEMENT A. Abstract of School Commissioners' Reports, shewing the operations of the

District Free Schools, in the Counties in which they have been established, during the year ending 30th September, 1832:

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The actual payments made by school commissioners to teachers, being $963 21, the actual cost of each poor child, for the portions of the year for which such payments were made, will average 82 333.

COLLEGES.

WILLIAM AND Mary-This institution, which is at Williamsburg, formerly the capitol of Virginia, and next to Harvard College, the oldest in the United States, derives its name from William and Mary, sove.

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