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the north towards the west if it be easterly, and the line which constitutes such an angle with the magnetical meridian, will be a true meridian line.

For if the variation be westerly, the magnetical meridian will be the quantity of variation of the west side of the true meridian, but if easterly on the east side, therefore the true meridian must be a like quantity on the east side of the magnetical one, when the variation is westerly, and on the west side when it is easterly.

How to lay out a true meridian line by the cir

cumferentor.

If the variation be westerly, turn the box about till the north of the needle points as many degrees from the flower-de-luce towards the east of the box, or till the south of the needle points the like number of degrees from the south towards the west, as are the number of degrees contained in the variation, and the index will be then due north and south; therefore if a line be struck out in the direction thereof, it will be a true meridian line.

If the variation was easterly, let the north of the needle point as many degrees from the flowerde-luce towards the west of the box, or let the south of the needle point as many degrees towards the east, as are the number of degrees contained in the variation, and then the north and south of the box will coincide with the north and south points of the horizon, and consequently a line being laid out by the direction of the index, will be a true meridian line.

This will be found to be very useful in setting an horizontal dial, for if you lay the edge of the index by the base of the stile of the dial, and keep the angular point of the stile toward the south of the box, and allow the variation as before, the dial will then be due north and south, and in its proper situation; provided the plane upon which it is fixed be duly horizontal, and the sun be south at noon; but in places where it is north at noon, the angular point of the index must be turned to the north.

How maps may be traced by the help of a true

meridian line. If all maps had a true meridian line laid out upon them, it would be easy by producing it, and drawing parallels, to make out field-notes; and by knowing the variation, and allowing it upon every bearing, and having the distances, you would have notes sufficient for a trace. But a true meridian line is seldom to be met with, therefore we are obliged to have recourse to the foregoing method. It is therefore advised to lay out a true meridian line upon every map. How to find the difference between the present

variation, and that at a time when a tract was formerly surveyed, in order to trace or run out the original lines.

If the old variation be specified in the map or writings, and the present be known, by calculation or otherwise, then the difference is immediately seen by inspection; but as it more frequently happens, that neither is certainly known, and as the variation of different instruments is not always alike at the same time, the following practical method will be found to answer every purpose.

*

Go to any part of the premises where any two adjacent corners are known; and, if one can be seen from the other, take their bearing; which, compared with that of the same line in the former survey, shews the difference. But if trees, hills, 80. obstruct the view of the object, run the line according to the given bearing, and observe the nearest distance between the line so run and the corner, then,

As the length of the whole line
Is to 57.3 degrees
So is the said distance
To the difference of variation required.

EXAMPLE. Suppose it be required to run a line which some years ago bore NE 45°, distance 80 perches, and in running this line by the given bearing, the corner is found 20 links to the left hand; what allowance must be made on each bearing to trace the old lines, and what is the present bearing of this particular line by the compass?

P. Deg. L. As 80 57.3 : ; 20. 25

20

21000 1146.0(0°. 34

60

2)681760.0

Answer, 34 minutes, or a little better than half a degree to the left hand, is the allowance required, and the line in question bears N. 44° 26'. E.

Note, The different variations do not effect the area in the calculation, as they are similar in every part of the survey. *97.3 k the radius of a circle (nearls) in such parts as the circumference contains 360.

266

A Táble of the Sun's Declination.

Days

For the Years 1805, 1809, 1813.
Jan.
Feb. , March

April May. | June. South. South. South. North. North. North. D. M.D. M.D. M.D. M.D. M.D. M. 322 51 16 34) 6 53 5 14/15 57 22 18 722 24/15 2015 2016 45/16 46 22 45 1121 5014 4 3 471 8 15 17 50 23 5 1521 1012 44 2 12 9 42 18 49 23 19 19 20 2211 2010 37 11 619 44 23 27 23/19 29 9 53 ON 5712 28/20 33 23 28 27/18 30 8 24 2 32 13. 46/21 1623 22

For the Years 1806, 1810, 1814. 3122 5216 371 6 581 5 10/15 33/22 16 7/22 25 15 25 5 25 6 41/16 42 22 43 1121 *52 14 8 3 51 8 10117 46 23 15 21 12 12 48 2 171 9 3718 46|23 19 1920 25 11 24 0 4211 219 41 23 26 2319 32 9 571 ON 53/12 24 20 30 23 27 27/18 31 8 28 2 27/13 4221 14 23 22

For the Years 1807, 1811, 1815. 3/22 54116 417 315 4/15 28/22 14 7 22 28 15 30 5 31 6 35/16 38|22 42 11 21 54 14 13 3 57 8 5/17 · 43 23 3 15/21 1412 531 2 23 9 32 18 43/23 18 1920 2811 291 0 4810 57 19 38 23 26 2319 35 10 3 ON47 12 19 20 2723 28 2718 37) 8 341 2 21 13 37/21 11/23 22

For the Years 1808, 1812, 1816. 3,22 55/16 47 6 461 5 21/15 42 22 20 7 22 30 15 35 5 14 6 52 16 50 22 46 1121 5714 18 3 401 8 21 17 54 23 6 15 21 1812 581 2 5 9 48/18 53 23 20 19 20 3111 85 0 31 11 12 19 47\23 27 2319 39 10 9 IN 412 33 20 36 23 27 2718 41 8 40 2 3813 5221 19|23 21

267

A Table of the Sun's Declination.

Days

For the Years 1805, 1809, 1813. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. North. North. North. South. South. South. D. M.D. M. D. M. D. M. D. M.D. M. 3/23 117 367 40 3 53|15 1/22 6 7|22 39 16 31 6 10 5 25 16 1522 37 11/22 10 15 22 4 406 5717 24 23 1 1521 3614 9 3 8 8 27 18 28 23 17 19/20 56 12 531 1 35 9 55 19 27 23 26 23 20 1011 33 0 111 21 22 2023 28 27/19 1810_101 1S 3212_44/21 7123 21

For the Years 1806, 1810, 1814. 3/23 2 17 39 7 44 3 48/14 57122 4

7 22 40 16 35 6 15 5 20 16 11 22 35 11 22 12 15 26 4 44 6 52 17 20 23 00 1521 38 14 13 3 12 8 22 18 25 23 16 19 20 58 12 57) 1 401 950/19 24|23 26 23 20 1211 371 0 611 16/2017 23 27 27/19 21/10 15 18 28 12 40/21 523 21

For the Years 1807, 1811, 1815. 3123 317 43, 7 491 3 42 14 53122 2 7122 41 16 39 6 20 5 15/16 7/22 34 11/22 1415 30 4 506 47/17 16 22 58 1521 40 14 18 3 18 8 17 18 21 23 15 19 21 00 13 2 1 45 9 45 19 20 23 25 23120 1511 42 0 12 11 11 20 14 23 28 27 19 24 10 20 18 22 12 3521 223 22

For the Years 1808, 1812, 1816. 3122 59 17 32 7 33 3 59|15 7122 9 722 3716 27 6 4 5 32 16 20 22 39 11/22 815 171 4 331 7 317 28 23 2 1521 33 14 41 3 11 8 33|18 3223 18 1920 5212 48 1 28/10 119 31 23 26 23/20 611 28 OS 511 27 20 23 23 27 27 19 14/10 5 1 39/12 49 21 10 23 21

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