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Constantina, disastrous expedition to, 625; its capture, 626 De Losme, Major of the Bastille, 33; death of, 85
Constituent Assembly, the, parties in the, 72; iis reforms, Denmark, a faithful ally of Napoleon, 475

76; declares its sittings permanent, 134; suspends roy- De Noailles, minister at Vienna, impeached, 167; the deeree
alty, 135, 137 ; frames the Constitution of 1791, 145; repealed, 168
closes its labours, 149

Departments, formation of, 77 ; opposed unsuccessfully in
Constitution for France, discussions on a, 57

some places, 78
of 1791, discussions on the, 145; is accepted by Deportation established in lieu of the guillotine, 359
the king, 146; of 1793, 292; fête in commemoration, Desaix, death of, 435

Des Carmes, massacre of the clergy, imprisoned at, 200
of the year III., 378

De Semonville's mission to Charles X. at St. Cloud, 589
of the year VIII., 429

Desèze defends the king before the National Convention, 247
of the year 1814, the basis the Charter of Desmoulins, Camille, begins the insurrection of July, 1789,
Louis XVIII., 511

26 ; at the Palais Royal, 57 ; incites the storming of the
Constitutional oath, generally refused by the clergy, 111

Tuileries, 188; quarrel and reconciliation with Robe-
Consul, First, Bonaparte appointed, 431

spierre, 326 ; arrested and executed, 331
Consulate, the, 429

Dessalines makes himself emperor in St. Domingo, 459
Consuls, three, appointed, 428 ; new appointments, 431 Dessolle becomes minister to Louis XVIII., 549; the elec-
Conti, Prince of, emigrates, 42

tions, 550; resigns, 551
Continental system, the, 470, 473, 490

D'Estaign, Count, his counsel to the court, 60
Convention, National.- See National Convention.

Dillon, General Arthur, executed, 331
of Paris, in 1815, 528, 538.

Theobald, murdered by his troops, 169
Copenhagen, battle of, 440; capture of, in 1807, 474 Directory, appointment of the, 382; struggles with the
Corbière appointed Minister of the Interior, 559; resigns, Legislature, 397 ; displaced by Bonaparte, 428

Doctrinaires, the, 555; Guizot their type, 621
Corday, Charlotte, assassinates Marat, 286; is executed, 286 Domaine Extraordinaire, the, 487
Cordeliers' Club, its members, 121

Dotations, question of the, 625, 631
Coronation of Charles X., its pomp ill suited to the age, 571 Dresden, battle of, 504
Corsica, counter-revolution in, 283

Drouet recognises the king, and causes his arrest, 131 ; is
Corunna, battle of, 483

himself made prisoner at Maubenge, 383 ; is released,
Council of the Ancients, established, 378; abolished, 429

383; engages in the conspiracy of Babeuf, 384; escapes,
Council of Five Hundred, established, 378 ; suspected of 385; his death, 542

royalist tendencies, 400; coerced by Barras and his Dubarry, Duchesse, executed, 313
party, 402; dispersed by Bonaparte, 428; abolished, Dubois-Crancé, his attack on Lyons, 306

Dubourg. an impromptu general, in the revolution of July,
Council of State, under the Consulate, 431; under the

Empire, 460; remodelled at the Restoration, 533 Ducos, Jean Francis, a Girondin, executed, 309
Country in danger, proclamation of the, 182

Roger, a Conventionalist, appointed one of the Direc-
Court, party of the, their plans, 37 ; gain over Mirabeau, 85; tory, 419; becomes a senator, 432; banished at the

bribe many of the Jacobins, 159, 187, look for aid froni Restoration, 542
foreign powers, 178; accelerate the downfal of royalty, Dumouriez, General, appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs,

164 ; quarrels with the Girondins, 171 ; scene in the
Couthon, his proceedings at Lyons, 306, 314; is executed, Assembly, 173; interview with Louis, 173; joins the

army, 198; his plan of operations, 209; his nego-
Cracow, Republic of, established, 541; occupied by the tiations with the Prussians, 213; returns to Paris, and
neighbouring powers, 621; seized by Austria, 637

affects a reconciliation with Robespierre and others,
Cremieux, a member of the Provisional Government of 1848, 224 ; invades the Low Countries, 228 ; gains the vie.

tory of Jemmapes, 230; his difficulties, 231 ; visits
Cubières, General, trial of, 638

Paris and endeavours to save the life of the king,
Custine's successes in Germany, 221 ; is recalled to Paris, 233; plans the invasion of Holland, 255; quarrels with
290; condemned and executed, 299

the Convention, 263 ; negotiates with the Austrians,

264 ; attempt to arrest him, 266 ; he is declared a
Dames de la Halle, their march to Versailles. 64

traitor, 267; dies in exile, 267
Danican, General, leads the sections of Paris against the Dunkerque attacked unsuccessfully by the Duke of York, 302
Convention, 379

Duphot, General, killed at Rome, 410
Danton proposes the impeachment of the ministers, 110; | Duplay, the host of Robespierre, 296; one of the judges of
Emigrants, nobles, and others, some of them arrested, 49; | Flushing, capture of, 483

organizes the attack on the Tuileries, 188; becomes Marie Antoinette, 307
Minister of Justice, 194; accused of peculation, 220 ; Dupont, General, capitulates at Baylen, 479; Minister of
favourable to Dumouriez, 264 ; is suspected by the

War under the Bourbons, 514
Montagne, 281; retires from Paris, 296 ; returns to the de l'Eure opposes the indemnity to the emigrants,
Convention, and opposes the Atheists, 319; is arrested, 567 ; a member of the Provisional Government of 1830,
330; executed, 331

591 ; becomes Minister of Justice, 600 ; resigns, 603;
D’Auch, Martin, his single opposition to the oath of the one of the central opposition committee of 1837, 626;
Tennis-court, 17

becomes a member of the Provisional Government of
Dauphin, the, in the Assembly, 190.- See Louis XVII.

1848, 641
title given by Charles X. to the Duc d'Angoulême, a leader of the Jacobins, 125

Duroc, death of, 503
David, the painter, a Terrorist, 296, 351; banished at the Duroveray, a Genoese exile, his counsel to Necker, 17

Restoration, 542
Davidowich defeated by Bonaparte, 390

Edgeworth, Abbé, attends Louis XVI, on the scaffold, 250,
Davoust created marshal, 459 ; an enemy to Bernadotte, 253

492 ; recaptures Hamburg, 503 ; promotes the second | Education, provision for, under the Consulate, 451; plan of
restoration of the Bourbons, 527 ; his protest against Guizot, 615
Fouché's proscription, 532

Egalité, General (the Duc de Chartres), serves at Jemmapes,
Decazes, Duc, his administration, 551

Declaration of Rights, the French, its origin, 152 ; its his- Egypt, the expedition to, 413; affairs of, 631

torical importance, 176; a new Declaration, 616 El Arish, convention of, 437
Degrave appointed Minister of War, 165; his incapacity, Elba, residence of Napoleon at. 511
169; retires, 170

Elections, law of, 545; modifications, 550 ; petitions, 552;
Delaunay, Marquis, Governor of the Bastille, endeavours to discussions, 554; the Septennial Act, 563; new law,

intimidate the Parisians, 24; surrenders the fortress, 604
35; is killed, 35

Elizabeth, Madame, accompanies the king to Varennes, 129;
Delossart appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs, 159; im. at the Tuileries, 177 ; in the Assembly, 190; im-
peached by the Assembly, 162; is murdered, 207

prisoned, 194, 195 ; tried and executed, 337

their hopes founded on the foreign powers, 86 ; continue Fontanes, his servile flattery both of Napoleon and the Bour-
to receive pay and pensions from France, 86; their bons, 506, 511
pride and folly, 112 ; decrees against them, 113, 157 ; | Foreign troops in the royal service, 23; skirmishes with the
war threatened against the princes who sheltered them, people, 26; some regiments join the Allies, 199
160 ; serve in the foreign armies, 167, 362; the expe. Fortifications of Paris, first proposal of, 616; agreed to by
dition to Quiberon, 375; decrees against them, 430, the Chambers, 632
431; amnesty, 445; return of many under the Em Fouché, his barbarities at Lyons, 315; opposed by Robes-
pire, 465; indemnity granted to them at the Restora- pierre, 327; appointed Minister of Police, 421; made a
tion, 568

senator, 447; re-appointed to the police, 462; created
Emigration of the Comte d'Artois and others of the blood duke of Otranto, 487; displaced, 487; his intrigues, 504;

royal and the haute noblesse, 42 ; their head-quarters his hatred to the Bourbons, 515; employed by Napoleon
at Turin, 86; remove to Coblentz, 112 ; discussion on a during the Hundred Days, 519; his correspondence with
law to restrain emigration, 113; decree against, vetoed Metternich, 520; becomes Minister of Police to Louis
by the king, 157.- See Emigrants.

XVIII., 529; his list of proscriptions, 532; his reports,
Emperor Napoleon.-See Napoleon.

533; is dismissed, 533; leaves France, 534; his death,
Francis II., war declared against, by France, 168 ; 542
takes the title of Emperor of Austria, 472

Foullon, the minister, 25; his murder, 47
Leopold, his plan for succouring Louis XVI., 129 ; Fouquier Tinville, the public accuser, 270; is arrested, 350;
his death, 162

executed, 366
Alexander of Russia, his interview with Napoleon, Fox, his negotiations with France, 472
474; grounds of quarrel, 489; war with France, 494; Foy, General, elected a deputy, 551; opposes the indemnity
forms an alliance with Sweden, 496; his declaration to to the emigrants, 567; his death, 571
the French Senate, 509; devises the plan of the Holy France divided into departments, 77; their organization, 78;
Alliance, 536; moderates the measures of the Allies, invaded by the Allies, 208; again in 1814, 507; in 1815,
536, 546 ; his death, 572

527; occupation by the Allies, 532; its limits by treaty,
Nicholas of Russia, his letter to Charles X., 572 ; 537
declines to recognise Louis Philippe, 599

François of Neufchâtel becomes one of the Directory, 402;
Paul of Russia, his negotiations with Bonaparte, dismissed, 428; becomes President of the Senate,
439 ; is assassinated, 410

Empire, the, 460

Fraysinnous appointed Minister for Ecclesiastical Affairs, 565;
Enghien, Duc d', murder of the, 456

acknowledges the existence of the Jesuits in France,
England, invasion of, projected by the Directory, 409; Na- 572; obliged to resign, 578
poleon's plans, 442, 453, 467

French feet defeated by Lord Howe, 342; by Nelson, 414,
English ministers unjustly suspected of fomenting troubles 469

in France, 49, 96, 202; negotiate for peace, 388, 394 ; Guards. - See Guards, French,
charged with abetting plots against the life of Bona- Fréron and the Jeunesse Dorée, 357
parte, 455, 462

Friedland, battle of, 474
visitors to France detained on the breaking out of Froment endeavours to excite a religious war, 86; is defeated,
hostilities, 453

and escapes, 94; joins the emigrants at Coblentz, 112
Erfurt, congress of sovereigns at, 480

Furies of the guillotine, 355
Essling, battle of, 483
Eylau, battle of, 474

Gamain, a smith, his treachery, 241; pensioned by the Con-

vention, 337
Fabre d'Eglantine, a member of the Cordelier club, 121 ;| Garat, a friend of Talleyrand, 169; becomes Minister of Jus-

a Conventionalist, 214; his corrupt dealings, 290; as- tice, 220; communicates the sentence of death to the
sists in the destruction of the Girondins, 309; arrested king, 250; retires, 292
for fraud, 318; executed, 331

Gardes d Honneur, raised by Napoleon, 501; conspiracy
Famine in France, in 1789, 11; scenes in consequence in

among them, 503
Paris, 28, 45, 60; in 1793, 256, 290 ; in 1795, 363 Garnier Fagès, one of the central opposition committee of
Faubourgs of Paris, workmen of the, arming of the, 523

1837, 626; his attack on the ministry, 617; his death,
Fauchet, Abbé, endeavours to procure the surrender of the 633
Bastille, 34; becomes a constitutional bishop, 157; ex-

the younger, a member of the Provisional
pelled from the Jacobin club, 217; opposes the trial of Government of 1848, 641
the king, 237; is executed, 309

Genoa seized by the French, 405
Favras, Marquis de, trial and execution of, 82

Gensonné, a leading Girondin, 154; executed, 309
Federalists, the, their first appearance, 175; alarm created George III. of England, his replies to offers of peace from
by them, 227

Bonaparte, 432, 462
Federation in France, 103; grand fête at Paris, 103

George, Prince Regent, (afterwards George IV. of England,)
Féraud, murder of, in the Convention, 367

letter of Napoleon to, 530
Ferdinand VII. of Spain, resigns his crown to Napoleon, and Georges Cadoudal, a Chouan chief, 439; his conspiracy, 455;

is imprisoned in France, 478; set at liberty, 507; in- executed, 462 ; honours paid to his memory after the
surrection against his tyrannical government, 552; re- Restoration, 513

stored to authority by the French, 561; his death, 616 Gérard, General, a member of the Provisional Government
Fersen, Count, assists in the escape of the royal family, 129; of 1830, 591; a minister, 600; captures the citadel of
a negotiator at Rastadt, 407

Antwerp, 614
Fesch, the Abbé, ordained a bishop, 447; a cardinal, 524 German Empire, the, broken up, 472
Feuchères, Madame, her history, 599

Germany, general rising against the French in, 502; secret
Feudal rights, proposed abolition of, 54; adopted, 55

societies in, 551
Feuillans, club of the, 142; the royal family imprisoned in Girondins, their principles, 154; form a ministry, 164; re-
the old monastery of the, 194

sign, 173; struggle with the Jacobins, 219, 268; are
Fiefs of the Empire, creation of, 470

denounced by the Commune of Paris, 269; many are
Fieschi, his attempt to assassinate Louis Philippe, 619; his arrested, 280; their trial, 308; behaviour before and at
execution, 621

their execution, 309; a number of them saved by
Finances of France, statements respecting, 88, 216, 397, 513 Robespierre, 345
Five Hundred, Council of, established, 378; abolished, 429 Gobel, bishop of Lidda, takes the constitutional oath, 111;
Flanders, the regiment of, appointed as the guard of the becomes bishop of Paris, 308; renounces Christianity,

National Assembly, 63; entertainment to, by the court, 316; is executed, 331
at Versailles, 63

Godoy, the Prince of Peace, 442; his intrigues, 475
Flesselles, Prevôt des Marchands, his temporising conduct, Goguelat wounded in attempting to carry off the king from
28, 29; is killed, 36

Varennes, 132
Flocon, a member of the Provisional Government of 1848, Gohier appointed one of the Directory, 419; arrested by

Bonaparte, 428

Gorsas, one of the Girondins, an opponent of the Jacobins, | Houchard, General, execution of, 303
224, 226; executed, 304

Hullin heads the attack on the Bastille, 34; generously
Gourgaud accompanies Napoleon to St. Helena, 531

endeavours to save the life of Delaunay, 35
Government, commission of, in 1815, its members, 526 Humbert, General, lands in Ireland, 417
Grangeneuve, a leading Girondin, 154; is proscribed, 280; Hundred Days, the, 516

executed, 314
Greece, kingdom of, established, 575; Ibrahim Pasha ex- Ibrahim Pacha expelled from the Morea by the French, 578
pelled from the Morea by France, 578

Idolatry of Reason, 314
Gregoire, Abbé, one of the first of the clergy to join the Com- Impartials, a club so called, 119; termed commonly the

mons, 12; a member of the Jacobin club, 142; proposes Monarchical Club, 119; is suppressed by the violence of
the abolition of royalty, 215; withstands Gobel and the Jacobins, 120
other atheists, 316; promotes the Concordat, 441; Imperial Catechism, the, 481
elected to the Chamber of Deputies, under the Bour- Indemnity to the emigrants, 568
bons, 551 ; his election annulled, 552

India Company, corrupt dealings of Chabot and others with
Grénier, General, a member of the Provisional Government the directors of the, 318
of 1815, 526

Infernal inachine, affair of the, 438
Grouchy takes the command of the French army after the Insurrection of the peasants against the seigneurs, at the
battle of Waterloo, 527

beginning of the French Revolution, 51
Guadet, a leading Girondin. 154; his quarrels with Dumou-

in Paris, July, 1789, 33; capture of the Bastille,
riez, 170, 173; is executed, 314

35; in October, 1795, 379; in 1827, 576; in July, 1830,
Guards, Body, of Louis XVI., 68; of Charles X., 595

587; in June, 1832, 613; in April, 1834, 618; in May,
French, their disaffection, 20; refuse to fire on the 1839, 631; in February, 1848, 639
people, 26; fire on the foreign troops, 26; join the Insurrectional committee in Paris, 184, 188
people, 29; are disbanded, 164; formed into a gendar. Insurrectionary movements at Lyons, 284, 546, 607, 618; at
merie, 188; denounce the Jacobins, 275

Marseilles, 93
the King's, a new body appointed, 171; tampered Invalides, Hôtel des, arms taken from the, 33
with by their officers, and disbanded, 171

Invasion of England, projects for the, 409, 467
National.- See Civic Guard, National Guard. Ionian Islands, Republic of the, 442, 444; their protectorate

Swiss, spared at the taking of the Bastille, 36' ; mas- assigned to England, 537
sacre of, at the Tuileries, 193; at the Abbaye, 201; Ireland, attempted invasion of, by Hoche, 394; effected by
their conduct at the Revolution of 1830, 590

Humbert, 417
Guernon Ranville, ex-minister of Charles X., arrested, 600; Isabella, queen of Spain, her marriage, 636
trial and imprisonment, 602; released, 625

Isère, insurrections in the, 544, 611
Guillotin, a deputy, suggests the meeting in the Jeu de Isly, battle of, 635

Paume, 14; proposes the formation of a civic guard, 27; | Isnard, a leading Girondin, 154; procures a decree against
proposes the instrument of death which bears his name, the emigrants, 159; proposes the Committee of Public

Safety, 268 ; his threatening language to the Jacobins,
introduced as the instrument of execution, 126, 274; is restored to the Convention, 356
164; furies of the, 355

Italy, kingdom of, formed, 466; broken up, 541
Guizot, secretary to the Minister of Justice, 538; his lectures

on history suspended, 554; becomes a member of the Jacobin Club, its influence, 118; some celebrated members,
Provisional Government of 1830, 591; a minister, 613; 121; its last sitting, 355
his educational plan, 615; the type of the Doctrinaires, Jacobins, many of them bribed by the court, 123, 187; strug-
621; excluded from office, 625; sent ambassador to gle with the Girondins, 219, 268 ; denunciations against
England, 631 ; becomes minister again, 632; President the Jacobins, 274; vanquish the Gironde, 280; their
of the Council, 637 ; expelled from office, 639

own fall, 355
Gustavus III. of Sweden, death of, 162

Jacques Roux, his brutal answer to Louis XVI., 253; his

petition to the Convention, 283
Ham, fortress of, a state prison, 364; ministers of Charles X. Jaffa, massacre of the Turkish prisoners at, 415; poisoning

imprisoned there, 602; their release, 625; Louis Bona- of the French soldiers at, doubtful, 415
parte imprisoned there, 631; escapes, 637

Jemmapes, battle of, 230
Hamburgh seized by the French, 491; they are driven out Jena, battle of, 472

by the people, 502; re-captured by Davoust, 503 ; surren- Jesuits, the, their unhappy influence in France, 567; they
dered by him, 511

refuse to submit to the laws, and leave the kingdom,
Hanover overrun by the French, 453

579; re-enter the country, 635
Hanseatic Towns annexed to France, 491

Jeu de Paume, oath of the, 14
Hawkesbury, Lord, his correspondence with Talleyrand, 462 Jeunesse Dorée, the, 352, 357
Hebert, his share in the September massacres, 204 ; arrest of, Jews, the, claim the rights of citizenship, 80; their claim

274; his release, 275; procures the public renunciation admitted, 146
of Christianity, 317; is executed, 328

Jezzar Pasha defends Acre against Bonaparte, 415
Helvetic Republic established, 412

Joinville, Prince de, employed to remove the remains of
Henriot leads the attack on the Bicêtre, 205; elected Com. Napoleon to France, 632; his marriage, 634; bombards

mandant of Paris, 290; his incapacity, 347; is executed, Tangier, 635

Jomini, the chief of Ney's staff, desertion of, 504
Henry V., attempted risings in favour of, 612

Josephine, Empress, her coronation, 466 ; divorced, 485;
Hereditary peerage abolished in France, 607; formed into a her affection for Napoleon, and death, 510

Chamber of Peers by Louis XVIII., 511; abolished Jourdan defeated by the Austrians, 418; created marshal,
under Louis Philippe, 607

titles and armorial bearings abolished in France, Journalists, many deported by the Directory, 402; their pro-
99; re-introduced under the Empire, 459

test against the July ordonnances, 586
Hoche, a serjeant of the French Guards, 23; at Versailles, 70; Journals, restrictions on the publication of, 59, 384, 402, 433;

a general in Germany, 322; recalled and imprisoned, some bought and suppressed by the royalists, 565; their
325; pacifies Bretagne, 363; puts an end to the civil war, protest against the July ordonnances, 586

394; attempts to invade Ireland, 394; his death, 407 July, the “glorious three days” of, 587
Hofer, death of, 486

Junot invades Portugal, 470; is defeated, and capitulates,
Hohenlinden, battle of, 439

Holland overrun by the French, 362; a republic established,

412; erected into a kingdom, 471, annexed to the Kellermann commands a force against the Prussians, 210;
French Empire, 488; the Orange family restored, 540; is superseded, 233; attacks Lyons, 299 ; created Mar-
blockade of its ports, 614

shal, 459
Holy Alliance, the treaty of the, 536

Kléber, a vehement republican, 400; his dislike of Bona.
Hôtel de Ville, the head-quarters of the insurrection of July, parte, 413; left in command in Egypt, 416; is assas-

1789, 27; broken open by the Dames de la Halle, 67 sinated, 438

Krudener, Madame, her influence with the Emperor Alex., T.egislative Body, the; 430
ander, 536

Le Guen de Kerengal, his description of feudal burdens, 54

Leipzig, battle of, 505
Labedoyère, Col., joins Napoleon on his return from Elba, Leoben, conferences at, 404
517; is executed, 539

Leopold, of Saxe-Coburg, chosen King of Belgium, 605
La Fayette, Marquis de, early life of, 5; appointed to the Lépeaux, one of the Théophilanthropes, 394; becomes one of

command of the Parisian militia, 39; endeavours to the Directory, 382; resigns, 419
save the life of Foullon, 46 ; his conduct at Versailles, Lepelletier, the Conventionalist, his murder, 253
71; his behaviour on the flight of the royal family, 129; Letourneur becomes one of the Directory, 382; displaced,
resigns his command, 158; appointed to command a 395
part of the army, 169; his letter to the Assembly, 174; Lhuillier, his share in the September massacres, 204 ; calls
distrusted by all parties, 178; arrests the commissaries for the impeachment of the Girondins, 277
of the Assembly, 198; is obliged to fly, 198; imprisoned Liancourt, Duc de, his candour to Louis XVI., 37; becomes
by the Austrians, 198; released, 407; his speech on the President of the National Assembly, 49; endeavours
abdication of Napoleon, 525; his speech on the Charter, to carry off the king, 187; takes the name of la
554; indemnity granted to him, 568; visits America, Rochefoucauld Liancourt.-See La Rochefoucauld Lian-
568 ; his conduct during the Revolution of July, 587; court.
appointed to the chief command of the National Guards, Liége, extravagant republicanism of, 232
596 ; resigns, 603; his death, 618

Ligny, battle of, 524
Laffitte, the banker, trusted with property both by Louis Ligurian Republic, the, 412, 440

and Napoleon, 542; his conduct during the Revolution Lille bombarded by the Austrians, 221
of July, 587 ; becomes minister, 600; his quarrel with Lindet proposes the formation of the Revolutionary Tribunal,
the king, 601; resigns, 604; a member of the central 261 ; his defence of the Terrorists, 359
opposition committee of 1837, 626

L'Isle, Rouget de, author of La Marseillaise, 184
La Force, massacre of the prisoners at, 204

Longwood, Napoleon's residence at St. Helena, 531
Lally Tollendal, Compte, his enthusiastic reception at Paris, Longwy, capture of, by the Prussians, 208 ; is restored to
39; retires to Switzerland, 75

the French, 213
Lamarque delivered to the Austrians by Dumouriez, 266; Louis XVI., his speeches in the States-General and the
released, 383

National Assembly, 2. 18, 38, 81; visit to Paris, 41;
General, insurrection at his funeral, 613

his humane, but irresolute character, 42; basely de-
Lamartine, his attack on the ministry, 634; becomes a mem- serted by his brother and many of the nobility, 42;
ber of the Provisional Government of 1848, 641

brought back to Paris by the populace, 71 ; his mode
Lamballe, Princesse de, murdered, 204

of life there, 99; begins to plan his escape, 111; his
Lambert, Abbé, his interview with the condemned Giron- secret correspondence, 111; flight from Paris, 126 ; his
dins, 309

protest, 130; is arrested at Varennes, 132 ; brought
Lambesc, Prince de, repulsed by the people at Paris, 26 ; back to Paris, 134; a prisoner in the Tuileries, 135 ;
one of the emigrants, 82

accepts the Constitution, and is set at liberty, 146 ;
Lameth, Count Alexander, a chief leader of the popular declares war against Austria, 168; refuses to sanction a

party, 75; repays money advanced by the court for his decree against the priests, 173; interview with Dumou-
education, 87; forms an association called the Sabbat, riez, 173; his firmness, 176; again takes the Consti.

tutional oath, 182; his proposed escape from Paris, 187;
Count Charles, a popular favourite, 118

his deposition demanded, 187; takes refuge with his
Lannes, created Marshal, 459; killed, 483

family in the Assembly, 190; is deposed, and impri-
La Porte, intendant of the civil list, 130; burns the memoirs soned, 194 ; details of his life in the Temple, 234; is
of Madame Lamotte, 171; executed, 198

brought to trial, 242; condemned, 249; his parting
La Rochefoucauld, Cardinal, is murdered in prison, 206

with his family, 250; executed, 253; removal of his
Duc de, murder of, 206

remains at the Restoration, 514
Liancourt, Duc de, amount of his indem- Louis XVII. proclaimed in La Vendee, and elsewhere, 282;
nity, 568 ; scandalous scene at his funeral, 574

his death, 371
La Rochejaquelein, a leader of the Vendeans, 322; his XVIII. has partisans in the Convention, 372; protests
death, 342

against the assumption of the empire by Bonaparte, 459;
Las Cases accompanies Napoleon to St. Helena, 531

issues a declaration against him after the Russian cam-
Latour d'Auvergne, honours paid to his memory, 437

paign, 502; is restored to France, 512; the Charter,
Lavalette appointed Director general of the Post-office, 462; 512; unwise acts of his Government, 513; retires to

joins Napoleon during the Hundred Days, 519; is tried Ghent, 518; restored, 527; his moderate measures, 541;
and condemned to death, 539; escapes, 539

opposition of the Chambers, and of his family, 543; his
La Vendée, the civil war in, 264, 342; pacification of, 371 ; death and character, 566
fresh royalist movements in, 503, 612

Philippe, king, 591 ; takes the oath on receiving the
Lavoisier, the chemist, executed, 343

crown, 598; his pacific policy, 599; quarrels with his
Laybach, congress at, 556, 557

first ministers, 601; his personal courage, 613; attempts
Lebas, his administration in Alsace, 325; commits suicide, on his life, 614, 619, 621, 625, 631, 636; numerous

changes of ministry, 632 ; alliances with other royal
Lebon, a revolutionary agent, his furious proceedings, families, 626, 634; visits England, 635; the Spanish
324; is executed, 344

marriages, 636; demand for reform, 637; insurrection,
Lebrun becomes Minister of Foreign Affairs, 194; is deprived 639; fruitless attempt to form a new ministry, 640 ;
of office, 280; is executed, 331

abdicates, 640; his arrival in England, 641
C. F., becomes one of the Consuls, 431 ; is made Louisiana sold by France to the United States, 442
Arch-Treasurer of the empire, 458

Loustalot proposes the rescue of some military prisoners, 23;
Leclerc, General, brother-in-law to Bonaparte, invades Por- his death, 109
tugal, 442; his death in St. Domingo, 451

Louvel assassinates the Duc de Berri, 552
Lecointre denounces the Terrorists, 352

Low Countries overrun by the French, 231, 342
Lecomte attempts the life of Louis Philippe, 636

Lowe, Sir Hudson, the keeper of Napoleon at St. Helena,
Ledru Rollin, prosecution of, 633; assails the Ministry in 531

the Chamber, 634; one of the central opposition com. Luckner, General, reveals La Fayette's intrigues, 188; sub-
mittee in 1837, 626, a member of the Provisional mits to the Assembly, 198 ; is executed, 325
Government of 1848, 641

Luneville, negotiations at, 437, 439; peace concluded,
Legion of Honour, establishment of the, 445

Legislation, Bonaparte's labours in, 449; the Code, 450 Lutzen, battle of, 502
Legislative Assembly, meeting of the, 153; its parties, 154; Lyons, quarrel of the clubs at, 270; the Jacobin club at,

decrees war 168, 171; receives armed petitioners, 175; closed, 282; insurrection, 284; siege and capture of,
passes a decree against them, 178 ; superseded by the 305; atrocities of the republican coinmissaries, 314;
Commune of Paris, 195; abets the September mas- murders by the reactionary party, 365; insurrections in,
sacres, 203, 205; its dissolution, 208

546, 607, 618

Mack, General, his negotiations with Dumouriez, 264; at- | Mehemet Ali, his war with the Sultan, 630; views of the

tacks the French in Italy, and captures Rome, 417; is French ministry foiled, 631

defeated, 417; surrender of his army at Ulm, 468 Menou, General, professes himself a Mohamedan, in Egypt,
Maignet, a republican commissary at Lyons, 323

415 ; obliged to capitulate, 441
Maillard heads the march of the market-women to Versailles, Mère, Madame, title given to the mother of Napoleon, 465

67; presides as judge at the September massacres, 200; Mericourt, Mlle., the Amazon of Liége, 69, 121, 163
imprisoned by the Convention, but released by the Com- Merlin, of Douay, becomes one of the Directory, 402; re-
mittee of Public Safety, 320

signs, 419; banished at the Restoration, 542
Malesherbes defends the king before the National Con- Metrical system, the new, decreed by the Constituent As-
vention, 246, 249; executed, 343

sembly, 114
Mallet, General, conspiracy of, 496

Metternich outwits Napoleon, 503; his correspondence with
Malouet, a deputy to the States-General, proposes the re- Fouché, 520
moval of the Assembly to Tours, 63

Mexico, war between France and, 630
Malta, seizure of, by Bonaparte, 413; captured by England, Miaczinsky, General, a tool of Dumouriez, 266; is condemned
438; dispute about its restoration, 453

and executed, 272
Mamlooks defeated by Bonaparte, 414

Miguel, Don, his rebellion, 564; his quarrel with France,
Mandat, Commandant of the National Guard, his death, 189 605
Mandats, the, a new sort of assignats, 387

Milan Decree, the, 476
Manège, Club of the, 421

Ministers of Charles X., trial of, 602; their release, 625
Mantua, siege and surrender of, 197; second siege, 403 Ministries, list of the numerous, from 1830 to 1840, 632
Manuel, Prucureur of the Commune, 182; is executed, 313 Ministry of the Three Days, 618

il deputy, assists Fouché in drawing up his reports, Mirabeau, Comte de, his early history, 5; his speech in the
533; his expulsion from the Chamber, 562; scene at National Assembly, 13; his popularity, 70; comes to
his funeral, 575

terms with the court, 83; his plans for the king's
Marat, a deputy to the States-General, his early life, 122 ; escape from Paris, 111; his opposition to the proposed

his inflammatory publications, 106, 114; bis journal, law against the emigrants, 113; his death and public
“ L'Ami du Peuple," 122 ; plans the September mas- funeral, 116
sacres, 206, 207; is assailed in the Convention, 218;

Vicomte de, a partisan of the court, 90; his sar-
treated with contempt by Dumouriez, 224; is assas- casm on his brother, 114; an emigrant, 157
sinated by Charlotte Corday, 286; honours paid to his Molé, M., minister of Louis Philippe, 622; releases the ex-
memory, 286

ministers of Charles X., 625; resigns, 630
Marceau, General, death of, 893

Moleville becomes minister of the Marine, 155; hostile to
Marengo, battle of, 436

the Constitution, 159; resigns, 163; employed to bribe
Maria Louisa, Archduchess of Austria, her marriage to the king's opponents, 187

Napoleon, 487; birth of her son, 491; retires from Momoro, one of the Cordelier Club, presides over the Fes-
France, 510

tival of Reason, 316; executed, 331
Theresa, Princess, (daughter of Louis XVI.) released Moncey, Marshal, refuses to sit in judgment on Ney, 539
from prison by the Directory, 383; married to the Duc Monsieur (afterwards Louis XVIII.), 19, 45; accused of
d'Angoulême, 519.--See Angoulême, Duchesse de.

plotting to carry the king from Paris, 81; distrusted by
Marie Antoinette, Queen, coldly received in public, 2; her the queen, 82; escapes from Paris, 129; refuses to

vehement rage, 6; troubled at the aspect of affairs, 14; return, 157 ; takes the title of Regent, 362.-See Louis
relies on the nobility for support, 19; speech attributed XVIII.
to her, 25 ; burns her papers, 40 ; her dislike to the tri-

title taken by the Comte d'Artois after the Resto-
colour cockade, 42; appears at the banquet to the regi- ration,
ment of Flanders, 63; in danger of her life at Versailles, Montagne, the, a party in the National Convention, 219
70; her activity in public affairs, 82; her mode of life Montesquiou conquers Savoy, 223; makes a convention with
at the Tuileries, 99; flight from Paris, 126; arrested at the Swiss, 223 ; is deprived of his command, 224
Varennes, 132; brought back to Paris, and imprisoned, Montholon, General, accompanies Napoleon to St. Helena,
134 ; effect of grief on her hair, 135; her own account 530
of her life, 167; endeavours to gain over Santerre and Montmorin, Minister of Foreign Affairs, bribes the Jacobins,
others, 187; her hatred of La Fayette, 188; in the 123; plans the flight to Varennes, 123; resigus, 159;
National Assembly, 190; imprisoned in the Temple, is murdered, 201
195; in the Conciergerie, 303; her trial and execution,

Madame, her ominous words at the opening of the
307; removal of her remains after the Restoration, 514 States-General, 2
Marigny, a Vendean chief, murder of, 342

Montpensier (brother of Louis Philippe), Duc de, serves
Marmont, Marshal, surrenders Paris to the Allies, 509; es- under Dumouriez, 216, 230; goes over to the Austrians

corts Louis XVIII. from Paris, 518; excepted from with him, 267
amnesty by Napoleon, 519; appointed to the command

son of Louis Philippe), Duc de, his marriage,
of Paris, 586 ; retires, 590

Marocco, war between France and, 635

Morea, expulsion of Ibrahim Pacha from, by the French, 578
Marrast, a journalist, a member of the Provisional Govern Moreau, General, his celebrated retreat, 393 ; concerned in
ment of 1848, 641

the intrigues of Pichegru, and superseded, 402; serves
Marriage of the clergy advocated by Robespierre, 94

in Italy, 421; his successes in Germany, 437, 439; bos-
Marseillaise, first enrolment of the, 12; their appearance in tile to Bonaparte, 447 ; his trial, 461; allowed to retire
Paris, 184 ; song so called, 184

to America, 462; joins the Allies in Germany, 504; is
Marseilles, royalist massacres at, 370, 535

killed, 504
Marshals of the Empire, creation of, 459

Mortier, Marshal, evacuates Paris, 509; becomes minister,
Martial law sanctioned by the National Assembly, 76

619; his death, 619
Martignac becomes minister, 577 ; his law of the press, Moscow, burning of, 495

578; difficulties with the religious party, 580 ; resigns, Moulins appointed one of the Directory, 419; arrested by
581; defends Polignac on his trial, 602

Bonaparte, 428
Massacres, royalist, in the south of France, 365, 370, 535 Mounier proposes the oath of the Jeu de Paume, 14; attempts

of the Swiss at the Tuileries, 193 ; of September, a royalist reaction, 75
199; of the Turkish prisoners at Jaffa, 415

Mourad Bey defeated by the French, 414
Masséna his hypocritical letter, 411 ; maintains his position Murat serves in Egypt, 415; made a marshal, 459; marries

in Switzerland, 419; created Marshal, 459 ; sits on the Bonaparte's sister, 466; receives the Grand Duchy of
court-martial on Ney, 539; his death, 542

Berg, 470; made King of Naples, 479; serves in the
Maury, the Abbé, opposes Talleyrand's plan for the arrange- Russian campaign, 495; his treachery, 505, 507; bis

ment of church property, 77 ; assailed by the populace, death, 540
91; becomes Cardinal, 467; Archbishop of Paris, 189; Muscadins, the, 303, 354
baptizes the son of Napoleon, 491

Mutuellistes, the, at Lyons, 618
Mazzini, the founder and leader of the association called
Young Italy, 616

Nancy, mutiny in the garrison of, 107

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