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promise of English aid by the cession of Cyprus and the pledge of internal re forms. For these important changes, see the articles EASTERN QUESTION, TURKEY, ROUMANIA, SERVIA, CYPRUS, GREECE, BULGARIA, and the map of Turkey. The peaceful change of rulers in France and the rapid advance of its republicanism; the civil struggles in Germany to withstand the growing weight of the empire; the frightful internal disorders threatening Russia; the demise of the venerable Pius IX., and the peaceful inauguration of his successor, with the declaration of his policy, are fully described under the appropriate titles.

A complete view of the various departments of internal commerce and the commercial prosperity of the country, and the astonishing development of its manufacturing industry, will be found under the title COMMERCE, INTERNAL, while the vast agricultural crops of the respective States are noticed under the title of each.

The advance in astronomical and chemical science, and the inventions and improvements in other branches, as the electric light, the megaphone, microphone, etc., etc., are fully and carefully set forth, with numerous illustrations.

The article on the United States Life-saving Service (see SERVICE), with illustrations of every important step, is by Mr. William D. O'Connor, Assistant General Superintendent of that service, and has been read and approved by the General Superintendent, Mr. S. I. Kimball.

The article on METEOROLOGY is from the pen of Professor C. Abbe, a member of the Signal Service Department.

The great engineering enterprises of the world in progress are fully described, and also numerous mechanical improvements.

The narrative of geographical discoveries in the different parts of the world is very complete; also under the title EARTH are presented summaries of the large divisions of the giobe according to the latest statistics.

The record of Literature and Literary Progress in the United States and in each of the countries of Europe is extensive and important.

The results of the World's Exhibition at Paris are presented in a summary but very complete manner.

As Turkey has been for centuries the recognized leader of Mohammedanism, the late Eastern war has dealt a severe blow to that religious belief. Its recent history, present condition, and the progressive decay apparent, have been described.

Special articles on the great religious divisions and denominations constitute probably the only religious history of the year now accessible in the English language.

In the biographical department is a full sketch of the new President of the French Republic, and obituary notices of eminent persons of all countries deceased during the year. .

Abstracts of important legal decisions in various States are herein given.

Besides numerous illustrated articles, the volume contains steel portraits of William Cullen Bryrant, Professor Joseph Henry, and Queen Victoria.

All important documents, messages, orders, and letters from officials and others, have been inserted entire.

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A ADVENTISTS. SEVENTH-DAY ADVENT- building up and strengthening the churches of ISTS.—The seventeenth annual session of the the denomination, a committee was appointed General Conference of the Seventh-Day Ad- to consider what could be done toward supventists was held at Battle Oreek, Michigan, plying the wants of those districts, " and those beginning October 14th. Elder James White of any other portion of the field in like situapresided. The following statistics of the con- tion, according to their appeals and requests." dition of the denomination were presented : The general circulation of the works called

“The Spirit of Prophecy” and “The Testimonies was recommended; and the Tract Societies were advised to make special efforts to place them in the library of each church, and in the hands of scattered brethren. The

General Conference Committee were charged

625 with the consideration of the subject of printNew England..

450 ing sermons on the principal points of the deNew York and Pennsylvania.

nominational faith, to be written by Elder Michigan..

3,258 James White, for the use of readers, colpor1,156

teurs, visitors, and others. The opening of a *200 mission in Great Britain was decided upon,

and a missionary was appointed to that field. 1,500

A committee of three was appointed to take

the supervision of the entire work in Europe, Kentucky and Tennessee.

with the understanding that they should act Oregon..

215 in harmony with the General Conference and

under its direction. European Mission...

Meetings of the General Tract and Mis

16 sionary Society, the Educational Society, the Danish Mission....

Publishing Association, the General Sabbath

School Association, and the Health-Reform InTotal.

649 13,977 stitute were held in connection with the GenAs given in 1877

478 11,708

eral Conference. The receipts of the Tract Gain during the year...

1,369 and Missionary Societies in the several Confer

ences had been in the aggregate $12,313.67, The total amount of the pledges for syste- and they returned 142 districts of operation matic benevolence was $47,637.29. A new and 7,462 members, with 10,245 subscribers to Conference in Nebraska, called the Nebraska the periodicals of the society. The Confer. Conference, and the North Pacific Conference, ence agents had distributed 52,719 “annuals," were recognized and admitted to representa- 183,261 periodicals, and 6,296,302 pages of tion in the General Conference. The bodies tracts. Ātract society having been organized of Seventh-Day Adventist believers in Ne- in Europe, a report was made from it of which vada and Virginia were taken under the the following is a summary: Number of memwatch-care of the General Conference. In bers, including those in Germany, Italy, France, answer to applications from California, Mis- Egypt, and Switzerland, 201; missionary vissouri, Kansas, Dakota, and Ohio for help in its, 340; letters written, 198; periodicals dis


lowa and Nebraska..


16 23 21 40 14 108 19 47 25 61 72 14 26

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355 695 740 72

Texas Mission..
General Southern Mission..

63 250

Nevada Mission..
Colora do Mission..





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tributed, 1,137; pages of tracts distributed, 79,- be willing to go out and fight whenever the 007 ; money received, $55.80. The receipts jehad should be proclaimed and a part of the of the General Tract Society during the year country allotted to them to subdue, objected had been $447.15, and its expenditures $455.- to being brought under the restrictions of a 08. The larger part of the expense had been regular soldier's life. In some cases the Ameer incurred for publications, which had been sent induced concurrence with his plans by subsito nearly all the Southern States, and to Eng- dizing the petty chiefs with acceptable gifts. land, Holland, Italy, and Africa, and, by means He is reported to have said, on taking leave of of agents in those places, to all parts of the some of the minor chiefs who reside near Britcivilized world.

ish territory : “You should remain outwardly The Treasurer of the Educational Society on good terms with the English, and try to get reported that the total value of the property as much money from them as you can. But of the Society was $52,259.79, or, deducting be sure you do not let them become acquainted for the amount of debts against the same, with your mountain retreats. Manage to get $44,582.28. The receipts for the year had back the hostages you have given, and bind been $10,499.39. Resolutions were adopted yourselves only on personal responsibility.” In recommending the selection of fifty young connection with these measures, the Ameer bemen who should become students at Battle gan to rebuild the fort near Ali Musjid, close to Creek College, to prepare for the ministry, the Khyber Pass, and about two marches from those of them who need help to be assisted by Peshawer. In June rumors became prevalent loans of money without interest, and of fifty that the Ameer was massing troops on the fronyoung women to be similarly assisted in pre- tier of Afghanistan, and was trying to intrigue paring themselves for missionary work; and with the nobles who were hostile to the presthat efforts be made to raise a reserve fund of ence of the English troops at Kelat and Quetfive thousand dollars for each of these purposes. ta, and who disapproved of the friendliness of

The receipts of the Publishing Association the Khan of Kelat toward the British Governfor the year had been $233,071.38, and its ment. Evidence of the unfriendly disposition property was valued, clear of debts, at $99,- of the Ameer was given by the publication 112.63. It published threo English, one Da- at Constantinople, in July, of a letter which nish, and one Swedish periodical, which, to- he had addressed to the Sultan of Turkey in gether with the publications of the Californian January, in which he expressed regret that the and Swiss publishing houses, had an aggregate English had remained neutral in the Russomonthly circulation of 67,676


Turkish war; advised the Sultan that the RusThe receipts of the Health-Reform Institute sians, while they were as energetic as the Engfor the year had been $135,223.37. Its prop- lish, surpassed them in real friendship; deerty was valued, above all liabilities, at $67,- clared that he was convinced that the Russians 591.56. There had been 615 patients treated were much more honest and sincere than the at the Institute, and its gross earnings for the English; and begged his Majesty “to with. year had been $32,000, and its actual gains draw from the English alliance and to ap$15,000.

proach Russia.'' The meeting of the General Sabbath-School Ibout th same time it was noticed that the Association was the first in its history. The Russian General Kaufmann had, on the 23d of Secretary's report showed that auxiliary asso- June, taken the command of an expeditionary ciations had been formed in twelve of the dif- force to march through Bokhara to the upper ferent Conferences. Since most of the organi- basin of tho Oxus. The “Moscow Gazette, zations had been so recently formed, their re- in an article on the subject, suggested that this ports were brief and incomplete. Twelve of movement might be the Russian answer to the them (Michigan, Iowa, Kansas, Wisconsin, British occupation of Cyprus, and showed that New England, California, Illinois, Missouri

, the presumed destination of the expedition was Ohio, Minnesota, Vermont, and Indiana) re- hardly more than four hundred versts, or twenported 177 schools and 5,851 members. ty days' march, from the British possessions,

AFGHANISTAN. The reports of the in- and added : “England has constantly shown ternal condition of Afghanistan at the close of herself jealous of our progress in Asia. She 1877 indicated that the Ameer was endeavor. knows that each step we make, each new diping to combine and consolidate his forces, and lomatic or military success we gain, hastens to carry out a policy which would eventually the moment at which Russia will be able to reduce the divisions of his state and give it a extend and consolidate her influence in the more compact organization. In those parts of countries bordering on the British possessions. the country where his authority was accepted. The present time seems very favorable for a he was forming an army on the system of com- continuation of this policy." Tho expedition pulsory military service, by forcing one man was supposed to be aimed at Balkh, a point in every twenty to enlist. Where this mea- south of the Osus, claimed by Shere Ali as ar sure could not be carried out, a poll tax was Afghan province, and lying beyond the line levied. Difficulty was experienced in getting which the Russians had agreed in 1873 that the recruits to subject themselves to drill, they would not pass. The menace to India since the new levies, while they professed to which would be involved in a Russian occupation of Balkh was mentioned by Lord Claren- of this khanate would reduce the distance beden as long ago as 1869, when in his corre- tween the Russian and English frontiers to spondence with Prince Gortchakoff he said that about 325 miles, by roads easily passable in Balkh could be of no use to Russia except for summer, but not so in winter. No official purposes of aggression, and that " on the Hin- news was given respecting the progress of the doo Koosh the British possessions might be expedition, but the Russian Agency published viewed as a traveler on the summit of the an article denying the statements that were Simplon might survey the plains of Italy." A current respecting its object, and professing later and more definite statement of the ob- that they related to old occurrences belonging jects of the Russian expedition represented to a time when England was making preparathat it aimed at the occupation of the six tions for a war with Russia. The state of minor khanates between the southern course things had ceased with the causes with which of the Amou Darya and the Hindoo Koosh, it originated, and all the measures connected one of which, Vakhan, was acknowledged to therewith had since been countermanded. be feudatory to Afghanistan. The occupation A Russian mission, consisting of three Eu

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ropean officers, of whom the chief was Gen- senger to Tashkend. This embassy was reperal Stolietoff, accompanied by an escort of resented by a Russian diplomatist to have Cossacks and Uzbecks, reached Cabool on the been ordered a long time before the Con22d of July, and was received by the Ameer in gress of Berlin, when the Russian relations durbar, when the chief of the mission delive with England had assumed a threatening charered two letters to the Ameer-one from the acter. Ozar, and one from the Governor-General of M. Arminius Vambéry, in a letter written Turkistan. On the 2d of August a grand to the “ Allgemeine Zeitung,” represented that review was held in honor of the mission, the chief object of this Russian mission was to to which troops and representatives had been establish friendly relations between Tashkend summoned from all parts of Afghanistan. and Cabool. As a means of putting pressure After the review, the Ameer gave the envoy on Shere Ali with this view, Russia was hold. written replies to the Russian letter, which ing in reserve the Afghan Prince Abdurrahman were immediately sent off by a special mes- Khan, a relative of the Ameer, and at the same TxU


time his deadly enemy. Abdurrahman had for before, and was a member of the party which some time been residing in voluntary exile at accompanied Sir Douglas Forsyth to Yarkand Samarcand, and with the help of Russia might and Kashıgar in 1874. become very dangerous to Shere Ali. It had The embassy arrived at Simla about the 1st been lately reported that Russia proposed to of September. An envoy had been sent to the exchange Abdurrahman for Khudayar Khan, Ameer at Cabool with letters announcing the the ex-ruler of Khokand, who had escaped dur- intention of the Governor-General to dispatch ing the preceding winter from Orenburg to the mission, and General Chamberlain and his Cabool. But Khudayar, though he is evidently staff remained near the frontier for several a man of considerable energy, was not popular days awaiting the answer of the Ameer. The with his people, who had thrice expelled hiin envoy, Gbulam Hussein Khan, who was perfrom their country; and M. Vambéry thought sonally well known and popular at Cabool, the Russians were not likely to put themselves having resided there as a British agent for to any trouble to get him again into their hands. several years, was hospitably received, SepAbdurrahman, on the other hand, was very tember 10th, but was given no encouragement popular in northeastern Afghanistan; and by concerning the object of his visit; the Ameer threatening to support him as a pretender to saying, it was reported, in reference to the the Afghan throne, Russia could at any mo- British embassy, that if he chose to receive a ment secure the submissiveness of Shere Ali mission he would himself invite it, but meanto its wishes.

while it must await his pleasure at Peshawer. A special mission was appointed by the In- Sir Neville Chamberlain, having learned the dian Government in August to proceed to Ca- Ameer's determination, decided to proceed on bool for the purpose of opening negotiations his expedition without waiting for a formal with the Ameer, with a view, among its other answer. He left Peshawer on the 21st of Sepobjects, to induce the Ameer to allow a British tember for Jumrood, a point in British terriresident to remain permanently at his capital. tory close to the Afghan frontier, while Major It was under the direction of Lieutenant-Gen- Cavagnari of his staff was dispatched with an eral Sir Neville Chamberlain, who was accom- escort of Khyberies to Ali Musjid, a station in panied by several other officers and a doctor, Afghan territory, to ask for a safe passage and numbered, with his retinue of escorts, from the Ameer's officer. The Afghan officer guides, and bearers, about one thousand men. gave a courteous but decided refusal to the Sir Neville Chanıberlain, the chief of this mis- British request. After spending three hours sion, is an officer of the Indian service, whose in parleying with the Afghan, Major Cavagnari military career began with the former Arghan returned to Jumrood. The embassy then rewar, where, although he was hardly more than tired to Peshawer, in obedience to instructions a boy, be served with great honor, and gained telegraphed from the Viceroy, after which it a bigh reputation for gallantry. He was soon was dissolved. Ghulam Hussein Khan, the made coinmander of a regiment of irregular Viceroy's envoy, was recalled from Cabool, cavalry, and rose by rapid steps to the com- and orders were issued for the concentration mand of the Punjaub frontier force, a body of of troops on the Afghan frontier. Reēnforceabout eleven regiments of infantry and cavalry, ments were dispatched for the garrison at which is stationed to guard the line of the Quetta; a body of European and native troops northwest border, is directly under the orders was stationed at Thull, at the entrance to the of the Government of the Punjaub, and has Kuram Valley; a reserve force was collected been engaged in almost constant conflict with at Sukkur; and the Baroghil and Korambar the enemy. From this command he was called Passes were occupied by the troops of the during the mutiny to take the place of Colonel Maharajah of Cashmere. On the other hand, Chester, Adjutant-General of the Army, who the Ameer of Afghanistan threw a large force was killed before Delhi. On the fall of Delhi into the Khyber Pass, having a little after the he returned to the Punjanb, whence he was se- middle of October, as was estimated at that lected to command the troops which undertook time, collected at Ali Musjid, three miles from the Umbeyla compaign of 1863. He was here the British station at Jumrood, 25,000 men. severely wounded for the eighth time during The Ameer returned by the envoy, Nawab his military service, and the campaign was com- Ghulam Hussein Khan, a reply to the British pleted by Sir John Garvock. General Cham- request, which Lord Cranbrook, in a dispatch berlain after these events retired from active written afterward, characterized as evasive, service to the more quiet but highly honorable and which the British Government refused to position of Commander-in-Chief of the Madras accept as Shere Ali's final answer. The BritArmy, which he held at the time when he was ish Cabinet then instructed the Viceroy of appointed upon the mission to Cabool. By India to address to his Highness a demand, reason of his long and distinguished service “in temperate language," requiring a full and on the border, it is said “no English name is suitable apology within a given time for the better known or more respected throughout affront he had offered to the Imperial GovernAfghanistan.” Among his associates was Mr. ment, the reception of a permanent British Walter Henry Bellew, who had accompanied mission within his territories, and reparation Lumsden's mission to Cabool twenty-one years for any injury which had been inflicted by hiru

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