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common sense of mankind, all in favor of the affirmative of the question.
In proving the negative of this question, we propose to consider first the happiness christianity confers on its POSSESSORS, and then its miraculous power in alleviating human suffering and blessing the whole human race. Outward appearances are generally deceptive, the smiling countenance often conceals the saddest anguish of the heart, and the lady who is all mirth and glee is too often like the dove that folds its wings to conceal the barb of death. The minds of those who are Christians, like the unruffled waters, run deep, and enjoy pleasures concealed from mortal view. Which is the happiest the votary of pleasure or the christian. Death may overtake us at any moment. The vast sum of human happiness is made up of peace of conscience, and that even tranquillity which renders one always contented with his present condition, and enables him to confer great and perpetual bliss on all around. The argument of the hour of death so strongly relied on by the affirmative is in reality the very strongest one in our favor, all must die, the Christian feels ever ready; he looks forward to the brightest and most glorious prospect, but the sinner "is without hope and without God in the world." He is constantly terrified, conscience which is ever whispering to him, speaks of the dark and gloomy future, he fears perdition, and is ever unhappy. The POSSESSOR, not the mere Professor of Christianity, sets a noble example, and carries with him every where peace and love, and strews around contentment and happiness.* Christianity confers felicity, for it is the law of God. Is there any one so credulous as to believe that JEHOVAH Would annex misery for practising what he has commanded and approved? It has been boldly asserted that Christianity has caused devastating wars, that it was the source of the most cruel and unheard of persecutions; at the zenith of the power of Imperial Rome; that it originated the crusades and the untold misery resulting therefrom; that it was the source of the heart-rending persecutions during the reformation, and that it has continued to embroil and embitter society ever since. The fact is, all these atrocities and scourges have originated from an entirely different cause, viz: THE EVIL DISPOSITION of man. Who acts in direct opposition to the whole weight and power of Christianity; where have wars been the most frequent, ferocious, bloody and desolating, in countries not Christianized, "whence come wars and fighting among you, come they not hence even of your lusts." Persecutions have existed in every age and country. Who persecuted Shadrach, Meshack, and
*See "Do as you would be done by," page 76, Burleigh's School Thinker.
Abednego? Who does not see the absurdity of the affirmative in attributing to a cause, effects which are found anterior to it, and where it never has existed. All nations have practiced persecutions where the christian religion was unknown. Persecution is found in all communities, and has nothing to do with christianity, which, instead of encouraging, has always presented the strongest possible barriers against intolerance. Christ says, "Do good to them that hate you and pray for those who despitefully use you and persecute you." Christianity has, irrefutably, improved and elevated the condition of human society. It has abolished gladiatorial shows, and the contests between men and wild beasts. For the offering of human sacrifices it has taught us to acknowledge and forsake our sins. It humbles kings and nobles, for it teaches them that their poor christian menials are better than themselves. It has elevated the condition of the poor, and provided for the proper education of children. Christianity enhances the happiness of the race inconceivably even in this life. It has supplied innocent entertainments for those that were pernicious; it has enacted wise laws; it has rendered travelling safe; promoted literature, advanced science; established the law of nations, protecting the persons of foreigners in distant countries; mitigated the horrors of war by causing prisoners to be treated with humanity; created a regard for piety; founded hospitals; raised woman from her abject condition as a chattel and degraded slave to her proper rank in society. Like the sun in heaven, its beneficient rays fall on all, though not alike on each. Yet every one, however low or degraded, is rendered happier by its beneficent influence.
3. The preceding outlines have been given to encourage persons who have had little or no experience in conducting public discussions. It may be remarked that the same arguments do not appear alike to every mind; that circumstances may be ingeniously adduced, which if rightly construed, would sustain the opposite side of a question, and that mere reports are very different from facts, and should always be closely scanned. For example, the assertion in the first line of page 11, that 500 watches were stolen, is incredible, and may be refuted by showing that it was a conspiracy among thieves to destroy the law, i. e., one thief stole from the other, and that he in turn stole it again, and so on, till the same watch had been stolen and re-stole 500 times; or that there were not more than fifty watches at that period in the whole country where the execution occurred, &c. Young debaters, like children commencing to walk, should receive every possible encouragement, and should not always be rigidly confined to the subject.
24. The questions and hints on the following pages are designed for societies which have had more experience in conducting discussions.
Is Unanimity in Juries conducive to the Equity of their Verdicts ?*
Folly to require unanimity, to convict the meanest criminal when a bare majority, the preponderance of a single vote, will decide the most important deliberations of a State or Nation. A majority of one is sufficient to declare a war which will destroy the lives of thousands. One perverse and obstinate individual, or one who is corrupted by a bribe, may entirely thwart the ends of justice, and keep from merited punishment the vilest criminal. Improvement is the order of the day. In a free country the majority should rule. Unanimity is a relic of English Monarchy.
It causes investigation and discussion in all questions of difference, and leans to the side of mercy. A large minority would always create dissatisfaction to the sentence. It is better for the guilty to escape than for the innocent to be punished. Being condemned by a unanimous voice does away entirely with the unjust usurpation of executives; pardoning power. Rulers are liable to be bribed as well as jurors. The affirmative supports the side of theory. The negative is sanctioned by all past experience, and the approbation of the civilized world.
Ought Foreign Immigration to be Encouraged?
Needed to increase our population; to occupy waste land; to add to the power of our army; to our manufacturing establishments; to increase our institutions of learning; and to promote the literature of the country. Should be encouraged by grants of land and naturalization. The exile the strongest supporter of Liberty. And lastly, the superior intellect of foreigners is necessary to improve American literature. See Buffons Natural History, &c.
Paupers; criminals; Botany Bag; Land monopoly; Armies a curse; Tools of tyrants; encourage all the vice of Europe; embrace the policy that makes a million poor; a few nabobs. With those who engraft monarchial principles; small farms; merit; To corrupt ballot boxes; Licentiousness; Exploded theory. We should respect ourselves and our country. See lives of Eminent American Statesmen and Divines, History U. S. &c.
*See Duties and Responsibilities of Jurors, Burleigh's American Manual.
Do Males exert a Greater Beneficial Influence than Females?
Males are stronger in body and Strength no test of intellectual mind. Occupy all the learned power and moral influence. Sir professions; all offices of trust, Isaac Newton feeble. Women honor or profit. Direct the com- mould the character. Sir Wm. merce, manufactories, education, Jones: Bonaparte; Doddridge; banks, the press and armies. Washington left exclusively to the Command the wealth; wealth is mother. Semiramis, Helen of power; males found colleges; the Troy; Maid of Orleans; Isabella, strongest levers of Christianity; Catharine of Russia, Maria Thewomen dislike colleges; spend all resa, Elizabeth, Pocahontas, Victotheir time and influence in favor of ria, Jenny Lind. Free from drunkpernicious novels and romances. enness; Kings control mankind, This question applies to the whole Women control Kings. Hemans, race, in all uncivilized countries Hannah More, &c. &c. Direct the women are slaves and have no affairs of the Christian World,* influence. three-quarters Christian Females.
Ought the Liberty of the Press to be Restricted ?*
AFFIRMATIVE. [Heads.] Restrictions necessary to promote truth and repress falsehood. Rome and Greece were free, yet they had no free press. Foulest calumnies circulated through the press. Sanctions robbers of character who are more detestable than those of money. Thousands live and die by being slandered. Like a pestilence no one is safe from its pernicious attacks. Christianity ridiculed and belied by it. Infidelity disseminated. The French revolution, 1793, and the reign of terror countenanced. Power may be abused; the press is power and ought to be restrained. Enter seminaries; contaminate the young;
ruin a nation.
*See Apology for the freedom of the press by Robert Hall. And R. Hunter on formation and publication of opinions.
Truth, like gold, the more it is rubbed the brighter it shines; always prevails over all libellous attacks. If false restrictions tend to perpetuate; Greece and Rome, did not maintain their liberty. More crime and vice where it is restricted. Refutation follows slander. Destroys tyrants, the robbers of nations. Millions die for the want of having their rights fearlessly advocated. A virtuous man lives free, for the calumniator is not believed. Christianity refutes its puny attacks; encircles the globe with light and bliss. French revolution by stifling free discussion. A free press exposes bad books and stops their sale. Impossible to restrict it in a beneficial way. Bad rulers have bad men to control it. Our own country, glory and hope of the world.
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION.
TO ALL TO WHOM THESE PRESENTS SHALL COME.
We, the undersigned Delegates of the States affixed to our Names, send greeting.
WHEREAS the Delegates of the United States of America in Congress assembled, did, on the fifteenth Day of November, in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventyseven, and in the second Year of the Independence of America, agree to certain Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, in the Words following, viz. :
Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.
ARTICLE I. The Style of this Confederacy shall be "The United States of America." ART. 11. Each State retains its Sovereignty, Freedom, and Independence, and every Power, Jurisdiction, and Right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated to the United States in Congress assembled.
ART. III. The said States hereby severally enter into a firm League of Friendship with each other, for their common Defence, the Security of their Liberties, and their mutual and general Welfare; binding themselves to assist each other, against all Force offered to, or Attacks made upon them, or any of them, on Account of Religion, Sovereignty, Trade, or any other Pretence
ART. IV. The better to secure and perpetuate mutual Friendship and Intercourse among the People of the different States, in this Union, the free Inhabitants of each of these States, Paupers, Vagabonds, and Fugitives from Justice excepted, shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of free Citizens in the several States; and the People of each State shall have free Ingress and Regress to and from any other State, and shall enjoy therein all the Privileges of Trade and Commerce, subject to the same Duties, Impositions, and Restrictions as the Inhabitants thereof respectively, provided that such Restrictions shall not extend so far as to prevent the Removal of Property imported into any State, to any other State of which the Owner is an Inhabitant; provided also, that no Imposition, Duties, or Restriction shall be laid by any State, on the Property of the United States, or either of them.
If any Person guilty of, or charged with Treason, Felony, or other high Misdemeanor in any State, shall flee from Justice, and be found in any of the United States, he shall, upon Demand of the Government or executive Power of the State from which he fled, be delivered up and removed to the State having Jurisdiction of his Offence.
Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each of these States to the Records, Acts and judicial Proceedings of the Courts and Magistrates of every other State.
ART. V. For the more convenient Management of the general Interests of the United States, Delegates shall be annually appointed, in such Manner as the Legislature of each State shall direct, to meet in Congress on the first Monday in November, in every Year; with a Power reserved to each State, to recal its Delegates, or any of them, at any Time within the Year, and to send others in their Stead, for the Remainder of the Year.
No State shall be represented in Congress by less than two, nor by more than seven Members; and no Person shall be capable of being a Delegate for more than three Years in any Term of six Years; nor shall any Person, being a Delegate, be capable of holding any Office under the United States, for which he, or another for his Benefit, receives any Salary, Fees, or Emolument of any Kind.
Each State shall maintain its own Delegates in a Meeting of the States, and while they act as Members of the Committee of the States.
In determining Questions in the United States, in Congress assembled, each State shall have one Vote.
Freedom of Speech and Debate in Congress shall not be impeached or questioned in any Court, or Place out of Congress, and the Members of Congress shall be protected in their Persons from Arrests and Imprisonments, during the Time of their going to, and from, and attendance on Congress, except for Treason, Felony, or Breach of the Peace.
No State, without the Consent of the United States in Congress assembled, shall send any Embassy to, or receive any Embassy from, or enter into any Conference, Agreemer.t, Alliance, or Treaty with any King, Prince, or State; nor shall any Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under the United States, or any of them, accept of any Present, Emolument, Office, or Title of any Kind whatever from any King, Prince, or foreign State; nor shall the United States in Congress assembled, or any of them, grant any Title of Nobility.