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lieve, it is confessed by all that it is a task too hard for children to be trade complete masters of arithmetic ; and therefore the best way of instructing then in it, is most certainly, first to give thein a general notion of it, in the easiest manner, and next to enlarge upon it afterwards if there be time: otherwise it must be done by themselves, as their increase in years and growth in understanding will permit. *" For aritbmetic is the more valuable, as it is the more exact, easy, and short; and the art lies in giving as few rules as possible, and clearly explaining then, and not confounding principles together, and then diversifying them into several rules, when they are built ou the same reason, which has not only made arithmetic seen difficult of access, but has hindered many from being accomptants."
To enter into a detail of the following particulars, would be tedious, and ziell his preface beyond its just limits; but that the kind reader may not be wholly at a loss, I shall beg leave to speak as follows, viz.
1. That the whole is divided into five parts, as the title page expresses it.
2. That the rules and examples are contrived in the plainest manner, and the whole put in such an easy method as is no where else extant.
3. I have oninted reduction of foreign coins, partly because, all those tables which I have met with, which shew the value of foreign coins in English: poney, are very erroneous, but principally because all such questions as relate to the turning of the money of one country into that of another, are mucha better answered under the head of exchange. For the value of foreign species, (such / inean as relate only to exchange) both of gold and silver, in every country is unsettled, and therefore such coins are subject to vary in their prices, as the merchants find an opportunity to profit by them. Hence proceed the various courses of exchange; and from them again, the particular worth of any quantity of foreign coin in English money, which is sometimes inore, sometimes less, according as the course of exchange runs at that time, when such foreign coins become due. Add to this the agio or advance money usually paid abroad on the changing current money into exchange or bank monry, which is two, three, or more per cent, in payment, according to what the exchange or bank money is worth more than the current money, and this cannot be done otherwise than by the rule of three.
4. In interest, &c. by decimals, I have followed Mr. Ward's method, by which means the rule is drawn into a much narrower compass ; and appears more beautiful to the eye, than in words at length.
5. In all places where it could be done conveniently, I have given directions for varying the examples by way of proof ; because it not only discovers the reason of the operation, but at the same time both produces a new question, and prove the old one. And sure I am, that the varying the question, when it may be done under the same rule, contributes very much towards a thorough understanding of it, and making a good accomptant, as every one's experience will teach him.
6. I have thrown the subject of the following pages into a catechetical form, that they may be more instructive ; for children can better judge of the force of an answer, than following reason through a chain of consequences. Hence also it proves a very good examining book ; for at any time, in what place soever the scholar appears to be defective, he can immediately be put back to that place again without the formal way of beginning every thing anew.
7. In order to make the progress still quicker, every example to be wrought hath its apswer annexed to it; so that they who do not chuse to have every operation proved hy varying the question, may know without it whether the work he right or not.
8. Concerning contractions in numbers, which some are very fond of, I have said very little, and any reason is this : contractions are no farther valuable than they are useful; hence if in order to lessen the number of figures in an operation, there is not only more time spent than in the ordinary war,
* Watts' Essay
but those contractions are also more liable to error, such contractions ought
Aad now, after all, it is possible that some who like best to tread the old
It may also be further objected, 'that to teach by a ' printed book, is an argument of ignorance and incapacity,' which is no less trifling thao the former. He indeed, (if any such there be) who is afraid his scholars will improve too fast, will undoubtedly decry this method. But that master's ignorance can never be bronght in question, who can begin and end it readily: and most certainly, that scholar's non-improvement can be as little questioned, who makes a much greater progress by this, than he possibly can by the coin mon method.
As to the order of the rules, I can hadly find two masters follow it alike; some liking best to teach that rule first, which another thinks more convenient to teach afterward; while a third looks upon it as a matter quite indiffer: ent among some rules, which he teaches first. But this need be no hindrance to the use of this book. For however the rules are placed here, every man inay turn to that rule first, which he likes should be taught first, and if a master has a mind to teach vulgar fractious immediately after reduction of whole numbers, as some do, he may do it as easily as in the order they now; lie.
To the eleventh edition, and which is continued in this, I have added duro. decimals, commonly called cross multiplication ; wherein I have largely treated of that sort of arithmetic, in every branch; shewing how the same may be * proved by varying the operations ; by whole numbers, by, vulgar fractions and by decimals; and lastly by a particular sort of division, wherein the divisor, dividend, and quotient are each of them of several denominations, just as the factors and products are in multiplication, without reducing them into the lowest terın or denomination mentioned. And as Duodecimals hy all the writers that I have seen, except Mr. Hawney, have only been superfcially treated of, I think; I may venture to say, without any breach : of modesty, that this is the completest piece of that kind extant.
As a further improvement of this compendion, I have considerably enlarg. ed the rule of exchange, and among others, have given a variety of examplege of real bills of exchange to be wrought hy the pupil, in order to shew him, in a : more particular manner, the necessity of knowing how to turn the money of one country into the money of another country, value for value, where the merchant happens to be engaged in foreign trade. I have also taken the liberty to put the double rule of three afar exchange, which in most of the former editions stood before it, to the end that all the mercantile rules in whole. nombers night stand together ; and likewise that the pupil might, at the rod of exchange, enter upon a course of book-keeping, if there should not be time for him to go through the whole compendiuin first.
I should have been very glad to have seen an attempt of this nature, stampt" by tlre authority of some person of di tinction and of better abilities ; het since no ahler hand has undertaken it, I hope its homely appearance wilt not lessen its usefulnegg.
The printer's errors, as well as my own defects, I hope will candidly be overe looked; but because a man's failings are so familiar to himself, that he casscarce discern them ; therefore the kind admonitions of a good natured reader, shall always be very acceptable.
I have nothing more to add, but my repeated thanks for favours received, together with iny earnest desire that you may be prosperous in your severai andertakings, and to beg this additonal favour of being esteemed,
Your most humble, and
Most obedient Servani,
OS AIS COMPENDIUM OF ARITHMETIC, ENTITLED
THE SCHOOLMASTER'S ASSISTANT
WHILE some, seducive of the rising Age,
Thy cares, how worthy of the Good and Wise,
Thy labours, Friend, have found their just success.
TO MR. THOMAS DILWORTH, ON HIS
Learning, the Glory of Britannia's Isle,
* Referring to that of the English-Toogte
PART I.-OF WHOLE. NUMBERS.
Dr Loss and Gain
Tor Freehold Estates in Re-