16 fourpences half pence, or 16 parts, now tell me in pence and cents how much to of a yard of cloth will come to, at 1 dollar per yard? What will t of a yard come to at I dollar a yard, in pence and cents? What will in pence and cents? pence and cents? What will g, in pence and cents? What will ts of a yard come to at 1 dollar per yard? What will te of a yard, come to? come to? When a number, or any thing is divided into 16, or any number of parts, how would you express all these parts in fractions? 16 or . How much are or or $8: &c. always equal to? Ans. The whole or one How prove it to be the whole? Ans. If a number, an apple, or any thing, be divided into 5 parts, or 6 parts, or 50 parts &c. and as 1 part is dor, it is plain that or 6 or 8 must make the whole for the whole was divided into 5 &c. equal parts and, the sum of all the parts is equal to the whole To illustrate this by an apple, cut an apple or any thing into 4 or 6 equal parts, 1 part is į or d, then How many parts, or how much of the apple would be denoted by 4 or g. How much will of a yard of broadcloth come to at 10 dollars a yard? You buy it of a yard of cloth which is 10 dollars a yard, and sell it at the rate of 30 dollars a yard, how much do you make in trading? llow many figures cut off at the right hand to di. vide isy 10, 100, or 1000, &c.? Ans. As many as there are cyphers in the divisor. What are the figures cut off? Ans. Remainder. What are the other figures? A. Quotient,or Answe Divide 365 by 10, and tell me the quotient. ane remainder. Divide 125 by 100. Division of Federal Money. How is the given sum or dividend to be written down? Ans. In cents. How do you divide? Ans. As in whole numbers. - What will your answer or quotient come out in? Ans. Cent3. Suppose you had one figure in your dividend, in mills, or add one cypher in dividing, how many figures at the right hand of the quotient do you call milis. Ans. One. If 4 yards of cloth cost 4 dimes and 8 cents; how much is it a yard? If you give 2 dimes and 5 cents, for 2 slates; how much are the slates apiece? If 2 yards of ribbon cost 4 dimes, and 9 cents; how much will I yard cost? Two sticks of twist, cost 12 cents 5 mills, what can you get one stick for? In fractions, what is the figure above the line callej? Ans. Numerator. What the figure below the line? Ans. Denominator. To Multiply by Mixed Numbers. How multiply by a mixed numer, or a whole number with a fraction joined to it: as 43, 44, 5168, &c.? Ans, Multiply by the whole number first, . Where write the multiplicand to multiply by the fraction? Ans. In another place. Which part of the fraction do you multiply by when so written? Ans. The numerator or figure above the line. What divide by? Ans. The denominator or fig. ure below the line. What is the quotient to be added to? Ans. To the product of the whole numbers. For example, to multiply 28 by 24. what do you multiply first by? How much does it make? A boy bequeathed to his companion of his 20 i marbles; how many did he bequeath? A boy gives you ļof his 60 chesnuts, how many is that? Tell me how many yards 5 rods are, or multiply 4 by 5. Tell me how many gallons 2 barrels make, or multiply 2 by 314 Now let us see if we can explain why we divide in multiplying by a fraction? for doubtless it has appeared rather strange. In multiplying by a whole number we take the multiplicand as many times as there are units in the multiplier; and in multiplying by one then, how many 1 times do you take the multiplicand? Ans. l. Give an example : Now it is plain that if we multiply by any thing less or more than 1, the product will not be the same as multiplying by l: what will it be then if we multiply by any thing less than one? Ans. Less than if multiplied by one. How can you find out how much it will be? Ans, By Division. To multiply by for instance explain how it is done. Ans. As I take the multiplicand once in multiplying by 1, so I must take of one to multiply by } for the multiplier is of one, and the multiplicand must be taken half as much; and in that proportion, in multiplying by any other number. To divide by a whole number joined with a fraction (that is a mixed number;) as 21, 2,541 ? Ans. Multiply the whole number of the divisor by the denominator, add in the numerator, then multiply the dividend by the same denominator, divide and the quotient will be the answer For example, how divide 5 by 22 ? 4 times 2 are 8 and 2 are 10: 4 times 5 are 20; 10 in 20,2 times, the answer. Divide 11 yards by 5 yards, or bring 11 yards into rods. Divide 7 by 17. To multiply by any large number readily in the head, without the assistance of slate &c. by 24 and under. Ans. Double the multiplicand and half the multiplier. Multiply 500 by 24. Ans. Double of 500 is 1000,and half of 24 is 12, then 12 times 1000 are 12000. COMPOUND ADDITION. What is the adding sums of the same general nature ; but of different denominations, into one sum or amount called? Ans. Compound Addition. Wherein does Compound Addition differ from Simple? Ans. Simple consists of only one denomination, Compound of more than one. What do you mean by different denominations Ans. Shillings, pence, farthings, &c. in one sum and tons, cwts. qrs. ounces, &c. in another sum. How place the numbers to be added? Ans. Pounds under pounds, shillings under shillings, tons under tons, &c. Which hand begin to add? Ans. Right. How many of this denomination do you divide it by? Ans. By as many as make one of the next higher. What set down? Ans. Remainder. How long continue to do so? Ans. Till I come • to the last row. What do with that? Ans. Set down the whole amount without dividing. . What is the proot? Ans. the same as in Simple Addition. What reason can you give for carrying in the compound rules so differently from the simple rules? Ans. Iu Simple Addition 10 units made one ten or one in the next left hand place, now sometimes 20 shillings, sometimes 20 cwt. and sometimes 16 ounces &c. make one in the next higher place, as much as ten units did. For example, What is the sum of 2 tons, 15 cwta and 1 ton, 5 cwt. What is the sum of £2, 2s. 2d. 2qr. and £10, 10s,. 10d? If a man owed you £3, and afterwards borrowed 15 shillings more, how much does he now owe you? You lent a man 2 grs. i 6 lbs, of sugar, and afterwards lent him 12 lbs. more, how much did. berrew of you in all? |