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WATER SUPPLY FOR DOMESTIC AND INDUSTRIAL
The problem. Our complete dependence upon water is brought clearly to mind whenever we are wholly deprived of it for a few hours or for a day. Its use in cleansing and in cooking is almost constant. The importance of an adequate supply of good water is difficult to overestimate.
What to do. 1. If there is a municipal water system, visit the pumping station. Learn from what source the water comes, what precautions are taken to protect it from contamination or to purify it, whether tests of the quality of the water have been made, and how much is really known and how much assumed regarding its healthfulness.
2. Use the following outline as a basis of the study.
SOURCE OF WATER
1. Is the water obtained from wells, springs, a river, a natural lake, or an artificial lake?
2. Is the water supply system under public control?
3. How far away is the source of supply?
4. Describe the reservoir. Do plants grow in or upon the water? 5. Do fish or other animals live in the water? Is fishing or bathing allowed in the reservoir?
6. Is the reservoir area guarded partially or completely?
7. Describe the character of the watershed as to area; kinds of sand, clay, or rock found; kinds of vegetation found; amount of land cultivated; fertilizers used on farm crops; density of population and methods of sewage disposal.
METHODS FOR TRANSFERRING WATER
8. How is the water brought from the source to the reservoir? from the reservoir to the houses?
9. What is the course and capacity of the chief water mains?
10. How is the water pressure maintained?
11. How is extra pressure for fighting fires secured?
12. Are pumps used? Is a standpipe used?
13. What is the water pressure at the average street level? at the top of the taller buildings?
14. What conditions tend to reduce the average water pressure?
15. What are the regulations concerning the use of water for sprinkling lawns?
METHODS OF PURIFICATION
16. What dangerous and harmless impurities may be found in the domestic water supply? Give the source of each and suggestions for removal or prevention.
17. Is the water purified? How?
18. Describe the purification system as to method, size, capacity, and efficiency.
19. What chemicals are used in the water?
20. How often is the water tested by experts?
21. Are household filters commonly used? Are they safe?
22. Has any disease ever been traced to the local water supply?
23. How is the purification of the water supervised?
CHARACTER OF THE WATER
24. Is the water clear and without sediment?
25. Has the water any odor?
26. What methods can be used to determine whether the water is hard or soft?
27. What means are used to soften the water?
28. Does the water contain dissolved matter?
29. How is the water affected by local storms?
CONSUMPTION OF WATER
30. What is the total cost of the water-supply system?
31. What is the population of the community?
32. What is the per capita cost of the system?
33. How much water is used daily?
34. What is the annual cost of operation of the water-supply system? What is the per capita cost?
35. Are water meters used? Why?
36. What are the local water rates?
37. What does it cost to furnish water to your home for one month? to your school?
38. Should the per capita use of water be increased or decreased? How?
THE SEWAGE SYSTEM
39. What is the final destination of the waste water?
40. What is the course of the chief sewers?
41. Is there any possibility of the sewage contaminating the water source?
42. Is a sewage-disposal plant in operation? Describe the essential features of a sewage-disposal plant.
Suggestions for report. Make diagrams showing sources of local water supply, location of plants for securing and delivering water, mains to deliver water to a dwelling house or school.
Reference work. Read sections 174 to 180.
Optional problems. What are the chief methods of securing adequate water supply in other communities near you? in the leading cities of the United States? Is it better and more economical for each family to be responsible for its own water supply or for the community to do this for all?