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on the tribes which had attended the embasss, was reacbed with Russia that the independence with an undertaking not to molest them here- and integrity of Afghanistan should be reafter; and to notify him that, unless a clear spected by both powers, the Ameer had been and satisfactory reply was received from him anxious for an English alliance to protect him by the 20th of November, his intentions would from Russia; then, while he was still eking be considered hostile and he would be treated to obtain a promise of protection, the Viceroy, as a declared enemy. The dispatch of Lord Lord Northbrook, by instruction of the GovCranbrook containing these instructions em- ernment, informed him, "in conciliatory lanbodied a review of the transactions of the guage,” that “the discussion of the question British Government with Sbere Ali since his would be best postponed to a more convenient accession, and of its endeavors to secure the season," and the feelings of his Highness beintegrity of his territory. The object of the came unfavorable to the British Government. British Government during the whole series He shortly afterward began to cultivate the of years had been, it said, to establish on its Russians, and met British overtures with innorthwestern border "a strong, friendly, and creasing coldness. Although the previous independent state with interests in unison with efforts to secure the admission of a British those of the Indian Government, ready to act in agency into the country had failed, the recepcertain eventualities as an auxiliary in the pro- tion of a Russian mission in 1878 “left him” tection of the frontier from intrigue or aggres- (the Ameer) “no further excuse for declining

Until the time that an understanding to receive at his capital the envoy from the


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British Government"; and the embassy of Sir Major-General Sir Samuel Browne command-
Neville Chamberlain was appointed, and con- ing"; and the Quetta column, Major-General
stituted of men chosen because they were per- A. S. Biddulph commanding, of which Lieu-
sonally acceptable to his Highness. The Ameer tenant-General Donald Stewart afterward took
was aware that the whole policy of the British the command. The whole force was reckoned
Government since his accession to the throne at 34,000 men, one third Europeans.
had been to strengthen his power and authori- On the 21st of November, the Ameer having
ty and to protect him from foreign aggression, failed to return the answer and give the assu-
although the methods adopted for doing so rances demanded by the British Government,
might not at all times have accorded with bis a detachment of British troops crossed the
own view; and he was bound by every bond frontier and occupied Fort Kapion, opposite
of international courtesy, as well as by the Thull, which had been abandoned by the Af-
treaty engagements of 1855, to a line of con- ghan troops. On the next day, all the forces,
duct the reverse of that which he had adopted. numbering about 35,000 troops, more than half

The British forces were organized for the of whom were native, were ordered to move
contemplated advance in three divisions: the forward. At daybreak on the 21st an advance
Kuram Valley column, Major-General F. S. was made from Jumrood toward Fort Ali Mus-
Roberts commanding; the Jumrood column, jid, and an engagement took place which lasted

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through the day. The British having occupied The internal affairs of Afghanistan were a defile in the rear of the Afghans, these aban- complicated by the death, in August, of Abdoned the fort during the night, and General dallah Jan, the youngest and favorite son of Browne occupied it on the morning of the 22d Shere Ali, and heir apparent to the throne, without firing another gun. On the 23d the oc- leaving the question of the succession again cupation without resistance of Sibi, by a column in dispute. Of the five sons of Shere Ali, two which was advancing by the way of Quetta, are now dead: Mohammed Ali, the eldest, who was reported. A proclamation to the Afghans fell in battlo in 1865, and Abdallah Jan, the was issued by the Viceroy on the 22d, which, beir, just deceased. The eldest surviving son after reciting the history of the relations be- is Ibrahim Khan, who is represented to be of tween India and Afgbanistan during the past a good disposition and loyal to his father, but ten years, and the recent efforts to dispatch an of no ability, and hardly to be thought of us embassy to the Ameer, declared that “with the the future ruler of the country. Yakoob Khan, Sirdars and people of Afghanistan the Indian the third son, is able enough, but has been in Government has no quarrel, as they have given rebellion and always at difference with his no offense. The independence of Afghanistan father, and has been in prison since 1874 for will be respected; but the Government of India intriguing against the succession of Abdallah can not tolerate that any other power should Jan. Ayoob Khan, the full brother of Yainterfere in the international affairs of Afghan- koob, took no part in public affairs till he fled istan"; and it concluded : “Upon the Ameer with Yakoob Khan from Cabool in 1870. He Shere Ali alone rests the responsibility of afterward lived at Herat with Yakoob Khan having exchanged the friendship for the hos- till the time of that prince's imprisonment in tility of the Empress of India." Leaving Ali 1874, when, having failed in an attempt to Musjid in charge of a British regiment, General instigate a rebellion, he retired to Persian Browne continued his march to Laudikana and territory. Another claimant to the throne is Dakka, where he reached the frontier of Af- Abdurrahman, the son of Shere Ali's elder ghanistan proper, having destroyed by his suc- brother Afzool Khan, who took an active part cesses the Ameer's authority in the independent in his father's cause against Shere Ali, but territory. On the route, the head men of the sought refuge in Tashkend after the latter prehill tribes came out to pay their respects to vailed. The Russians have for the last five the British general, among them Mohammed years allowed him a subsidy of about $15,000 Shah, chief of Lalpoor and head of the Mah- a year; and, as he is thoroughly Russianized, munds, hitherto the Ameer's allies.

he will be a good candidate for them to set up The Russian embassy remained at Cabool in case they desire to take a part in settling a after the breach with England, and showed disputed Afghan succession. The last probano signs of an intention to withdraw from the ble claimant to the succession is Ahmed Ali, country. It was reported in October that it son of Mohammed Ali, the first named of Shero designed to visit all the important localities, Ali's sons. He is described as being an inteland seek full information respecting their com- ligent youth of about eighteen years of age, mercial and industrial resources, and the dis- with a pleasing demeanor and fairly well eduposition of the people. The Russian Govern- cated. He has always been in favor with his ment replied to the inquiries of the British grandfather, and it is thonght that he will be Government respecting the purposes of the preferred as the heir. His mother has another mission, that it had been decided upon at a son, who, however, being deaf and dumb, is time and under circumstances now no longer not likely to be brought into the contest. existing (under the probability of a war with The Afghans in front of the column of England), but was now intended inerely as an General Roberts in the Kuram Valley fell act of courtesy to the Ameer. A semi-official back behind Peiwar Kotul. General Roberts statement was also made, to the effect that pushed forward, and reached the foot of the there was no ground for the assumption which pass with his column on the 29th. The enemy some parties had made that the Russian Gov- fired upon the British troops when they were ernment had any part in the decision of Shere about to take up their quarters for night. Ali to reject the British mission. On the After a light engagement, the British en18th of Deceniber an announcement was made camped on the ground they had occupied. that the Russian embassy had been formally The Afghan position was turned on the night and officially withdrawn. It was afterward of December 1st, and the enemy were entirely stated that the recall of the mission had been defeated at four o'clock in the afternoon of ordered because of increased friendly feelings the next day, with heavy loss, while the Brittoward England, and because the peaceful ish lost ninety killed and wounded. Some policy had obtained the ascendancy. "It was trouble was experienced in the Khyber Pass suggested, however, that the step was also from the depredations of the hill tribes, who, partly directed by motives of policy, the rapid having gained positions there, harassed the advance of the British arms and the precarious convoys and messengers for the purpose of situation of the Ameer threatening to put the plunder. Major Cavagnari was sent to punish mission in an embarrassing attitude if it re- the marauders; he broke up the hostile commained.

bination and cleared the pass. (See India.)

AFRICA. The area and population of the estimated as follows by Behm and Wagner different divisions and subdivisions in 1878 are (“Bevölkerung der Erde," vol. v., Gotha, 1878):

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The Caffre rising in the Cape Colony, which 228.36. The sum in the Treasury October 1, seemed to have been quelled in 1877, broke 1877, was $198,737.58; of this amount $37,out anew in the last days of that year, and 759.61 was not available for general purposes, continued during the first half of 1878. It but was uncurrent or belonged to the swamp gained great force from the fact that numer- and overflowed land fund. The available reous chiefs who had not participated in the sources for meeting all State expenses during rising of 1877 joined the Galika chief Kicli in the fiscal year were therefore $879,206,33. The 1878, notably among them Sandilli, the chief total disbursements during the year were $651,of the Gaikas. It was considered the most 345.09, and the amount in the Treasury Octoformidable rising in the colony since 1851. ber 1, 1878, was $265,620.85. Of this sum Risings also occurred in Griqualand, while on $34,492.61 is not available for general purthe borders of Natal and the Transvaal prop- poses, leaving subject to warrants $231,128.41 ince a war with the Zooloos was imminent. on the 1st of October. The following items

A complete revolution took place in the became due and payable on and before the 1st administration of Egypt during 1878. A finan- of January, 1879: cial crisis brought about by the falling-off of

Interest and expenses on State obligations... . $40,000 the revenues led to the formation of a Com- Interest on bonded debt..

86,000 mittee of Inquiry, which in its report pro

Interest on University Fund..


Interest on Agricultural and Mechanical College Fund. 5,070 posed sweeping reforms in the administration Insane Asylum appropriation... of the finances. The plan of the commission Deaf, Dumb. and Blind Institution.

4,500 received the sanction of the Khedive and was

Salaries of officers, sheriffs' fees, feeding prisoners, and
other claims, not less than

55,000 immediately carried into effect. (See EGYPT.) Expenses of General Assembly and appropriations... 40,000 In Abyssinia the state of affairs continued

Making a total of....

$259,070 in a disordered condition during 1878. Tho rebel chief Melek remained with his men in This added to $25,000 also paid out makes an the heights of Hamaseen. King Johannes in aggregate of $284,070 ; and to meet it there the early part of the year sent him a message was in the Treasury October 1st $231,128.41. to wait until after the rains, when he would The issue of new bonds under the comproseverely punish bim.

mise of the State debt has been nearly comMorocco was visited during 1878 by the pleted. (See volume for 1876.) The amount cholera, the disease assuming a very inalignant issued is $7,508,700. They are divided into form, and causing great distress.

three classes. Class A consists of the direct AGRICULTURE. See COMMERCE and UNIT- or what are called straight bonds of the State, ED STATES.

that in no wise have reference to railroads, and ALABAMA. The fiscal year of the State bear interest at the rate of 2 per cent. for five terminates on September 30th. The amount years, 3 per cent. for the next five years, 4 received for general taxes during the year end- per cent. for the next ten years, and thereafter ing September 30, 1878, was $556,441.14; from Õ per cent. Class B are bonds issued to take general taxes of previous years, $37,058.20; up the four-thousand-dollar-per-mile gold total from taxes, $593,499.34. The sum re- bonds, and make a complete and final separaceived from licenses and other sources was tion of the State from all liabilities for and $124,729.02; making the total receipts $718,- complications with the railroads, and bear 5

per cent. interest. Class O are bonds issued to of $54,921.20 over and above all expenses.
take up the bonds endorsed by the State for the There were remaining in the Insane Hospital
Alabama and Chattanooga Railroad Company, on October 1, 1878, 403 patients. Thirty-three
and bear 2 per cent. interest for five years, and have been discharged as recovered during
thereafter 4 pe cent. Of Class A the State has the past year The Agricultural and Me-
exchanged $6,373,700, leaving of that class yet chanical College of the State at Auburn is re-
to be exchanged, as nearly as can at present ported as more prosperous than any other sim-
be ascertained, $636,469.50. Of Class B the ilar institution in the Southern States. The
State has exchanged $535,000, leaving yet to be beneficial results of the State Normal School
exchanged of this class $7,500. Of Class C the at Florence have been such as to awaken much
State had to issue $1,000,000 of new bonds, and public gratification with the institution. The
exchange them for the bonds of the Alabama revised public-school system went into opera-
and Chattanooga Railroad Company, which bad tion on October 1, 1877, and very favorable
been endorsed by the State as stated in the law; results have followed the short period of its ex-
and the State has issued and exchanged of the istence.
new bonds $600,000, and has taken up of the A convention of the fire-insurance under-
old endorsed bonds the proper amount for the writers of the State was held in Montgomery
new bonds thus exchanged. All of the new in June, when a State Association was formed
bonds issued and exchanged, or to be exchanged, and officers were elected.
are thirty-year bonds, with the right of re- The product of the coal mines, especially
newal by the State if desired. The amount yet along the North and South Railroad, is increas-
to be exchanged, including the $400,000 of the ing rapidly. From 33,130 tons in 1874, it had
Alabama and Chattanooga Railroad endorsed increased to 139,182 in 1877; and that of 1878
bonds, is $943,969.50; provided all the en- was expected to be not less than 50 per cent.
dorsed bonds of said railroad company shall be higher. The quality of the coal appears to be
presented for exchange. To which must be well established as excellent. It is used for
added $1,000,000 of funding obligations, mak- steam, gas, and household purposes.
ing the total amount, exclusive of trust funds,

Gold is found in Randolpl, Tallapoosa, Clay, $9,452,669.50. When exchanging is completed, and Cleburne Counties. Some years ago exthe debt will be, as nearly as can be ascertained pensive mining operations were commenced, at present, as follows:

and subsequently suspended. It is anticipated

that they will be renewed. The assay gives .$6,910,169 00 R 2 per cent .$138,203 38 542,500 CO @6 per cent.

27,125 00 22 pennyweights to 1,000 pounds of ore, and 1,000,000 002 por cent.. 20,000 00 in some districts it is estimated to be richer. $8,452,669 00

A State Convention of the Democratic Con

$185,328 38 Obligations.. 1,000,000 00 @ 8 per cent..... 80,000 00 servative party was held at Montgomery on

May 29th, to nominate candidates for the of$9,452,669 00

$265,328 38

fices of Governor, Secretary of State, AttorThis amount of interest will be decreased ney-General, Auditor, Treasurer, and Supersomewhat because of the amount of funding intendent of Education. The Convention was obligations canceled and burned, and such as organized by the appointment of Walter L. may be lost or destroyed, etc.

Bragg as chairman. The following nominaDuring the year the amount of interest paid tions were made: For Governor, Rufus W. on funding obligations was $71,042.86; on new Cobb; for Secretary of State, W. W. Screws; State bonds, $165,479.73; making the interest for Treasurer, Isaac H. Vincent; for Auditor, payment for 1878 $236,522.59. This includes Willis Brewer; for Attorney-General, H. o. the necessary expenses which the State had to Tompkins; for Superintendent of Instruction, pay in making the payments of interest. The Leroy F. Box. The following platform was amount of revenue from general taxes paid adopted: into the State Treasury and in the counties, for school purposes, for the fiscal year ending bama in Convention assembled, reasserting the prin

The Democratic and Conservative people of Ala30th of September, 1878, was $818,269.59. Ofciples adopted in our Convention of 1876, do resolve this amount, only $593,499.34 was paid into and declarethe Treasury; the balance, $224,770.25, was

1. That the Democratic and Conservative party of paid in the counties to the superintendents for

Alabama is a party of law and order and the only

party of the Constitution, and to its patriotic and school purposes. The surplus remaining in the unceasing efforts, under the blessings of God, is due Treasury after these payments was $66,883.27. the tinal defeat of the Radical leaders in their wicked The rate of taxation in 1874, 1876, and 1876 design, manifested from the inception of reconstrucwas 75 cents on the hundred dollars' worth of tion,

to destroy the peace, happiness, and prosperity property. In 1877 and 1878 it was 70 cents.

of both races in the South by involving them in cease

less turmoil and collision. The State Penitentiary yields a revenue to 2. That the financial distress, extending in many the State. During the past two years $30,000 localities to misery and want, is tho necessary outin cash have been paid into the Treasury-$12,- growth of tho profligate expenditures, fraudulent 000 in labor, in payment for penitentiary farm, practices, and class legislation which have marked the and $12,921.20, building a railroad from We

course of the Republican party. They liave created

new and useloss offices, and endowed those already tumpka to the S. and N. R. R., making a total created with princely perquisites inconsistent with

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Class B..
Class 0..

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the simplicity of our system of government, and 3. Wo heartily sympatlıize with the purposes of have organized an army of officials now attaining a the President iů his efforts to remove all supposed strength which Daniel Webster warned us, forty causes of irritation arising from the alleged acts of years ago, would endanger the liberties of our peo- the National Administration, and thus conduce to ple. We'denounce the methods, the measures, and establish harmonious relations between the several the men who are responsible for them as unworthy classes of Southern society; to eliminate intolerance the support of an honest and free people.

and animosity from political contests; and to secure 3. Wo congratulate the whole people of Ala- to every citizen the full enjoyment and exercise of bama upon the reign of good will and reconcilia- bis political rights and privileges. We regret that tion, the sense of liberty and security, which per- these efforts have not been more successful. Harvade the entire limits of the State; and while we monious relations have not been established; citirenew the pledges of protection to all the colored zens are denied the exercise and enjoyment of their people, we recognize and hold essential that, without rights and privileges, and the Democratic party still abridging the rights of any class, these great results maintains the terrible race issue by the claim that have been achieved and can alone be maintained by this is a white man's government, established and the union of the great governing race-the white maintained exclusively for his benefit. people of the land.

4. We denounce and condemn the spirit and pur4. That the administration of the State govern, pose with which the committee of Congress, known ment has been ably, wisely, and justly adıninistered as the Potter Committee, are inquiring into the exsince the first inauguration of his Excellency George istence and nature of alleged Republican frauds at S. Houston; and we hold that the pledges of the the late Presidential election in the States of Florida party to retrench expenditures, reform abuses, and and Louisiana. If this investigation were conducted improve the laws have been fully redeemned. In fully and impartially in the States of Mississippi, support of this assertion we refer with pleasure and Alabama, and South Carolina, as well as those abové confidence to the statute books, the financial condi- named, and with reference to both political parties, tion of the State, and the peace and good order which it would be found that Rutherford B. Hayes was enpervade the whole commonwealth.

titled to a great majority of the popular vote, and to 5. That it is the purpose of the Demooratio and the electoral vote, of all five States. Conservative party of this State to preserve invio- 5. The financial question having been disposed of late its obligations to the people and to the bona fide by Congress, and the country at present needing recreditors of the State ; and we congratulate the tax- pose, in order that capital may seek investment, and payers upon the prospect of being able to reduce the that industries may revive, thus increasing thé derate of taxation without impairing the credit of the mand for labor, the situation ought to be accepted ; State or tarnishing its good name.

and we oppose the further agitation of the question The Republican State Convention assembled other than evil results.

at this time as injurious to business and devoid of at Montgomery on July 4th. Charles Hays was 6. We favor tbe construction of the Southern Paappointed chairman. It was largely composed cific Railroad by the aid of the General Government. of colored persons, and many counties of the

7. We favor an amendment to the State ConstituState were without direct representation. It tion abolishing the provision thereof which permits

the waiver of exemptions. resolved to make no nominations for State of

We arraign the Democratic party before the peoficers, and not to contest with the Democratic ple on the following charges : party for the control of the State. An address 1. It has been false to its promises that it would to the Republicans of Alabama was adopted, lower the rate of taxation. This rate is in excess of

what is necessary to defray the expenses of governof which the following is an extract:

ment and to meet the obligations to State creditors. We positively believe that between the time of 2. That in the parts of the State where its political the opening and closing of the polls on the fifth day opponents were in a majority, it has violated the prinof August next, a greater number of the qualified ciples of local self-government by removing from electors of the State would cast their ballots for the office the persons elected by the people, and filling nominees of this Convention for State officers—if any their places with officers appointed by the Governor, wore made-than for the persons who were nominat- against the will of the people. ed by the Democratic party. We positively believe 3. That by almost destroying the free-school systhat if every qualified elector in the State, who so tem it has inflicted a cruel blow upon the children desired, were to vote on that day, and the ballots of the State committed to her nurture and guardianwere honestly counted, our candidates for Stato of- ship; that the money expended for their education, ficos would be elected. The Republicans are as nu- by which ignorant labor would beconie skilled and merous to-day as they were in 1872, when they car- diversified, would secure benefits of inestimable ried the State, or as they were in 1874, when they value to the State. By its failure to foster the free cast more than 97,000 ballots, and more than one schools and provide for their maintenance, it has half of the honest, legitimate votes of the State. been faithless to its highest and holiest trust. There have been no desertions from their party in 4. That the system established by it of hiring.connumber sufficient to be appreciable, or in number victs to work outside of tho penitentiary is pernicious, greater than its accessions.

because it imposes great hardship and suffering upon The following resolutions were also adopted: labor to be placed in competition with the labor of

the prisoners, and because it is degrading to honest The Republicans of Alabama in Convention as

criminals. sembled make the following declaration of princi

Resolved, That the Governor of Alabama is deservples :

ing of censure for his refusal, on ample notice and 1. We recognize the equality of all men before the full information, and upon the call of the sheriff

of law, and hold that it is the duty of the Government,

the county, to take action to prevent a mob, in April in its dealings with the people, to mete out equal last, from breaking and entering a jail in this state, aud exact justice to all, of whatever nativity, race,

at midday, taking three prisoners therefrom, and color, or persuasion, religious or political.

depriving them of life without form or color of law. 2. We pledge ourselves to maintain the union of The election for State officers was held on these States, emancipation and enfranchisement, and to oppose

the reopening of the questions settled by August 15th, and resulted in the success of the the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendment's Democratic party. The vote was as follows: of the Constitution.

For Governor, Rufus W. Cobb, 89,571; for

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