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ELEMENTS OF GENERAL
OTIS W. CALDWELL
DIRECTOR OF THE LINCOLN SCHOOL AND PROFESSOR OF
EDUCATION, TEACHERS COLLEGE
W. L. EIKENBERRY
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF THE TEACHING OF BIOLOGICAL
SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
EARL R. GLENN
TEACHER OF PHYSICAL AND GENERAL SCIENCE IN THE
LINCOLN SCHOOL OF TEACHERS COLLEGE
BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO . LONDON
COPYRIGHT, 1920, BY
AND EARL R. GLENN
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
The Athenæum Press
The development of courses in general science, and their extensive adoption in high schools, has been the most important change in science teaching during the past two decades. In teaching this subject high-school teachers have found it more difficult to secure adequate help in their laboratory, demonstration, and field work than has been true in connection with the text material. While the outline for experimental work requires recognition of the variations in methods and materials used in different schools, it must also be sufficiently specific and comprehensive to serve adequately as a guide to the pupils. This manual has been prepared in order to meet these needs. It uses most of the topics which appear
in Caldwell and Eikenberry's "A Laboratory Manual for General Science," but has organized these topics differently and has added to them. The following are special features of this manual :
A preliminary paragraph with each problem, giving briefly the setting of the problem so that the pupil begins his work with a measure of appreciation of its significance.
Diagrams, sketches, or halftones, as parts of most of the problems, are designed to give suggestions as to setting up apparatus, thus helping to make certain that the experiment is properly performed and at the same time stimulating pupils to invent ways of their own for doing things. In case of most of the illustrations no legends are given, since the directions provide all needed suggestions for proper use of the figures. In a few cases legends are added, but usually the pupil will profit most by use of an illustration as a means of experimentation if a detailed explanation of its significance is omitted.
Clear statements are made of methods of procedure. Type questions of the kinds which should be discussed in each problem
are given under a separate heading. Specific references to text reading are cited in connection with each problem. Definite suggestions are given for the records which are to be made. Notebooks have often been made too burdensome with endless and sometimes meaningless note writing, whereas brief notes with correct diagrams are better. Occasionally a more extended written report is called for in order to lead the pupil to the proper use of a clear and full account of an occurrence.
Common materials are used for experimentation, since simple phenomena relating to common problems are likely to be more educative for young pupils than those which are uncommon and complex. The materials needed are listed in each exercise. It is hoped that teachers will encourage pupils to use their own initiative in devising new ways to perform the experiments, as well as in working out additional problems and projects which are suggested.
Optional problems provide extra work for pupils who work especially rapidly or who wish to use added time for the course.