How is the Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division of Federal Money, performed? Ans. As in Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division of Decimal Fractions. Note.-The scholar should be required to repeat here, the rule for pointing off in Multiplication, and Division of DeGimals, that he may more fully understand the following examples. How much do ,05 make multiplied by ,05. Ans. ,0025. How much do 5 cents multiplied by 5 cents make! Ans. 2 mills, and Po. How much do 25 cents make multiplied by 2 cents? Ans. 5 mills. How much do 10. dollars make, multiplied by 10 Gents. Ans. I dollar. How much do 5 dollars, make multiplied by 20 cents. Ans. I dollar. What is the quotient of ,0025 divided by ,05. Ans. ,05. What is the quotient of 2 mills and is m. or ,0025 divided by 5 cents? Ans. 5 cents. What is the quotient of ,005 or 5 mills divided by ,02 or 2 cents. Ans. 25 cents. What is the quotient of 1 dollar divided by 10 cents? Ans. 10 dollars. What is the quotient of 10 mills, divided by 10 mill? Ans. I dollar. What is the quotient of 1 cent divided by 1 cent? Ans. 1 dollar. What is the quotient of one dine divided by one dime? Ans. 1 dollar. Note.-It may be a pleasing exercise, to prove the foregoing sums, as it is easily done by the rule for proving Simple Multiplication and Division, observing to point off according to the rules in Decimal Fractions. REDUCTION OF DECIMALS. Are pounds, shillings, and pence, the same value in all countries? Ans. The value differs in different countries. How was the value formerly in England and her American colonies? Ans. The same. What occasioned this variety of value? Ans. The legislatures of these colonies emitted, or put in circulation bills which depreciated in various degrees. How many shillings a dollar in the New-England States, Virginia, Kentucky, and Teunessee? Ans.6. How many New-England States are there? Ans.6. Name them. Ans. New-Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine. How many shillings a dollar in New York and North Carolina currency? Ans. 8. How many shillings a dollar in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland currency? Ans. 7. 6. How many shillings a dollar in South Carolina. and Georgia currency? Ans. 4s. 8d. How many shillings a dollar in Nova Scotia, and Canada currency? Ans. 5 shillings. How many shillings à dollar in sterling money? Ans. 4s. 6d. To reduce the currencies of the different States, or any currency to Federal Money, how do you do? Ans. Bring it into shillings, peace, &c. so that you can divide shillings by shillings, &c. and divide too by the whole number of shillings, pence, or farthings in a dollar. Note. It has been thought best to give one general rule for the reduction of all currencies, although it may be someel what longer, that the learner may avoid the perplexity, and confusion, arising from a multiplicity of rules, when one I will solve all the questions. EXAMPLES How do you bring £100 New Jersey currency " into dollars? Ans. Multiply by 20 and 12; then il divide by 90, the pence in 7 s. 6d. How bring £100 sterling, to Federal Money. Ans.. Multiply by 20 and 12; then divide by 54, the pence 1 in 4s. 6d. SINGLE PROPORTION, OR RULE OF THREE. . What is the process, by which the use of three numbers known, teaches to find a fourth, which is supposed to be unknown, called? Ans. Single Proportion, or Rule of Three. Of how many kinds is it? Ans. 2. What are they? Ans. Rule Three of direct and Ine verse. When more require's more, or less requires less which rule is the sum in? Ans. Rule of Three Dii rect. When does more require more? Ans. More reIquires more, when the third sum is more than the first, and requires the fourth term, or answer, to be more than the second. · When does less' require less? Ans.Less require less, when the third term is less than the first, and re-quires the fourth térm, or answer, to be less than - the second. What is the fourth ninmber called when found? - Ans. The answer. In stating your sum, what must the middle, oi second term be like? Ans. The answer. For instance, suppose your answer is money, what must your middle term be? Ans. Money, Suppose it is some denomination in Troy Weight, what must the middle term be? Ans. Some denomination in that weight. : What term must you make that number that bought, cost, or produced the second? Ans. The first. In the following sum, you buy a hogshead of molasses for 6s. 9d. per gallon, how much will it come to, and which do you make the first term in stato ing? Ans. I gallon. Why? Ans. Because I gallon cost 6s. 9d. What make the third term? Ans. 1 hogshead or 63 gallons. Why? Ans. Because the third term must be like the first. How must the first and third be brought if of differnt denominations? Ans. To the same denomination. How reduce the middle term? Ans. To the lowest denomination in it. Which terms multiply together? Ans. The second and third. Which divide by! Ans. The first What will your answer come out in? Ans. In the same denomination, the middle term was left in. For example: suppose your middle term was left in seconds, what is your answer in? Ans. Seconds. Suppose you have a remainder in dividing, what must you do? Ans, multiply by as many of the next denomination, as make one of this. The first How may the denomination, which the answer same out in be brought? Ans. Into any other required. In proving your sums, wbat make the first terın? Ans. The answer. What make the second term? Ans. The Third. What make the third? Ans. The second. How proceed then? Ans. Multiply and divide as in doing the sum. How tell if it be right? Ans. Your quotient or answer will be like the term which was made the first in doing the sum. For example how state? EXAMPLES. If 20 yards of cloth cost 30 dollars, what cost 6 yards. First term; Second term; Third term; because because it cost because of the same of the same kind, the second.. kind as the answer. · or like the first. 20yds. ; 30dols. : ;. 6yds. 6 9 dol. because the 2d is dollars. Does more require more, or less require less in the above sum? Ans. Less requires less. Repeat when less requires less, and more requires more. How does less require less in the foregoing sum? Ans. The yards of cloth to be bought are less than what were bought; hence it is plain that it wlil take less money to buy a less number of yards of cloth, i. e. the less cloth the less money. |