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And he was speechless.
into outer darkness: there shall be 13 Then said the king to the weeping and gnashing of teeth. servants, Bind him hand and foot, 14 For many are called, but few t and take him away, and cast him are chosen.
i present. But he had neglected a duty. was to pass into comparatively utter
Macknight, in a very full note, offers darkness. And the gnashing or chat
proof that the fault of this guest con- tering of teeth may denote the rage or ' sisted in not accepting the garment, mortification of one who was thrust out 1 when offered to him, and appearing at with marks of indignity, or the natural
the feast in his ordinary dress. perhaps effect of the chilly air of a night in Pal. soiled and defiled. It was customary estine. In this particular case, howfor one who gave such a feast, to fur- ever, the binding of the man, “hand and
nish each of his guests with a garment foot,” has been supposed to indicate 1 for the occasion. Such a garment had that he was cast into a dungeon; in
been offered and rejected. Hence the which case, both the forementioned
guest was guilty; and hence the king causes would operate the more forci= was angry, and punished him. This bly. “As the feasts were always held
relieves the difficulty which some have towards evening, the room or rooms, experienced in accounting for the fact, where they were held, were lighted up, that all the guests were expected to and the fact that, in the climate of Pal
have the wedding-garment, though they estine, the night, at least as it ap! were gathered, on a sudden, from the proached towards the morning, was n! highways and hedges. To the same cold, will afford a clue to the explanapour effect is the following: “It was con- tion of Matt. viii. 12; xxii. 13; xxv.
sidered an honor of the highest kind, if | 30; &c."-Jahn. The language has
a king or any person in high authority here a moral signification, and denotes and thought it proper, as a manifestation of the disappointment and misery, felt by
his favor, to give away to another the those who had considered themselves
garment which he had previously worn heirs of the gospel kingdom, but for 1 himself. In the East, at the present their unbelief and ungodliness were
day, it is expected that every one, who thrust out, and their place supplied by ei has received a garment from the king, others. It seems to convey the same
will immediately clothe himself in it, idea here as in Matt. viii. 12, and Luke and properly present himself and render xiïj. 28. If, as some suppose, our Lord his homage to the giver; otherwise he referred to a state of endless misery, it runs the hazard of exciting the king's is very surprising that Luke, in recorddispleasure; compare Matt. xxii. ii, ing the similar parable, (xiv. 16—24,) 12. It was sometimes the case, that the which so closely corresponds with this king, when he made a feast, presented in every other point, should be utterly vestments to all the guests who were silent about any punis
e silent about any punishment except invited, with which they clothed them- simple exclusion from the feast. It is selves before they sat down to it; 2 remarkable, too, on this theory, that a Kings x. 22; Gen. xlv. 22; Rev. iii. more severe punishment should be in5; Cyrop. viii. 3, 1; Iliad xxiv. 226, | flicted on him whose only crime alleged 227.”—Jahn.
was his being destitute of the wedding13. Cast him into outer darkness, &c. garment, than on those who had actually This phrase, or its equivalent, occurs in murdered the servants of their king. the following places : Matt. viii. 12; These were merely destroyed, and their xiii. 42, 50 ; xxij. 13; xxiv. 51; xxv. city burned; while this man is thought 30; Luke xiii. 28. “Outer darkness," to have been doomed to endless misery. however, is connected with the “gnash | This seems not like equal and evening of teeth” only in Matt. viii. 12, and handed justice. XXV. 30, besides the instance now under 14. Many are called, but few are consideration. This phraseology seems chosen. This phrase, which seems to derived from circumstances connected have been proverbial, is here used by with Jewish weddings. The interior our Lord to indicate, that many, whom of the apartments, where the festival he called, would not then enter into his was observed, was splendidly illuminat- kingdom. They would reject his invied. To pass hence into the open air Itation, and become subject to such pun
15 Then went the Pharisees, saying, Master, we know that thou and took counsel how they might art true, and teachest the way of entangle him in his talk.
God in truth, neither carest thou 16 And they sent out unto him for any man: for thou regardest their disciples, with the Herodians, not the person of men. ishment as he had indicated in the par- casting off that wedding-garment they able.
had once put on, as did those Jews The true intent and meaning of this whose charity waxed cold, Matt. xxiv. parable is well expressed by Whitby, 10—12, and who, being scandalized, in his Paraphrase. The first seven fell off from the Christian faith. It verses 1
h reference to the remains, then, that these backsliders, Jews who rejected the offers of the gos- or these false apostles, must be the perpel, and whose nation and city were sons represented by the man not having destroyed by the Roman armies. Thus on his wedding-garment.” See Whitfar most commentators agree. He pro- temore's notes on Par., and Selections, ceeds: “ Then saith he to his servants, sect. xxxiv. the wedding-feast is ready, but they 15—33. Parallel with Mark xii. 13who were bidden were not worthy, and 27, and Luke xx. 20–38. therefore shall not taste of this feast. 1 15. Then went the Pharisees and Go ye therefore into the highways, to took counsel. They perceived that the the dispersion of the Jews, and to the parables of Jesus were directed against Gentiles, and as many as ye shall find, ihem, and could not deny the facts to bid to the marriage. So those servants which they referred. They had failed went out into the highways, and gath- in their efforts to obtain any advantage ered together all, as many as they over him; but the people listened to found, both bad and good, and the wed- him rather than to them. Their feelding was furnished with guests, and ings are manifest from what they said when the king came in to see the guests, at about the same time. “The Pharihe saw there a man which had not on a sees therefore said among themselves, wedding-garment, that is, a faith and perceive ye how ye prevail nothing? conversation answerable to the design Behold, the world is gone after him.” of the gospel. And he saith to him, John xii. 19. They therefore consulted friend, how camest thou in hither, not together, and endeavored to devise some having a wedding-garment? And he new and more effectual method of attack was as one speechless. Then said the upon him. The result appears in the king to his servants, bind him hand and succeeding verses. T Entangle him. foot, and take him away, and cast him Ensnare him; obtain an advantage over into utter darkness; there shall be him. The original word has reference weeping and gnashing of teeth; so to the capture of birds by means of a shall it be with the Jews, the children snare or a net. In his talk. Rather in of the kingdom. Matt. viii. 12; Luke talk; that is, in conversation. The xiii. 28. For many of the Jews are word his, inserted by the translators, called, but few of them are chosen, that adds no force to the expression, and is, believers in the gospel.” In a note might better be omitted. on ver. 11, the same author says, “That 16. Herodians. This term is found this man must represent the Jews is in only two other places in the Scripevident, because — Christ had said in tures, one of which is parallel with this. the former chapter, that the kingdom Mark ii. 6; xii. 13. It is generally of God should be taken from them; and understood to denote a political rather here, proceeding to discourse of the than a religious sect among the Jews; same thing, as appears from the con- though, indeed, their politics had such nective particle, ver. 1 of this chapter, an intimate connexion with their rehe shows how worthy the Jews would ligion, that it is not always easy to disbe of this punishment, as being either tinguish between them. Their promiwholly refractory to God, calling them nent characteristics are said to have by his Son to the participation of these been these: (1.) They considered it blessings, or coming to them without lawful to pay tribute to the Roman due preparations, as the false apostles government; while the mass of the and deceitful workers did, or else by Jews, and especially the Pharisees, held
17 Tell us therefore, What | And they brought unto him a thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give penny. tribute unto Cesar, or not?
20° And he saith unto them, i 18 But Jesus perceived their Whose is this image, and super
wickedness, and said, Why tempt scription ? - ye me, ye hypocrites?
| 21 They say unto him, Cesar's. 19 Shew me the tribute-money. Then saith he unto them, Render E it unlawful, and forbidden by Moses, to denounce him as an enemy to the gov
do any act by which their subjection to ernment, and a "mover of sedition." any foreign power should be acknowl. If he said it was lawful, the Pharisees edged. Deut. xvii. 15. (2.) They con- might denounce him as a despiser of sidered it right to adopt the man- the law, and an enemy to the rights of ners and customs of their temporal his country. And, in either case, he was rulers; while others insisted that the so cordially hated by both parties, that, law of Moses and that alone was to be if denounced by the one, he could expect
their guide in such concerns. We have no assistance from the other. : little exact information, however, con- 18. Jesus perceived their wickedness. cerning this sect or party. From their “ Their hypocrisy." Mark xii. 15.
name, we may safely judge they were “Their craftiness.” Luke xx. 23. 2. zealous supporters of Herod's govern- The particular kind of wickedness, here
ment and hi principal measures. intended, is manifest. Hippocrites. " These were certain flatterers of the Pretenders; dissemblers. Their procourt, which ever maintained that re- fessed object was to learn the truth, ligion which King Herod best approved ; and they pretended the utmost confiand though they were enemies to the dence in his wisdom and deference to Pharisees, yet in this thing they con his authority. Their real object was to sented, thinking to entangle Christ, and make his answer a subject of accusation so either to accuse him of treason, or to against him. They pretended a desire bring him into the hatred of all his that he should enlighten and benefit people.”—Geneva Bible. We know them. They cherished a desire to enthat thou art true, &c. This, though snare and injure him. Well then did designed as a mere compliment, and he call them hypocrites.
intended to throw Jesus off his guard 19. Tribute-money. By the Roman ci by making him believe them to be sin- law, the tribute to that government was
cere inquirers and “just men,” Luke payable in Roman coin. By the Mosaic XX. 20, expressed the exact truth in law, the tribute, or yearly offerings for regard to his character. He was the the service of the temple, was payable very personification of truth, “neither in Jewish coin. When Jesus, therewas guile found in his mouth." i fore, demanded a specimen of the trib
Pet. ii. 22. He came into the world to ute-money, he was understood to mean ["bear witness unto the truth,” John the Roman coin. And they brought
xviii. 37: and most faithfully did he him a penny. The Roman denarius, or fulfil his mission. He was neither penny, was equal in value to about fourseduced by flatteries, nor dismayed by teen cents. frowns. But without partiality for the 20. Image. The impression of a head person of any man, and disregarding on one side of the coin. The head or human applause or censure, he pro likeness of the reigning prince would claimed the truth of God, and revealed seem to have been exhibited on the his gracious purposes.
coin; as is now the fact in regard to 17. Is it lawful to give tribute unto English and other European coins. SuCesar, or not? This was a question perscription. The names and titles of upon which the Pharisees and Hero- the Emperor. The practice of stampdians were themselves in dispute ; yet ing these on coins "continues in the they united in the effort to ensnare present day. Jesus by their question. They sup- 21. Cæsar's. From the time of Ju. posed he must bring himself under lius Cæsar, the Roman Emperors severe censure and reproach, in which- assumed the title of Cæsar, as the
ever way he answered it. If he said, it Egyptian kings did that of Ptolemy. is was not lawful, the Herodians michi Feyptian kings did that of Ptolemy
Herodians might | 1 Render therefore unto Cæsar.
therefore unto Cesar, the things him, and went their way. which are Cesar's; and unto God, 23 | The same day came to him the things that are God's.
the Sadducees, which say that 22 When they had heard these there is no resurrection, and asked words, they marvelled, and left him, “ Christ answers the treachery of the language is sufficiently obvious; and it question propounded, out of the very conveys an admonition, which all men determinations of the schools, where should carefully observe and obey. this was taught; "Wheresoever the 22. They marvelled. They were money of any king is current, there the astonished at his easy and skilful esinhabitants acknowledge that king for cape from the snare. He had answered their lord.'". -Light foot. “It is cer- the question directly. Yet he had tain, their not daring to refuse this coin, | founded his answer on principles which when offered them in payment, was in they could not dispute. They had not effect a confession that they were con- | obtained the slightest advantage. They quered by the Romans, and conse- had failed to find
whereof to quently that the Emperor had a right | accuse him. Disappointed and mortito their tribute."--Doddridge. His fied, they left him, and went their way, answer, then, may be understood thus : | having no disposition to enter upon You say this coin is Cæsar's; by using another trial of skill. it, for currency, you acknowledge your 23. The same day came to him the subjection to him; and hence it follows Sadducees. See note on Matt. iii. 7. that you should render to him his There seems to have been a concert of own, or the tribute he demands. And action, on this day, between the oppounto God, the things that are God's. / sers of our Lord, and a combined ai. While he taught them to perform their tempt to entangle him in conversation. duty as citizens, he instructed them Ver. 15. First, the Herodians comthat they owed also a duty to God, menced the assault, ver. 16. When which should not be neglected. He they were foiled, the Sadducees made may have referred to the annual pay- an onset, ver. 23. They being equally ment of the half shekel; meaning that unsuccessful, the proud and haughty the payment of tribute to Cæsar did Pharisees made trial of their strength, not exonerate them from the other duty ver. 34. They also were utterly disimposed by their own law. Or he comfited, insomuch that no man dared, may have referred to their religious" from that day forth, ask him any duties generally, of which, indeed, the more questions, Ver. 46. Say that payment of the half shekel was one; there is no resurrection. This was one meaning that they should be no less of the main characteristics of their re careful in the performance of their religious faith. See Acts xxiii. 8. The ligious duties, as children of God, than ideas which the Pharisees entertained in the performance of their political on the subject of the resurrection were duties, as the subjects of Cæsar. The very vague and crude. Yet, in some conjecture in the following passage is form, they believed in it, and in a fu- ! ingenious, and worthy of consideration. | ture life.' The Sadducees denied both. “I apprehend our Lord had a more ex. It was known that Jesus taught the tensive view; and that as he cautions resurrection of the dead to a state of the Pharisees against using religion as endless life. On this point the Saddua pretence to justify sedition, so he also | cees founded their attack. And it is warns the Herodians that they should worthy of remark, that each class senot, as they were too inclinable to do, I lected a subject with which they were make a compliment of their religion to most familiar. The Herodians' questhe Romans, by complying with those tioned Jesus concerning the tribute.things which were forbidden by the a matter which they had frequently divine law, that they might ingrátiate discussed, and one of the distinguishing themselves with Cæsar's party. See points of their political creed; the SadPrideaux' Connexion, ii., 366-368.”—| ducees took the doctrine of the resurDoddridge. But whatever particular rection,-which had long been dispute application Jesus might design it between them and the Pharisees; and should have, the general import of his the Pharisees selected the relative im
24 Saying, Master, Moses said, 26 Likewise the second also, If a man die, having no children, and the third, unto the seventh. his brother shall marry his wife, 27 And last of all the woman and raise up seed unto his brother. died also.
25 Now, there were with us 28 Therefore, in the resurrecseven brethren: and the first, when tion, whose wife shall she be of he had married a wife, deceased; the seven? for they all had her. and having no issue, left his wife 29 Jesus answered and said unto unto his brother.
them, Ye do err, not knowing the
portance of the several precepts in the clothed in the future life; whether the law,-a subject to which they had de- natural body should be raised an:l voted much attention, and in which spiritualized, or a new body prepared. they had made many useless and inju-*29. Ye do err. Ye are deceived. rious distinctions. See note on Matt. / Ye have taken a wrong view of the v. 19.
subject. The difficulty exists only in 24. Moses said, &c. See Deut. xxv. your own imagination. It does not ac5, 6. This law was designed to per- | tually attach to the doctrine, 1 Not petuate families, so that not a name knording the Scriptures. The Scripshould perish out of Israel. It had the tures, in the New Testament, generally further effect of preserving the tribes denote all the books of the Old Testadistinct, and simplifying the laws of ment, which the Jews esteemed sacred, inheritance. Raise up seed unto his and regarded as emphatically the wribrother. The first-born of such a mar- tings or, the Book. In this place, howriage was to be accounted as a child of ever, our Lord referred particularly to the deceased, and to bear his name: the writings of Moses; for these only the subsequent children were called by were admitted by the Sadducees to have the name of their natural father. the authority of divine revelation; and
25—28. The Sadducees selected a consequently, the passage he adduces, case which might have occurred under ver. 32, is taken from these writings, the provisions of this law, and which whose authority the Sadducees admitthey seem to have supposed to be irre-| ted. He might have quoted abundantly concileable with the doctrine of the res- from other writers; but they would urrection. It is not improbable that have denied the validity of the proof. they had before used the same argu- 1 Nor the power of God. Their ideas ment successfully against the Pharisees. of his power were too limited. The Undoubtedly they supposed this as dif- same mistake has lain at the foundaficult as any objection which they could tion of many false doctrines, and been urge against the doctrine of the resur- productive of much unbelief, since the rection, as taught by Jesus. They did days of the Sadducees. See note on not pretend, themselves, to have any Matt. xix. 26. For one peculiarity in faith in the resurrection, but denied it their unbelief, see note on ver. 30. -openly: of course they did not propose Whether they were ignorant, that God their question for the sake of informa- could preserve the life of the spirit tion : but only, if possible, to confound 1 when separated from the body. or that Jesus, by stating a case which he could he could reänimate the body after it not reconcile with his doctrine. | There- had returned to the dust, or that he
fore, in the resurrection, &c. Their could renew the existence which he meaning, by the term resurrection, was originally bestowed,--does not disprobably as vague as that of the Phari-tinctly appear.-But' in some manner sees; and it differed much from the they did not sufficiently consider that true Christian doctrine of the resurrec- the power of God was adequate to raise tion. See notes on 1 Cor. chap. xv. his children from the dead to a state of But it clearly embraced the idea of a immortality. And such has been the future life. And, in his reply, our Lord misfortune of very many, who have condirected their attention chiefly to this sequently mourned without hope when point, without describing the particular their friends departed, and have gone process of the resurrection, or the kind down to their own graves uncheered by of bodies with which men should be l the anticipation of a future life.