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Permanent Funds, 30th September, 1834. 125f shares in the Little river turnpike company, at par, 12,550 00 250 James river turnpiko co.
50,000 00 7947 Bank of Virginia,
794,700 00 3381 Farmers' Bank of Virginia,
338,100 00 900 Bank of the Valley,
90,000 00 231
North-western bank of Virginia, 23,100 00 82 Swift run gap turnpike co.
4,100 00 125 Upper Appomattox co.
12,500 00 Certificates of James river co. 6 per cent. loans, 50,000 00
Amount producing rerenue, 70 shares in the Dismal swamp canal company, at par, 17,500 00 70
Chesapeake and Ohio canal company,
(formerly stock of Potomac co.) 31,111 11 2500*
Chesapeake an 1 Ohio canal company,
* Note.-Amount reported last year,
Add the state's subscription io the Chesapeake and Ohio
canal company, “transferred to, and vested in" the fund
Disposable Funds in Stocks and Loans, 30th September, 1834.
section of the act creating that fund, and by loans obtained under special acts of Assembly, viz:
Bank of the Valley,
Bank of Virginia, 500
Bank of United States, (loaned Dismal swamp canal company,) 34
James river company, 200
Staunton and James river turnpike company, 300
Lynchburg and Salem turnpike company, 140
Ashby's gap turnpike company, 3711
Shepherdstown and Smithfield turnpike company, 800
Roanoke navigation company, 160
Jackson's river turnpike company,
Petersburg railroad company,
Amount of productive stock,
2,400 00 Amount carried over
Amount brought over;
(still due, $4,692 00,) Leesburg and Snicker's gap turnpike company,
7,500 00 Lexington and Covington turnpike company,
1,620 00, Portsmouth and Roanoke railroad company,
95,000 00) Rappahannock company,
3,000 00, Rivanna navigation company,
3,926 37,) Smithfield, Charlestown and Harper's ferry turnpike company,
1,750 00) Warm springs and Harrisonburg turnpike company,
4,500 00,) Wellsburg and Washington turnpike company,
471 56,) Winchester and Potomac railroad company,
70,000 00, Amount unproductive,
Total amount of disposable funds,
8,180 00 2,208 00 12,500 00 12,680 00 95,000 00 23,000 00 26,073 63 12,250 00 7,500 00 6,661 77 50,000 00
235,373 03 924,228 40
Note.- Variations since 30th September, 1833, viz:
Amount as then reported, Add instalments on subscriptions paid during the year,
Few countries possess greater advantages than Virginia, for success in manufacturing; she has labour sufficiently cheap and abundant, inexhaustible supplies of fuel, and almost unlimited water-power. But planting and farming continue the favourite pursuits; her citizens seeming unwilling to invest their capital in enterprizes new and hazardous, and for which they have not been rendered competent by their habits and education. There are however extremely valuable flour mills, and some nail, cotton and other manufactories at Richmond, of which a more detailed account will be given when we speak of that city. In speaking of Wheeling in the N. W. part of the state, we shall give an account of her manufactories of cotton and woollen cloths, glass, iron, nails, porter, &c. which are nume. rous and valuable. The salt works on the Kanawha produce annually about 12,00,000 bushels of salt, and the amount is only limited by the demand; those on Holston produce from 150,000 to 200,000; and there are others on a smaller scale which will be noticed in their proper places.
AGRICULTURE. There is great diversity in the agriculture of the state, but it is for the most part badly conducted. The old practice of cultivating land every year until exhausted, and then leaving it to recover from its own resources, still continues in many places. In others the three shift system prevails ;that is first a crop of Indian corn, sceond, wheat, rye or oats, and third-the year of rest as it is erroneously called, but in which in fact the stock are permitted to glean a scanty subsistence from the spontaneous vegetation; after which it is again subjected to the scourging process of cultivation, while little attention is paid to the application of manures or the artificial grasses. This destructive system for the most part prevails from the sea board to the head of tide-water, and on the south side of James River to the Blue Ridge. On the north side of that river, especially towards the Potomac, cultivation is much better; a regular system of rotation in crops is attended to; grass seeds, generally red clover, (trifolium pratense) are sown on the small grain; animal and vegetable manures are saved with care and judiciously applied, gypsum is used to great extent and with very powerful effect
. In the valley district, also a good system of cultivation is pursued; and irrigated meadows are common, and very productive. On both sides of the Blue Ridge, maize or Indian corn, wheat, rye, oats, and buck wheat are the principal grain crops. Tobacco is the principal staple of most of eastern Virginia, but in the Valley is cultivated only in its southern portion,-and not at all beyond the Alleghany. The grasses common to both regions are the red clover (trifolium pratense,) orchard grass (dactylis glomerata) timothy (phleum pratensa,) and herds grass, (alopecurus pratensis,) the two former are cultivated on dry, the latter on moist soils. In the eastern and southern counties, cotton is planted to considerable extent. On the shores of the Chesapeake barley and the castor oil bean (ricinus communis) are cultivated; and on some of the best lands above tide-water hemp is raised to advantage.
The Trans-Alleghany country, being exceedingly mountainous, and remote from market is chiefly devoted to raising live-stock. No more grain is raised than is sufficient to supply the country itself, and the travellers and stock-drovers who pass through it; but in summer the visitors of the
mineral waters, afford a very considerable market, consuming an immense quantity of provisions. The climate and soil are very favourable to grass, and afford excellent pastures. The greensward and white clover, (trifolium ripens) spring up spontaneously wherever the timber is removed or deadened, and on rich ground are very luxuriant. The cattle are fattened generally on fine pastures of clover and timothy mixed.
It is difficult to speak with precision of the profits of agriculture in Virginia, in many instances it yields a bare subsistence to the cultivator, in others a neat income of two or three per cent; but where the lands are in good heart, careful and judicious husbandry practised, and wheat and tobacco the principal crops, there is no doubt that with slave labour a profit of from 6 to 8 per cent may be annually realized from capital invested; to accomplish this however, great attention and activity are necessary on the part of the proprietor. Lands in the Valley, in consequence of there being fewer slaves, are more equally divided among the whites; the young population settle more at home, instead of moving to the west—and the lands are generally better cultivated: these circumstances cause land to sell generally higher in that section, and the country to be more prosperous, although running streams are less frequent and communication with market more difficult and expensive.
In 1831 according to official returns 4459 hogshead of tobacco were de livered from the several warehouses in the state for exportation or manufacture, and during the year ending in June 1832, upwards of 544,000 barrels of flour passed the various inspections. The quantity of flour inspected however constitutes but a very uncertain index of the amount produced. Virginia flour, especially the Richmond brands, stand very high in foreign markets, and in South America particularly, bear a price far above all other flour. Most of the vegetable productions found in the southern and middle states are common also to Virginia. West of the Alleghany the sugar maple grows in abundance. There are some excellent native grapes,
the culture of which it is presumed will claim greater attention, since the winters have been found too severe for the foreign vine. The subject of judicious and scientific agriculture is receiving more attention every day. The good work is promoted by agricultural societies, and Mr. Edmund Ruffin's valuable production, the Farmer's Register, decidedly the best work upon the subject, published in America.
The value of imports into the state of Virginia, between October 1st 1830, and September 30th 1831, was $488,522, and the domestic produce exported amounted to $4,149,986,- foreign produce exported $489,- total exports $4,150,475. This immense difference between the imports and exports is made up by imports from sister states, the precise amount of which it is impossible to ascertain, but there is always a balance against us to the credit of our northern friends.
At the same time the amount of tonnage employed was as follows:American entered, 2,2933, foreign entered, 9,983—total entered, 32,916.
departed, 48,719, departed, 11,879-total departed, 60,598.